Kunapa, Kuṇapa: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Kunapa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Kuṇapa (कुणप, “dead body”).—According to the Manusmṛti 12.71, “The Brāhmaṇa fallen off from his own duty becomes a ‘fire-mouthed’ preta feeding on vomitings; and the Kṣatriya a ‘foul-nosed’ preta feeding on impure substances and dead bodies (kuṇapa)”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kuṇapa (कुणप) refers to a “corpse”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.29. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Then inciting the fury of Dakṣa further, she said to Viṣṇu and all other Devas and sages unhesitatingly.. Satī said:—‘[...] This body born of your limbs I shall cast off as a corpse (kuṇapa). It is worthy of contempt. I shall abandon it and gain happiness’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Kuṇapa (कुणप) is the name of an ingredient used in a recipe for producing flowers and fruits out-of-season (akāla), according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly: “Trees produce flowers and fruits out of season undoubtedly if the following procedure is followed: Dioscorea bulbifera, Cuminum cyminum seed and sugarcane juice should be kept for a month in a pot containing clarified butter prepared in the moonlight and when the mixture is well formed, roots of the trees should be smeared with it and the basin should be filled with mud. Then sugarcane juice should be profusely sprinkled and the trees should be smoked with honey and kuṇapa”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Kuṇapa (कुणप):—[kuṇapaṃ] Dead body

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Kuṇapa (कुणप) refers to a “corpse”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 21).—Accordingly, “The immoral person is not respected (satkṛta) by people; his house is like a cemetery into which people do not go; he loses all his virtues like a rotten tree that people despise; [...] Even though he has the external appearance of a Bhikṣu, one would say he is a corpse (kuṇapa) in the midst of sleepers. He is like a false pearl among real pearls, like a castor-bean tree in a sandalwood forest. Even though outwardly he looks like an honest man, inwardly he is without good qualities. Even though he is called Bhikṣu because he has a shaved head, the yellow robe and presents his ‘ticket’ in the proper order, in reality he is not a Bhikṣu”.

2) Kuṇapa (कुणप) refers to the “river of excrement” and represents one of the four utsadas of the Avīci hell according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “they come out by the river of excrement (kuṇapa) which they are made to enter. There poisonous iron-beaked insects enter their body through their nose and leave through the soles of their feet; entering by the soles of their feet, they leave through their mouths”.

3) Kuṇapa (कुणप) refers to the “hell of excrement” and is one of the “eight hells of fire and flame” forming part of the sixteen utsadas (secondary hells) sitauted outside of the eight great hells, according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “some people have touched food meant for the Śrāvakas, Brāhmaṇas, or “fields of merit” with their impure hands; they have eaten before them or introduced filth into their food; they have emptied hot excrement over their bodies; they have abandoned the means of pure existence and derived their subsistence from evil ways of living. For all these reasons, they fall into the hell of excrement (kuṇapa): this sewer is as deep and vast as the ocean; there are iron-beaked insects that crush the heads of the damned and eat their brains, that crush their bones and eat their marrow”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Kuṇapa (कुणप) refers to a “corpse”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Just as the great ocean is of a single taste, so the dharma of the Bodhisattva is also of a single taste since he knows the taste of liberation. Just as [the tide of] the great ocean is punctual, so the Bodhisattva is never late for the seat of awakening by investigating when is the right time and wrong time. Just as the great ocean decomposes a rotting corpse (mṛta-kuṇapa), so the Bodhisattva breaks down any habitual pattern of vices or any thought of disciples and isolated Buddhas”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: archive.org: Anekanta Jaya Pataka of Haribhadra Suri

Kuṇapa (कुणप) refers to a “dead body”, as occurring in the Anekāntajayapatākā-prakaraṇa, a Śvetāmbara Jain philosophical work written by Haribhadra Sūri.—[Cf. Vol. I, P. 303, l. 7]—‘Kuṇapa’ is an adjective and a noun as well. In the former case it means ‘smelling like a dead body’, and in the latter case it has four meanings viz. a dead body, an epithet of contempt, a spear and a foul smell. Here the word is used as a noun, and it signifies ‘a dead body’.

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General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kuṇapa (कुणप) [=kuṇipa?] refers to “corpse”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “In this world, fool, how could the body, which is covered in a mass of skin, a skeleton of bones, excessively filled with the smells of a stinking corpse (kuthita-kuṇipa-gandha), sitting in the mouth of Yama, the abode of the serpent-lord of disease, be for the pleasure of men? [Thus ends the reflection on] impurity”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kuṇapa : (m.) corpse; carcass; a loathsome thing.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kuṇapa, (der. fr. kuṇa? cp. Sk. kuṇapa) a corpse, carcase, Vin. III, 68=M. I, 73=A. IV, 377 (ahi°, kukkura°, manussa° pūti°); A. IV, 198 sq.; Sn. 205; J. I, 61, 146; PvA. 15. Kaṇṭhe āsatto kuṇapo a corpse hanging round one’s neck M. I, 120; J. I, 5; also Vin. III, 68≈.—The abovementioned list of corpses (ahi°, etc.) is amplified at Vism. 343 as follows: hatthi°, assa°, go°, mahiṃsa°, manussa°, ahi°, kukkura°. Cp. kaḷebara.

—gandha smell of a rotting corpse SnA 286; PvA. 32. (Page 220)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuṇapa (कुणप).—n S (In Sansk. n m) A corpse.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuṇapa (कुणप).—n A corpse.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuṇapa (कुणप).—a. (- f.) [cf. Uṇādi-sūtra 3.143] Smelling like a dead body, stinking.

-paḥ, -pam A dead body, corpse; शासनीयः कुणपभोजनः (śāsanīyaḥ kuṇapabhojanaḥ) V.5. (a vulture); अमेध्यकुणपाशी च (amedhyakuṇapāśī ca) Manusmṛti 12.71; often used as a term of contempt with living beings; व्युक्ष्त्स्रय एतत्कुणपं त्वदङ्गजम् (vyukṣtsraya etatkuṇapaṃ tvadaṅgajam) Bhāgavata 4.4.23; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.214.15.

-paḥ 1 A spear; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.148.46.

2) A foul smell, stench.

-pī A small bird (Mainā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kuṇapa (कुणप).—nt. (cited [Boehtlingk] 7, App., as m. in Mahāvyutpatti; but Mironov as well as Kyōtō ed. nt.), name of a hell, according to Mahāvastu i.7.3 a narakotsada (see utsada 2) or supplementary hell, according to Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti a cold hell: Mahāvyutpatti 4938; Mahāvastu i.7.1, 3; 11.5, 9 = iii.455.17, 21.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṇapa (कुणप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pī-paṃ) Foul smelling, stinking. mn.

(-paḥ-paṃ) 1. A dead body, a corpse. m.

(-paḥ) 1. A stink, a foul smell. 2. A spear. f. (-pī) A small bird, a kind of Maina or Salik: see viṭsārikā. E. kṛṇ to sound, kapana affix, va is changed to its congener u; sound proceeding from the corpse, &c. by the escape of the vital air, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṇapa (कुणप).—I. m. and n. 1. A dead body, carrion, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 71. Ii. m. 2. A spear, Mahābhārata 14, 142.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṇapa (कुणप).—1. [neuter] carcase, corpse.

--- OR ---

Kuṇapa (कुणप).—2. [adjective] rotting, mouldering.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kuṇapa (कुणप):—n. [as m. [gana] ardharcādi] a dead body, corpse, [Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti] etc.

2) (said contemptuously of) the living body, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) dung

4) m. a spear, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

5) m. [plural] Name of a people, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

6) m. (also) a [particular] hell, [Buddhist literature]

7) mfn. mouldering, smelling like a carcase, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Suśruta]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuṇapa (कुणप):—[(paḥ-pī)] 1. m. n. A dead body. m. Foetor; a spear. f. () A Maina. a. Foul, stinking.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kuṇapa (कुणप) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kuṇima.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kunapa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kuṇapa (ಕುಣಪ):—

1) [noun] a dead body (esp. of a human being); a corpse.

2) [noun] a strong, unpleasant or offensive smell; a stench; a stink.

3) [noun] a thrusting or throwing weapon with a pointed usu. steel tip and a long shaft; a spear; a lance.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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