Caturmasya, Cāturmāsya: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Caturmasya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chaturmasya.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Caturmasya in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—A penance (Vrata) which continues for four months. During this period, the Vedas are to be studied with pure heart. The Pāṇḍavas did this penance at Gayā. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 95).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—Sacrifice, performed by Bharata.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 7. 5.

1b) (personified) born of Savitā.*

  • * Bha. VI. 18. 1.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य) refers to one of the seven Haviḥsaṃsthās or Haviryajñas (groups of seven sacrifices).—Hārīta says: “Let a man offer the Pākayajñas always, always also the Haviryajñas, and the Somayajñas (Soma sacrifices), according to rule, if he wishes for eternal merit”.—The object of these sacrifices [viz., Cāturmāsya] is eternal happiness, and hence they have to be performed during life at certain seasons, without any special occasion (nimitta), and without any special object (kāma). According to most authorities, however, they have to be performed during thirty years only. After that the Agnihotra only has to be kept up.

Source: Shodhganga: Vaikhanasa Grhyasutra Bhasya (Critical Edition and Study)

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य) refers to a “sacrifice performed every fourth month” and represents one of the various rituals mentioned in the Vaikhānasagṛhyasūtra (viz., vaikhānasa-gṛhya-sūtra) which belongs to the Taittirīya school of the Black Yajurveda (kṛṣṇayajurveda).—The original Gṛhyasūtra of Vaikhanāsa consists of eleven chapters or “praśnas”. Each praśna is subdivided into sub-divisions called “khaṇḍa”. But only the first seven chapters deal with actual Gṛhyasūtra section. Cāturmāsya is one of the seven haviryajñas.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य) refers to “the four months during the rainy season (August to November) in which the practice of certain prescribed austerities is very potent for spiritual development”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Cāturmāsya.—(SII 11-1, CITD), the season consisting of 4 months, viz. grīṣma consisting of the pūrṇimānta months of Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha, varṣā consisting of Śrāvana, Bhādrapada, Āśvina and Kārttika; and hemanta consisting of Mārgaśīrṣa, Pauṣa, Māgha and Phālguna. This was the official division of the year which was popularly divided into six seasons, viz. grīṣma (Jyeṣṭha-Āṣāḍha), varṣā (Śrāvaṇa-Bhādra- pada), śarad (Āśvina-Kārttika), hemanta (Mārgaśīrṣa-Pauṣa), śīta (Māgha-Phālguna) and vasanta (Caitra-Vaiśākha). Some times, the word cāturmāsya specially means the four months of the year, containing the two seasons of varṣā and śarad, i. e. from Śrāvaṇa to Kārttika. During this period, Viṣṇu is supposed to sleep, so that religious celebrations are avoided. During the period, religious mendicants desisted from roving. (EI 7; BL), related to the cāturmāsī or the full-moon day of Phālguna, Āshāḍha and Kārttika; a rite; same as cātur- māsya-vrata. Note: cāturmāsya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Caturmasya in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—n (S) A period of four months; but understood esp. of that included between the tenth of āṣāḍhaśuddha and the tenth of kārttikaśuddha--the four monsoon-months. 2 A sacrifice performed or any rite observed every four months.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—n A period of four months, in which certain observances are enjoined. A sacrifice performed every four months.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Caturmasya in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—[caturṣu māseṣu bhavo yajñaḥ, ṇya] Name of a sacrifice performed every four months; i. e. at the beginning of कार्तिक, फाल्गुन (kārtika, phālguna) and आषाढ (āṣāḍha).

Derivable forms: cāturmāsyam (चातुर्मास्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—n.

(-syaṃ) A sacrifice performed every four months. E. catur and māsa a month, yañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—i. e. catur māsa + ya, n. The name of sacrifices which ought to be offered every four months, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य).—[neuter] a cert. sacrifice (lasting four months); period of four months.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Kh. 59. B. 1, 176. Bik. 115. Bhk. 12. Oppert. Ii, 2328. 5331. 7373.
—Āpast. Peters. 2, 176.
—Hiranyak. Bp. 288.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caturmāsya (चतुर्मास्य):—[=catur-māsya] [from catur > catasṛ] n. (= cāt) a Cāturmāsya sacrifice, [Kāṭhaka xxxv, 20.]

2) Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य):—[from cātura] n. beginning of a season of 4 months, [Mahābhārata xii, 1007]

3) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of the 3 sacrifices performed at the beginning of the 3 seasons of 4 months (viz. vaiśvadevam, varuṇa-praghāsāḥ, sākam-edhāḥ), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā i, 6, 10; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa if.; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] mfn. belonging to such sacrifices, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiii, 2, 5; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xxii; Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad i, 2, 3.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cāturmāsya (चातुर्मास्य):—[cātur-māsya] (syaṃ) 1. n. A sacrifice, performed every four months.

[Sanskrit to German]

Caturmasya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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