by Ganganatha Jha | 1915 | 250,428 words
The English translation of the Padarthadharmasamgraha of Prashastapada including the commentary called the Nyayakandali of Shridhara. Although the Padartha-dharma-sangraha is officially a commentary (bhashya) on the Vaisheshika-Sutra by Kanada, it is presented as an independent work on Vaisesika philosophy: It reorders and combines the original Sut...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Text 149:
यथा पङ्काख्यायां पृथिव्याम् । वेगापेक्षो यः सम्योगविशेषा विभागहेतोरेकस्य कर्मणः कारणं सोऽभिघातः । तस्माद् अपि चतुर्षु महाभूतेषु कर्म भवति यथा पाषाणादिषु निष्ठुरे वस्तुन्यभिपतितेषु तथा पादादिभिर्नुद्यमानायाम् अभिहन्यमानायां वा पङ्काख्यायां पृथिव्यां यः सम्योगो नोदनाभिघातयोरन्यतरापेक्ष उभयापेक्षो वा स सम्युक्तसम्योगः तस्माद् अपि पृथिव्यादिषु कर्म भवति । ये च प्रदेशा न नुद्यन्ते नाप्यभिहन्यन्ते तेष्वपि कर्म जायते । पृथिव्युदकयोर्गुरुत्वविधारकसम्योगप्रयत्नवेगाभावे सति गुरुत्वाद् यद् अधोगमनं तत् पतनम् । यथा मुसलशरीरादिषूक्तम् । तत्राद्यं गुरुत्वाद् द्वितीयादीनि तु गुरुत्वसंस्काराभ्याम् ॥ १४९ ॥
yathā paṅkākhyāyāṃ pṛthivyām | vegāpekṣo yaḥ samyogaviśeṣā vibhāgahetorekasya karmaṇaḥ kāraṇaṃ so'bhighātaḥ | tasmād api caturṣu mahābhūteṣu karma bhavati yathā pāṣāṇādiṣu niṣṭhure vastunyabhipatiteṣu tathā pādādibhirnudyamānāyām abhihanyamānāyāṃ vā paṅkākhyāyāṃ pṛthivyāṃ yaḥ samyogo nodanābhighātayoranyatarāpekṣa ubhayāpekṣo vā sa samyuktasamyogaḥ tasmād api pṛthivyādiṣu karma bhavati | ye ca pradeśā na nudyante nāpyabhihanyante teṣvapi karma jāyate | pṛthivyudakayorgurutvavidhārakasamyogaprayatnavegābhāve sati gurutvād yad adhogamanaṃ tat patanam | yathā musalaśarīrādiṣūktam | tatrādyaṃ gurutvād dvitīyādīni tu gurutvasaṃskārābhyām || 149 ||
Text (149): ‘Abhighāta’ or ‘Striking’ is that particular kind of conjunction which is produced by speed, and which is the cause of that action which brings about disjunction. From this also there arises action in the four elementary substances. As for instance, when such things as the stone and the like fall upon a solid body. When the clayey earth is impelled and struck by the feet,—the conjunction that follows from ‘impulsion’ and ‘striking,’ either singly or conjomtly [conjointly?], is of the nature of ‘saṃyuktasaṃyoga’ (‘conjunction with the conjoined.’); and this conjunction also produces actions in the earth &c.—(V-ii-1, 12).
In those points in space also that are neither impelled nor struck, actions are produced. In the case of earth and water, when there is no conjunction, effort or speed-counteracting the effects of gravity, there is a ‘going down’ of the object, caused by gravity; as we have described in the cause of the stick and the body &c. In the case of these things the first action (towards falling) is due to gravity, and the subsequent ones to gravity and faculty (produced by the motion).—(V-i-7, 18; V-ii-3).
Commentary: The Nyāyakandalī of Śrīdhara.
‘Abhighāta’ or ‘striking’ is that conjunction. &c., &c. That is to say, that action which brings about the disjunction of the object striking from the object struck at has for its cause a certain ‘conjunction’; and to this conjunction we give the name of ‘Abhighāta’ or ‘Striking’, and by this also there are produced actions in the four rudimentary elements. as for instance, when the piece of stone &c., &c.
That Impulsion is the cause of the action that brings about the mutual non-disjunction, and not of that which brings about disjunction—we have already explained; as also that striking is the cause of that action which brings about mutual disjunction. And the author now proceeds to explain ‘Samyuktasamyoga’ ‘Conjunction with the conjoined’: When the clayey &c. When the earth is impelled by the feet at any one point, then those other points also that are neither impelled nor struck, are found to have actions (motions) produced in them (by that impulsion); and the cause for the production of these actions lies only in the conjunction of these other points with certain other points that are in direct contact with the points impelled and struck. In a case where the striking object having struck the earth, carries it a little lower, and then turns back upwards,—the action that is produced in another point of the earth is due to a ‘conjunction of the conjoined’ that is due to both (Impulsion and Striking).
The author next proceeds to describe how Gravity producefl actions:—in the case of Earth and Water &c. That is to say, in the case of the stick, when there is no hand-contact present to counteract the effects of gravity, the stick falls down; and this falling down is due to gravity; in the same manner when there is no effort on the part of the man to hold his body erect—an effort that would counteract the effects of gravity,—the body falls; and so also does the arrow fall when it has no speed (or momentum); and all this is due to gravity. In these cases however it is only the first action towards falling,that is directly due to gravity; and as for the rest of the series of actions ending with the falling,—they are due to the faculty or force set in motion by that first action; and thus these must be regarded as brought about by Gravity and by Faculty; as each one of these by itself has been found elsewhere to be productive fo actions.