Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 1: Definitions

Bu-Pj.1.8.1 MS.86 A means: whoever, of such a kind, of such activity, of such social standing, of such name, Vin.3.24 of such family, of such conduct, of such behaviour, of such association,[1] who is an elder,[2] one who is new or one of middle standing:—this is called a monk.

MS.87 Monk means: he is a monk because he lives on alms; a monk because he has gone over to living on alms; a monk because he is one who wears the patchwork cloth; a monk by convention; a monk on account of his acknowledgement; a “come, monk” monk; a monk because he was ordained by going to the three refuges; a good monk; a monk of substance; a trainee monk; a monk beyond training; a monk who is ordained by a complete Sangha through a procedure[3] of one motion and three announcements,[4] which is unchallengeable and fit to stand. The monk who is ordained by a complete Sangha through a procedure of one motion and three announcements, which is unchallengeable and fit to stand,[5] this sort of monk is meant in this case.

MS.88 Training means: the three trainings are—training in the higher morality, training in the higher mind, BD.1.43 training in the higher wisdom. The training in the higher morality is the training meant in this case.

MS.89 Way of life means: whatever training rule is laid down by the Master: this is called way of life. One trains in this, and thereby one is called possessed of the mode of life.

Bu-Pj.1.8.2 MS.90 Without first renouncing the training and disclosing his weakness means:

There is, monks, a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced; and there is, monks, a disclosure of weakness together with the training being renounced.

MS.91 “And how, monks, is there a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced? Here, monks, a monk who is discontent, dissatisfied, desirous of abandoning the state of a recluse, disgusted, troubled and repelled[6] by monkhood, longing to be a householder, longing to be a lay-follower, longing to be a monastery attendant, longing to be a novice, longing to belong to another sect, longing to be a disciple of another sect, longing not to be a recluse, longing not to be a son of the Sakyan—he says and declares: ʻPerhaps I should renounce the Buddha?ʼ In this was, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced.

MS.92 Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻPerhaps I should renounce the Dhamma?ʼ … the Sangha … the training … the discipline … the Pātimokkha … the recital … Vin.3.25 my preceptor … my teacher … being a disciple … being a pupil … our common preceptor … our common teacher … he says and declares: ʻPerhaps BD.1.44 I should renounce my fellow monks?ʼ … he says and declares: ʻPerhaps I should be a householder?ʼ … ʻPerhaps I should be a lay-follower?ʼ … ʻPerhaps I should be a monastery attendant?ʼ … ʻPerhaps I should be a novice?ʼ … ʻPerhaps I should be an adherent of another sect?ʼ … ʻPerhaps I should be a disciple of another sect?ʼ … ʻPerhaps I should not be a recluse?ʼ … ʻPerhaps I should not be a son of the Sakyan?ʼ In this way, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced.

MS.93 “Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻBut if I renounced the Buddhaʼ … he says and declares: ʻBut if I were not a son of the Sakyanʼ … he says and declares: ʻPerhaps I should renounce the Buddha?ʼ … he says and declares: ʻPerhaps I should not be a son of the Sakyan?ʼ … he says and declares: ʻWell then, I should renounce the Buddhaʼ … he says and declares: ʻWell then, I should not be a son of the Sakyanʼ … he says and declares: ʻI think I should renounce the Buddhaʼ … he says and declares: ʻI think I should not be a son of the Sakyan.ʼ In this way, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced.

MS.94 “Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻI remember my motherʼ … ʻI remember my fatherʼ … ʻI remember my brotherʼ … ʻI remember my sisterʼ … ʻI remember my sonʼ … ʻI remember my daughterʼ … ʻI remember my wifeʼ … ʻI remember my relationsʼ … ʻI remember my friendsʼ … ʻI remember my villageʼ … ʻI remember my townʼ … ʻI remember my fieldsʼ … ʻI remember my landʼ … ʻI remember my gold coinsʼ … ʻI remember my goldʼ … ʻI remember my professionʼ … he says and declares: ʻI remember my former laughter, chatter and amusement.ʼ In this way, monks, Vin.3.26 there is a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced.

MS.95 “Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻI have a mother, she ought to be supported by meʼ … ʻI have BD.1.45 a father, he ought to be supported by meʼ … ʻI have a brother … ʻI have a sister … ʻI have a son … ʻI have a daughter … ʻI have a wife … ʻI have relations … he says and declares: ʻI have friends, they ought to be supported by me.ʼ In this way, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced.

MS.96 “Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻI have a mother, she will support meʼ … ʻI have a father, he will support meʼ … as above … ʻI have friends, they will support meʼ … ʻI have a village, I will live by means of itʼ … ʻI have a town, I will live by means of itʼ … fields … land … gold coins … gold … he says and declares: ʻI have a profession, I will live by means of it.ʼ In this way, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced.

MS.97 “Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻThis is difficult to doʼ … ʻthis is not easy to doʼ … ʻthis is difficultʼ … ʻthis is not easyʼ … ʻI cannot endureʼ … ʻI am unableʼ … ʻI do not enjoy myselfʼ … ʻI take no delight.ʼ[7] In this way, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness without the training being renounced.

Bu-Pj.1.8.3 MS.98 “And how, monks, is there a disclosure of weakness together with the training being renounced? Here, monks, a monk who is discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, says and declares: ʻI renounce the Buddha.ʼ In this way, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness together with the training being renounced.

MS.99 “Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻI renounce the Dhammaʼ … Vin.3.27 ʻI renounce the Sanghaʼ … the training … the discipline … the Pātimokkha … the recital … my preceptor … my teacher … being a disciple … being a pupil … our common preceptor BD.1.46 … our common teacher … he says and declares: ʻI renounce my fellow monksʼ … he says and declares: ʻConsider me a householderʼ … ʻConsider me a lay-followerʼ … a monastery attendant … a novice … an adherent of another sect … a disciple of another sect … not a recluse … ʻConsider me not a son of the Sakyan.ʼ In this way too, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness together with the training being renounced.

MS.100 “Then further, discontent, dissatisfied … longing not to be a son of the Sakyan, he says and declares: ʻI have no need of the Buddhaʼ … ʻI have no need of my fellow monks.ʼ In this way too, monks …

“Then further … he says and declares: ʻNo more of the Buddha for meʼ … ʻNo more of my fellow monks for me.ʼ In this way too, monks …

“Then further … he says and declares: ʻThe Buddha is no of use to meʼ … ʻMy fellow monks are of no use to me.ʼ In this way too, monks …

“Then further … he says and declares: ʻI am well freed from the Buddha.ʼ … I am well freed from my fellow monks.ʼ In this way too, monks … being renounced.

MS.101 “Or whatever other synonyms there are for the Buddha, for the Dhamma, for the Sangha, for the training … for oneʼs fellow monks, for householders … or for not being a son of the Sakyan; he speaks and declares by way of these indications, by way of these marks, by way of these signs. In this way, monks, there is a disclosure of weakness together with the training being renounced.

Bu-Pj.1.8.4 MS.102 “And how, monks, is the training not renounced? Here, monks, if one renounces the training by way of these indications, by way of these marks, by way of these signs, but one is insane, then the training is not renounced. If one renounces the training in the presence of one who is insane, the training is not renounced. If one who is deranged renounces BD.1.47 the training … if one renounces the training in the presence of one who is deranged … if one is overwhelmed by pain … if one renounces the training in the presence of one who is overwhelmed by pain … if one renounces the training in the presence of gods[8] … if one renounces the training in the presence of an animal, the training is not renounced. If an Indian[9] renounces the training in the presence of a foreigner[10] and he does not understand, the training is not renounced. If a foreigner renounces the training in the presence of an Indian … if an Indian renounces the training in the presence of an Indian … if a foreigner renounces Vin.3.28 the training in the presence of a foreigner and he does not understand, the training is not renounced. If he renounces the training as a joke … he renounces the training by speaking too fast … if he announces what he does not wish to announce … if he does not announce what he wishes to announce … if he announces to one who does not understand … if he does not announce to one who understands … or if he does not make a full announcement, the training is not renounced. In this way, monks, the training is not renounced.”

Bu-Pj.1.8.5 MS.103 Sexual intercourse means: what is contrary to the true Dhamma, the common practice, the low practice, the coarse practice, that which ends with a wash, that which is done in private, that which is done wherever there are couples: this is called sexual intercourse.

MS.104 Has means: organ with organ, genital with genital, even to the depth of a sesame seed, this is called has.

MS.105 Even with an animal means: even having sexual intercourse with a female animal,[11] he is BD.1.48 not a recluse, not a son of the Sakyan; how much less so with a woman: therefore it is called even with an animal.

MS.106 He is expelled means: as a man with his head cut off is incapable[12] of living by (re-establishing) that bodily connection, so is a monk who has had sexual intercourse not a recluse, not a son of the Sakyan[13]: therefore it is said that he is expelled.

MS.107 Not in communion means: communion[14] means: a common official action, the same recital, the same training—this is called communion. He does not take part in this—he is therefore called not in communion.

Footnotes and references:

1.

For definition of gocara see Vb.247.

2.

Vin-a.239, thera is one who has completed ten years; nava, a novice, is one of four years standing; and majjhima is one of more than five years standing.

3.

So Vin-a.243.

4.

ñatticatuttha.

5.

Cf. list of eighteen explanations of monk at Vb.245–246.

6.

For these three words, cf. DN.i.213, where Gotama is made to use them in reference to the exercise of supernormal powers.

8.

Vin-a.255, from the earth devatās to the devatās of the Akaniṭṭha realm.

9.

Vin-a.255, ariyaka means the proper mode of speech, the language of Magadha. Note the form ariyaka.

10.

milakkhuka. Cf. Mlecchas, now a term for all non-caste people. Here perhaps the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Vin-a.255 says, nāma yo koci anariyako Andha-Damiḷādi, the people of Andha (i.e. the Telugus) and the Tamils, cf. Vb-a.387, Vb-a.388.

11.

Tiracchānagatitthi, literally a woman gone to the animals. Cf. below, BD.1.212.

12.

Abhabba.

13.

Cf. Vin.1.96.

14.

Saṃvāsa, literally living with, co-residence. It often refers to the household life, as at AN.ii.57, AN.ii.187; AN.iii.164; AN.iv.174; Snp.283, Snp.290; but in Vinaya it is a term of importance in religion.

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