Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 1: Permutations

Permutations part 1

Summary

Bu-Pj.1.9.1 MS.108 Three kinds of female: a human female, a non-human female, a female animal. Three kinds of hermaphrodite: a human hermaphrodite, a non-human hermaphrodite, an animal hermaphrodite. Three kinds of paṇḍaka[1]: a human paṇḍaka, a non-human paṇḍaka, an animal paṇḍaka. Three kinds of male: a human male, a non-human male, an animal male.[2]

Exposition part 1

MS.109 There is an offence entailing expulsion if he has sexual intercourse with a human female through three orifices, the anus, the vagina or the mouth … with a non-human female … with a female animal … with a human hermaphrodite … with a non-human hermaphrodite … with an animal hermaphrodite through three orifices, the anus, the vagina or the mouth. There is an offence entailing expulsion if he has sexual intercourse with a human paṇḍaka through two orifices, the anus or the mouth … with a non-human paṇḍaka … with an animal paṇḍaka … with a human male … with a non-human male … with a male animal though two orifices, the anus or the mouth.

Exposition part 2

Voluntary sexual intercourse

Bu-Pj.1.9.2 Vin.3.29 MS.110 For a monk who, having the intention of association, lets his penis enter a human female through the anus … through the vagina … through the mouth, there is an offence entailing expulsion. BD.1.49 For a monk who … lets his male organ enter a non-human female … a female animal … a human hermaphrodite … a non-human hermaphrodite … an animal hermaphrodite through the anus … through the vagina … through the mouth, there is an offence entailing expulsion. For a monk who, having the intention of association, lets his penis enter a human paṇḍaka … a non-human paṇḍaka … an animal paṇḍaka … a human male … a non-human male … a male animal through the anus … through the mouth, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Forced sexual intercourse

Bu-Pj.1.9.3 MS.111 Opponents who are monks, having brought a human female into a monkʼs presence, insert his penis into her anus, her vagina or her mouth. If he agrees to the entry, if he agrees to having entered, if he agrees to remaining, if he agrees to the taking out,[3] there is an offence entailing expulsion. Opponents who are monks … if he does not agree to the entry, but agrees to having entered, to remaining, to the taking out, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Opponents who are monks … if he does not agree to the entry nor to having entered, but to remaining and to the taking out … entailing expulsion. Opponents who are monks … if he does not agree to the entry nor to having entered nor to remaining, but to the taking out … entailing expulsion. Opponents who are monks … if he does not agree to the entry nor to having entered nor to remaining nor to the taking out, there is no offence.

MS.113 Opponents who are monks, having brought a human female who is awake … asleep … intoxicated … mad … drunk … dead but undecomposed … dead and mostly undecomposed … there is an offence entailing expulsion. Having brought one who is dead and mostly decomposed into the monk’s presence, they insert his penis into the anus … the vagina … the mouth. If he Vin.3.30 agrees to the entry, to having entered, to remaining, to the taking out, there is a serious offence … if he does not agree, there is no offence.

MS.114 All this is repeated for a non-human female and a female animal; a human, a non-human and an animal hermaphrodite; a human, a non-human and an animal paṇḍaka; a human male, a non-human male and a male animal; except that for the three categories of paṇḍakas and the three categories of males only two orifices apply, the anus and the mouth.

Bu-Pj.1.9.4 MS.120 Opponents who are monks, having brought a human female Vin.3.31 into a monkʼs presence, insert his penis into her anus … her vagina … her mouth, the female being covered, the monk uncovered … the female uncovered, BD.1.50 the monk covered … the female covered, the monk covered … the female uncovered, the monk uncovered. If he agrees to the entry, to having entered, to remaining, to the taking out, there is an offence entailing expulsion. … If not, there is no offence. Opponents who are monks … a human female who is awake … asleep … dead but mostly undecomposed … entailing expulsion. Having brought one who is dead, but mostly decomposed into a monkʼs presence, they insert his penis into the anus … the vagina … the mouth, the female being covered, the monk uncovered … both being uncovered. If he agrees to the entry … to the taking out, there is a serious offence. … If not, there is no offence.

MS.122 All this is repeated for a non-human female and a female animal; a human, a non-human and an animal hermaphrodite; a human, a non-human and an animal paṇḍaka; a human male, a non-human male and a male animal; Vin.3.32 except that for the three categories of paṇḍakas and the three categories of males only two orifices apply, the anus and the mouth.

Bu-Pj.1.9.5–6 MS.126 Vin.3.32–33, §§ 5, 6 are repetitions of §§ 3, 4 but reading “opponents who are monks, having brought a monk into the presence of a human female Vin.3.33 …”

Bu-Pj.1.9.7 MS.134 As the sections on “opponents who are monks” have been explained in detailed, so should the following categories be explained: opponents who are kings, opponents who are thieves, opponents who are scoundrels, “lotus-scent” opponents.[4]

Permutations part 2

MS.136 He enters an orifice through an orifice,[5] there is an offence entailing expulsion. He enters a non-orifice through an orifice … entailing expulsion. He enters an orifice through a non-orifice … entailing expulsion. He enters a non-orifice through a non-orifice, there is a serious offence.

MS.137 A monk molests a sleeping monk: if he wakes up and consents, both should be expelled; if he wakes up but does not consent, the molester BD.1.51 should be expelled. A monk molests a sleeping novice: if he wakes up and consents, both should be expelled;[6] if he wakes up but does not consent, the molester should be expelled. A novice molests a sleeping monk: if he wakes up and consents, both should be expelled; if he wakes up but does not consent, the molester should be expelled. A novice molests a sleeping novice: if he wakes up and consents, both should be expelled; if he wakes up but does not consent, the molester should be expelled.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Brahmali: The exact meaning of paṇḍaka is disputed.

2.

Brahmali: Contrary to the P.T.S. edition, the Mahāsaṅgīti takes this as a separate paragraph.

3.

Brahmali: This does not mean that he consents to the ending of the act, but that he consents to the intercourse at this stage.

4.

Uppalagandha, perhaps a soubriquet of some brigands. Vin-a.268 says they needed human hearts: except monks, men were rare. Monks should not be murdered, so the brigands led them astray by bringing women to them. Cf. It-a.ii.57.

5.

Brahmali: The Pali word here translated “orifice” is magga, and it refers either to the anus or the genitals. The meaning of non-orifice, amagga, is not clear, but it could refer either to the mouth or to the situation described below in section Bu-Pj.1.10.9. However, since the final offence in this series of permutations is a thullaccaya, a serious offence, the latter possibility seems more likely.

6.

nāsetabbo. I follow the rendering of Vinaya Texts i.215, which seems to suit the context better than the “to atone” of the Pali-English Dictionary. Nāseti is the causative of nassati, to disappear, to come to an end. Cf. below, BD.1.62, BD.1.280.