Padarthadharmasamgraha and Nyayakandali

by Ganganatha Jha | 1915 | 250,428 words

The English translation of the Padarthadharmasamgraha of Prashastapada including the commentary called the Nyayakandali of Shridhara. Although the Padartha-dharma-sangraha is officially a commentary (bhashya) on the Vaisheshika-Sutra by Kanada, it is presented as an independent work on Vaisesika philosophy: It reorders and combines the original Sut...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Text 148:

एवम् आत्माधिष्ठितेषु सत्प्रत्ययम् असत्प्रययं च कर्मोक्तम् । अनधिष्ठितेषु बाह्येषु चतुर्षु महाभूतेष्वप्रत्ययं कर्म गमनम् एव नोदनादिभ्यो भवति । तत्र नोदनं गुरुत्वद्रवत्ववेगप्रयत्नान् समस्तव्यस्तान् अपेक्षमाणो यः सम्योगविशेषो नोदनम् अविभागहेतोरेकस्य कर्मणः कारणं तस्माच्चतुर्ष्वपि महाभूतेषु कर्म भवति ॥ १४८ ॥

evam ātmādhiṣṭhiteṣu satpratyayam asatprayayaṃ ca karmoktam | anadhiṣṭhiteṣu bāhyeṣu caturṣu mahābhūteṣvapratyayaṃ karma gamanam eva nodanādibhyo bhavati | tatra nodanaṃ gurutvadravatvavegaprayatnān samastavyastān apekṣamāṇo yaḥ samyogaviśeṣo nodanam avibhāgahetorekasya karmaṇaḥ kāraṇaṃ tasmāccaturṣvapi mahābhūteṣu karma bhavati || 148 ||

Text (148): Thus have we described the ‘conscious’ and ‘unconscious’ actions of things under the guidance of the soul. In the four external substances, not guided by the soul, we have only ‘unconcious’ action; and this, is in the form of ‘motion’ proceeding from impulsion and such, other causes. ‘Impulsion’ is that particular kind of conjunction which is brought about by the instrumentality of gravity, fluidity. speed and effort, functioning either collectively or singly; (impulsion is a kind of conjunction, as) it is the cause of that action which brings about the non-disjunction (of the impeller from the impelled); as we find in the case of Earth in the shape of clay.[1] —(V-ii-1, 12).

Commentary: The Nyāyakandalī of Śrīdhara.

(English rendering of Śrīdhara’s commentary called Nyāyakandalī or Nyāyakaṇḍalī from the 10th century)

In the case of the four substances not guided by the specific relationship of any particular Soul, the only action possible is that of ‘Motion’ brought about without any effort on the part of an intelligent being; and there are np such actions as ‘Throwing Upwards’ and the rest enumerated above.

It has been declared that in the said four elements, action is produced by impulsion &c.; and the question arises—“What is this Impulsion?” The answer is that Impulsion is that particular kind of conjunction which &c., &c.

Question: “How do you know that Impulsion is a kind of coinjunction”?

Answer: Impulsion is the cause of that action which brings about the non-disjunction of the impeller from the impelled (and hence it must be regarded as a Conjunction). That is to say, it is only by means of the Conjunction in the form of Impulsion, that the impeller impels the impelled; and it is for this reason that it is called ‘Impulsion’ ‘Nodana.’

Question: Where do you find Impulsion to ba the cause of Action?”

Answer: We find it in the case of the clayey earth; that is to say, we find that when a small piece of stone is gently put upon a lump of clay, it gradually disappears into the clayey lump; and in this case the impulsion is in the form of the conjunction of the stone and the clay, brought about by gravity (weight of the stone). In a case where the lump of clay is struck with great force from a distance by the piece of stone, we have impulsion in the form of Conjunction brought about by gravity, effort and speed. And lastly, when the clay is struck by water, we have Impulsion in the shape of Conjunction brought about by all the four causes (gravity, fluidity, effort and speed.)

Footnotes and references:


Yathā pakākhyāyām prithivyām [yathā paṅkākhyāyām pṛthivyām?] apparently forms part of this paragraph; though it has been printed along with the next.

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