Chandogya Upanishad (english Translation)

by Swami Lokeswarananda | 165,421 words | ISBN-10: 8185843910 | ISBN-13: 9788185843919

This is the English translation of the Chandogya-upanishad, including a commentary based on Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses; incorporating extracts from Shankara’s bhasya. The Chandogya Upanishad is a major Hindu philosophical text incorporated in the Sama Veda, and dealing with meditation and Brahman. This edition includes the Sanskrit t...

Verse 2.7.1

प्राणेषु पञ्चविधं परोवरीयः सामोपासीत प्राणो हिंकारो वाक्प्रस्तावश्चक्षुरुद्गीथः श्रोत्रं प्रतिहारो मनो निधनं परोवरीयांसि वा एतानि ॥ २.७.१ ॥

prāṇeṣu pañcavidhaṃ parovarīyaḥ sāmopāsīta prāṇo hiṃkāro vākprastāvaścakṣurudgīthaḥ śrotraṃ pratihāro mano nidhanaṃ parovarīyāṃsi vā etāni || 2.7.1 ||

1. One should perform the fivefold worship of Sāma in the organs in an increasingly higher way. The organ of smell is hiṃkāra, the organ of speech is the prastāva, the eyes are the udgītha, the ears are the pratihāra, and the mind is the nidhana. These organs should be worshipped, each with greater respect than the previous one.

Word-for-word explanation:

Prāṇeṣu pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, one should perform the fivefold worship of Sāma in all forms of prāṇa, the vital breath [or, the organs]; parovarīyaḥ, in an increasingly better way; prāṇaḥ hiṃkāraḥ, prāṇa [or, the organ of smell] is hiṃkāra; vāk prastāvaḥ, the organ of speech is the prastāva; cakṣuḥ udgīthaḥ, the eyes are the udgītha; śrotram pratihāraḥ, the ears are the pratihāra; manaḥ nidhanam, the mind is the nidhana; etāni parovarīyāṃsi vai, all these should be worshipped, each more than the one before.


The first prāṇa is the organ of smelling. This may be regarded as hiṃkāra. Then the organ of speech may be regarded as the prastāva, for through speech we propose (prastāva) to do something. The organ of speech is superior to the organ of smelling because we express our thoughts through speech.

The eyes are better than the organ of speech, because through the eyes we can express even more than what we can through speech, so the eyes are the udgītha. The ears are the pratihāra, and they are superior to the eyes because the ears can hear more than the eyes can see.

The mind is the nidhana, and it is superior to all other organs. Whatever the other organs collect is all stored in the mind. Also the mind can grasp things that no other organ can perceive.

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