Caturtha: 17 definitions


Caturtha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chaturtha.

In Hinduism

Shiksha (linguistics: phonetics, phonology etc.)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Śikṣā

Caturtha (चतुर्थ, “the fourth”) is the name of a note (svara) used by singers of the sāmas (religious songs from Sāmaveda), corresponding to the ṣaḍja-svara of the flute, according to the Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.1. The Nāradīyā-śīkṣā is an ancient Sanskrit treatise dealing phonetics and musicology. Its proclaimed author is the Nārada.

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Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) deals with Sanskrit linguistics and represents a branch of vedanga (vedic ancillary science). Shiksha deals with subjects such as phonetics, phonology, study of sound, letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and related topics. Much attention is also given to the study of recitation (patha) of Vedic verses.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Caturtha (चतुर्थ).—A term used by ancient grammarians for the fourth consonants which are sonant aspirates, termed झष् (jhaṣ) by Panini; cf. R. Pr. IV. 2. T. Pr. I. 18, V. Pr. 1 54. R. T. 176.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Caturtha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Caturtha (चतुर्थ) refers to the “fourth (year)” (of Yogic breathing exercises), according to the Śivayogadīpikā, an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with Yoga possibly corresponding to the Śivayoga quoted in Śivānanda’s Yogacintāmaṇi.—Accordingly, [while describing a sequence of Haṭhayoga practices]: “Thus, by means of this Haṭhayoga which has eight auxiliaries, those [students who are] life-long celibates obtain the Siddhis of the [best of Sages] because of their untiring practice. [...] Then, in the third year, he is not hurt by noxious [animals] such as snakes. In the fourth [e.g., caturtha] year, he is free from [any] torment, thirst, sleep, cold and heat. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Caturtha in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Caturtha (चतुर्थ) refers to the “fourth (day)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.53 (“Description of Śiva’s return journey”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Then the ladies of the city indulged in the customary utterance of foul abusive words laughing, jingling and peeping at all of them. [...] On the fourth (caturtha) day, the rite of caturthīkarman was performed with due observance. Without this the marriage rites would have been incomplete. There was diverse jubilant festivity. Shouts of ‘well-done’, ‘victory’ etc were heard. There were exchanges of gifts, sweet music and different kinds of dances. [...]”

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Caturtha (चतुर्थ) refers to the “fourth (initiation)”, according to Vāgīśvarakīrti’s Tattvaratnāvaloka verse 17.—Accordingly, “Cleansed by the oozing of the seed (i.e. semen) from the thunderbolt (i.e.the officiant’s penis) growing as a sprout born from a purified lotus (i.e. the consecrated vulva of the consort), the crop that is the fourth [state of consciousness] comes to full bloom; [although] the Fourth [Initiation] (caturtha) is manifest, it is hidden even from the wise”.

Note: The coded language expresses what happens in the three higher initiations (guhyābhiṣeka, prajñājñānābhiṣeka, caturthābhiṣeka), the first two of which are of a sexual nature. [...] The logic of the allegory demands that it is in the caturtha-abhiṣeka where this sprout comes to full bloom, that is to say, reaches the highest state, here called “the Fourth”. This is somewhat confusing, since just above the author of the Gūḍhapadā seems to advocate a state “beyond the fourth” as the highest.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Caturtha.—(IE 8-8), one-fourth of the standard measure [of liquids like liqour]. Note: caturtha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caturtha (चतुर्थ).—a (S) Fourth.

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caturtha (चतुर्थ).—m (S Fourth.) A covert or allusive term for kāta, mōkṣa, daṇḍa &c. because they are each the fourth of its class or order.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caturtha (चतुर्थ).—a Fourth.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caturtha (चतुर्थ).—a. (rthī f.) चतुर्णां पूरणः डट् युक् च (caturṇāṃ pūraṇaḥ ḍaṭ yuk ca)] The fourth.

-rthaḥ The fourth letter of any class.

-rtham A quarter, a fourth part.

-aṃśa a. receiving a fourth part. (-śaḥ) a quarter or fourth part.

-āśramaḥ the fourth stage of a Brāhmaṇa's religious life, Saṃnyāsa.

-phalam the second inequality or equation of a planet.

-bhakta a. eating the fourth meal.

-bhāj a. receiving a fourth part of every source of income from the subjects, as a king; (this is allowed only in times of financial embarrassments, the usual share being a sixth.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturtha (चतुर्थ).—mfn.

(-rthaḥ-rthā or rthī-rthaṃ) Fourth. f. (-rthī) The fourth lunation. E. catur four. ḍaṭ thuk aff. caturṇī pūraṇaṃ ḍaṭ thuk ca .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturtha (चतुर्थ).—[catur + tha], I. ordin. number, f. thī, Fourth, Chr. 12. Ii. n. A fourth part, Mahābhārata 1, 1822

— Cf. - [Latin] quartus; [Old High German.] fiordo; [Anglo-Saxon.] feordh.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturtha (चतुर्थ).—[feminine] ī the fourth, [neuter] [adverb] the fourth time; subst. the fourth [particle] [feminine] ī the fourth day in a lunar fortnight; the fourth case or its endings ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caturtha (चतुर्थ):—[from catasṛ] a mf(ī)n. ([gana] yājakādi, [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi 100]) the 4th, [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. the 4th letter in the first 5 classes of consonants (gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Kāśikā-vṛtti]

3) [v.s. ...] ‘4th caste’, a Śūdra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] n. ‘constituting the 4th part’, a quarter, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra x, 38]

5) [v.s. ...] (for tuṣṭaya; ifc.) a collection of 4 [Divyāvadāna xxxiii]

6) [from catasṛ] cf. τέταρτος; [Latin] quartus [Lithuanian] ketwirtas; [Slavonic or Slavonian] cetvertyi; [German] vierter.

7) b rthaka, rya See p.385.

8) Cāturtha (चातुर्थ):—[from cātura] mfn. ([from] cat) treated of in the 4th (Adhyāya), [Manu-smṛti ii, 56; Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caturtha (चतुर्थ):—[(rthaḥ-rthā-rthaṃ) a.] Fourth.

[Sanskrit to German]

Caturtha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caturtha (ಚತುರ್ಥ):—[adjective] constituting a quarter; equal to a quarter.

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Caturtha (ಚತುರ್ಥ):—[noun] a man belonging to śudra caste.

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Cāturtha (ಚಾತುರ್ಥ):—[adjective] preceded by three others in a series occurring at the fourth place; b) designating any of the four equal parts of something.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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