Apoha; 3 Definition(s)
Apoha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Apoha (अपोह) refers to the Buddhist “exclusion theory”—a negative process of exclusions (or apoha) eliminates that which contradicts the referred object.—Apoha or exclusions typically involves a double negation. Because in Buddhism the absence of something is a fiction in that absences are not caused and do not function, exclusions can be used to explain away universals as the referents of words. Because negations are fictions, this lightens the ontological commitment. A distinction is drawn between entities and pseudo-entities. Only particulars are real; negations are not real, but they are also not universals. Universals are positive or affirmative, whereas exclusions are negative.
Kumārila levels three criticisms of apoha theory in particular: that it is circular, that it is counter-intuitive, and that it is redundant. Śāntarakṣita’s response to these criticisms begins by describing three primary types of negations which he equates with exclusions: non-implicative negations (niṣedha, med dgag) and two types of implicative negations (paryudāsa, ma yin dgag): mental exclusions and object exclusions.Source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Śāntarakṣita
Languages of India and abroad
1) Removing, driving away, healing &c.
2) Removal of doubt by the excercise of the reasoning faculty.
3) Reasoning, arguing; reasoning faculty.
4) Negative reasoning (opp. ūha) (aparatarkanirāsāya kṛto viparītastarkaḥ). one of the dhiguṇas q. v. स्वयमूहापोहासमर्थः (svayamūhāpohāsamarthaḥ); इमे मनुष्या दृश्यन्ते ऊहापोहविशारदाः (ime manuṣyā dṛśyante ūhāpohaviśāradāḥ) Mb.13. 145.43. ऊहापोहमिमं सरोजनयना यावद्विधत्तेतराम् (ūhāpohamimaṃ sarojanayanā yāvadvidhattetarām) Bv.2.74; hence ऊहापोह (ūhāpoha) = complete discussion of a question.
5) Excluding all things not coming under the category in point; तद्वानपोहो वा शब्दार्थः (tadvānapoho vā śabdārthaḥ) (where Maheśvara paraphrases apoha by atadvyāvṛtti i. e. tadbhinnatyāgaḥ),
6) A superfluous member attached to a structure of some construction.
Derivable forms: apohaḥ (अपोहः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
(-haḥ) 1. The removal of doubt by the exercise of the reasoning faculty. 2. Reasoning, arguing. E. apa reverse, ūha to reason, and ghañ affix; opposed to doubt or deliberation.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 6 books and stories containing Apoha. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 934 < [Chapter 16 - Examination of the Import of Words]
Verse 933 < [Chapter 16 - Examination of the Import of Words]
Verse 1195-1199 < [Chapter 16 - Examination of the Import of Words]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 12: Sermon by Svāmin Siṃhakeśarin < [Chapter III - Vasudeva’s Marriage with Kanakavatī and her Former Incarnations]
Part 10: Episode of Caṇḍakauśika < [Chapter III - Mahāvīra’s first six years as an ascetic]
Appendix 3.1: additional notes < [Appendices]
The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux (by Satkari Mookerjee)
Chapter VII - The Doctrine of Apoha or the Import of Words < [Part I - Metaphysics]
Chapter I - The Nature of Existence < [Part I - Metaphysics]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 9 - The six Padārthas: Dravya, Guṇa, Karma, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 4 - Teachers and Pupils in Vedānta < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)