by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön | 2001 | 941,039 words
This page describes “sixteen utsadas annexed to the eight great hells” as written by Nagarjuna in his Maha-prajnaparamita-sastra (lit. “the treatise on the great virtue of wisdom”) in the 2nd century. This book, written in five volumes, represents an encyclopedia on Buddhism as well as a commentary on the Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita.
Outside the boundary of these eight great hells there are also sixteen hells that form annexes (utsada): eight hells of cold water and eight hells of fire and flame. The punishments there are of rare unprecedented (adṛṣṭāśruta) severity.
The eight hells of fire and flame:
The eight hells of fire and flame are: the blazing coals (kukūla); excrement (kuṇapa); the blazing forest (ādīptavanat); the forest of swords (asipattravana); the path of knives (kṣuramārga or kṣuradhāramārga), the forest of iron spines (ayaḥśalmalivana); the salt river (Khārodaka nādi or Vaitaraṇi); the copper stake (tāmrastambha).
The eight hells of cold water:
The eight hells of cold water are: Ngo feou t’o (Arbuda) ‘having many holes’; Ni lo feou t’o (Nirarbuda), ‘not having holes’; A lo lo (Aṭaṭa), groan [177a] [uttered by the damned] under the biting cold; A p’o p’o (Hahava), another groan caused by the cold; Heou heou (Huhuva), another groan caused by the cold; Ngeou po lo (Utpala), because the outer walls of this hell are like blue lotus (nīlotpala); Po t’eou mo (Padma), punishment that makes the damned look like red lotuses; Mo ho po t’eou mo (Mahāpadma).