Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Formal Meeting (Saṅghādisesa) 13

BD.1.314 Bu-Ss.13.1.1 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s park. Now at that time,[1] unscrupulous, depraved monks who were the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu[2] were in residence[3] at Kiṭāgiri.[4] They indulged in the following kinds of bad habits: they planted and caused to be planted small flowering trees; they watered them Vin.3.180 and caused them to be watered; they plucked them and caused them to be plucked; they tied them up into (garlands) and caused them to be tied up; they made and caused to be made garlands having a stalk on one side[5]; they made and caused to be made garlands having a stalk on both sides[6]; they made and caused to be made a branching flower-stalk[7]; they made and caused to be BD.1.315 made a wreath[8]; they made and caused to be made a garland worn round the forehead[9]; they made and caused to be made an ear-ornament; they made and caused to be made a breast-plate.[10] These (monks) take or send garlands having a stalk on one side to wives of reputable families, to daughters of reputable families, to girls of reputable families, to daughters-in-law of reputable families, to female slaves of reputable families. They take or send garlands having a stalk on both sides; they take or send a branching flower-stalk; they take or send a wreath; they take or send a garland worn round the forehead; they take or send an ear-ornament; they take or send a breast-plate. These eat from one dish together with wives of reputable families, with daughters of reputable families, with girls of reputable families, with daughters-in-law of reputable families, with female slaves of reputable families. They drink from one beaker; they sit down on one seat; they share[11] one couch; they share one mat[12]; they share one coverlet; they share one mat and coverlet. They eat at the wrong time; they drink intoxicants; they wear garlands, (use) perfumes and cosmetics; they dance and sing and play musical instruments, and they sport. They dance when she dances,[13] they sing when she dances, they play musical instruments when she dances, they sport when she dances; they dance when she sings … they dance when she plays musical instruments … they dance when she sports … they sport when she sports.


Bu-Ss.13.1.2 BD.1.316 They play[14] on a chequered board for gambling[15]; they play on a draught-board[16]; they play with imagining such boards in the air[17]; they play a game of keeping stepping on to diagrams[18]; they play with spillikans[19]; they play at dice; they play tip-cat[20]; they play brush-hand[21]; they play with a ball[22]; they play at blowing through toy-pipes made of leaves[23]; they play with a toy plough[24]; they play at turning somersaults[25]; they play with a toy windmill[26]; they play with a toy measures BD.1.317 of leaves[27]; they play with a toy cart[28]; they play with a toy bow[29]; they play a game of guessing at letters[30]; they play a mind-reading game[31]; they play a game of mimicking deformities[32]; they train themselves in elephant lore[33]; they train themselves in horse lore[34]; they train themselves in cart lore; they train themselves in archery; they train themselves in swordsmanship; then they run in front of an elephant, they run in front of a horse and they run in front of a chariot; now they run backwards, now they run forwards,[35] and they whistle,[36] and they snap their fingers,[37] and they wrestle,[38] and they fight with fists, and having spread out their upper robes as BD.1.318 a stage,[39] they say to a dancing girl: “Dance here, sister,” and they applaud,[40] and indulge in various bad habits.


Bu-Ss.13.1.3 At one time a certain monk, rising up from spending the rains among the people of Kāsī, and going to Sāvatthī for the sake of seeing the lord, Vin.3.181 arrived at Kiṭāgiri. Then this monk getting up early and taking his bowl and robe entered Kiṭāgiri for alms-food. He was pleasing whether he was approaching or departing, whether he was looking before or looking behind, whether he was drawing in or stretching out (his arm),[41] his eyes were cast down, he was possessed of pleasant behaviour.[42]

People seeing this monk, spoke thus:

“Who can this be like an idiot of idiots, like a fool of fools, like a very supercilious person?[43] Who will go up to him and give him alms? Our masters, the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are polite,[44] genial, pleasant of speech, beaming with smiles, saying: ‘Come, you are welcome.’ They are not supercilious, they are easily accessible, they are the first to speak.[45] Therefore alms should be given to these.”

A certain lay follower saw that monk wandering in Kiṭāgiri for alms; seeing that monk he approached him, and having approached and greeted him, he said:

“Honoured sir, are alms obtainable?”

BD.1.319 “Alms are not obtainable, your reverence,” he said.

“Come, honoured sir, we will go to my house.”

Bu-Ss.13.1.4 Then the lay follower having taken this monk to his house and made him eat, said:

“Where, honoured sir, will the master go?”

“I will go to Sāvatthī, your reverence, to see the lord,” he said.

“Then, honoured sir, in my name salute the lord’s feet with your head and say: ‘Lord, the residence at Kiṭāgiri has been corrupted. At Kiṭāgiri are residing unscrupulous, depraved monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu. These indulge in the following bad habits … they indulge in a variety of bad habits. Lord, those men who formerly had faith and were virtuous now have no faith and are not virtuous. Those who formerly were chaṇṇels for gifts[46] to the Order are now cut off; they neglect the well-behaved monks, and the depraved monks stay on. It were good, lord, if the lord would send monks to Kiṭāgiri, so that this residence in Kiṭāgiri may be settled.”[47]


Bu-Ss.13.1.5 “Very well, your reverence,” and that monk having answered and rising up from his seat, departed for Sāvatthī. In due course he approached Sāvatthī, the Jeta Grove and Anāthapindika’s park and the lord; and having approached and greeted the lord, he sat down to one side. It is usual for enlightened ones, for lords, to exchange greetings with in-coming monks. So the lord said to this monk:

“I hope, monk, that it is going well with you, I hope that you are keeping going, I hope that you have accomplished your journey with but little fatigue. And where do you come from, monk?”

“Things go well, lord, I am keeping going, lord, and I, lord, Vin.3.182 accomplished my journey with but little BD.1.320 fatigue. Now, I, lord, having spent the rains among the people of Kāsī, and coming to Sāvatthī for the sake of seeing the lord, arrived at Kitāgiri. Then I, lord, rising up early, and taking my bowl and robe, entered Kitāgiri for alms-food. Then, lord, a certain lay follower saw me as I was wandering in Kitāgiri for alms-food, and seeing me he approached, and having approached and greeted me, he said: ‘Are alms obtainable, honoured sir?’ ‘No, your reverence, alms are not obtainable,’ I said. ‘Come, honoured sir, we will go to my house,’ he said. Then, lord, that lay follower, taking me to his house and feeding me, said: ‘Where, honoured sir, will the master go?’ I said: ‘Your reverence, I will go to Sāvatthī for the sake of seeing the lord.’ Then he said … ‘may be settled.’ Therefore, lord, do I come.”


Bu-Ss.13.1.6 Then the lord, on that occasion, in that connection, having had the Order of monks convened, asked the monks:

“Monks, is it true as is said, that the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, residing in Kitāgiri, are unscrupulous and depraved and indulge in the following bad habits: they plant small flowering trees … indulge in a variety of bad habits … and those men, monks … and the depraved monks stay on?”

“It is true, lord,” they said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can these foolish men indulge in this kind of bad habit, how can they plant small flowering trees or cause them to be planted? How can they water them or cause them to be watered? How can they pluck them or cause them to be plucked? How can they tie up garlands or cause them to be tied up? How can they make or cause to be made … How can they take or send … How can they eat … How can they drink … sit … stand … eat … drink … run … dance and sing and play musical BD.1.321 instruments and sport … play … train themselves … run … run round facing … how can they whistle and snap their fingers and wrestle and fight with fists, and having spread out their upper robes as a stage, say to a nautch girl: ‘Dance here, sister,’ and applaud and indulge in a variety of bad habits? It is not, monks, for the benefit of unbelievers …” and having rebuked them and given them talk on dhamma, he addressed Sāriputta and Moggallāna:

“You go, Sāriputta[48] and Moggallāna; and having gone to Kitāgiri make an act of banishment[49] from Kiṭāgiri against those monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu; these are fellow monks of yours.”[50]

They said: “Lord, how can we Vin.3.183 make an act of banishment from Kitāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu? These monks are violent and rough.”

“Then, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, go together with many monks.”

“Very well, lord,” Sāriputta and Moggallāna answered the lord.


Bu-Ss.13.1.7 “And this, monks, is how it should be done. First, the monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu should be reproved; having been reproved they should be reminded; having been reminded they should be accused of the offence; having been accused of the offence, the Order should be informed through an experienced, competent monk: ‘Let the Order listen to me, honoured sirs. These monks who are followers of BD.1.322 Assaji and Punabbasu are those who bring a family into disrepute, they are of evil conduct; their evil conduct is seen and also heard, and respectable families corrupted by them are seen and also heard. If it seems the right time for the Order, let the Order make an act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, so that the monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu may not be in Kiṭāgiri. This is the motion. Let the Order listen to me, honoured sirs. These monks who are … seen and also heard. The Order issues an act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu so that the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu may not be in Kiṭāgiri. If it seems good to the venerable ones to make an act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu so that the monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu may not be in Kiṭāgiri, then be silent; if it does not seem good (to you) then you should speak. A second time I speak forth this matter … And a third time do I speak forth this matter: Let the Order listen to me … should speak. By the Order there has been made an act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu so that the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu may not be in Kiṭāgiri. If it seems good to the Order, then be silent; so do I understand.’


Bu-Ss.13.1.8 Then[51] Sāriputta and Moggallāna, at the head of a company of monks, having gone to Kiṭāgiri made an act of banishment from Kiṭāgiri against the monks who were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, so that the monks who were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu might not be in Kiṭāgiri. The act of banishment having been made by the Order, these did not conduct them BD.1.323 selves properly,[52] nor did they become subdued,[53] nor did they mend their ways,[54] they did not ask the monks for forgiveness,[55] they cursed them,[56] they reviled them,[57] they offended by following a wrong course through desire, by following a wrong course through hatred, by following a wrong course through stupidity, by following a wrong course through fear[58]; and they went away, and they left the Order.[59]

Those who were modest monks became angry … and annoyed, and said: “How can the monks who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, banished by the BD.1.324 Order, not conduct themselves properly, not become subdued, not mend their ways? Vin.3.184 Why do they not ask for forgiveness from the monks? Why do they curse and revile them? Why do they, following a wrong course through desire, hatred, stupidity and fear, go away and leave the Order?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord.[60]

He asked: “Is it true as is said, monks, that the monks who are the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, having been banished by the Order, do not conduct themselves properly … leave the Order?”

“It is true, lord,” they said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying …“And thus, monks, this course of training should be set forth:

If a monk lives depending on a certain village or little town, and is one who brings a family into disrepute and is of depraved conduct, and if his evil conduct is seen and heard, and families corrupted by him are seen and also heard, let that monk be spoken to thus by the monks: ‘The venerable one is one who brings families into disrepute, and is of depraved conduct. The venerable one’s depraved doings are seen and heard, and families corrupted by the venerable one are seen and also heard. Let the venerable one depart from this residence; you have lived here long enough.’ And if this monk having been spoken to thus by the monks should say to these monks: ‘The monks are followers of desire and the monks are followers of hatred and the monks are followers of stupidity and the monks are followers of fear; they banish some for such an offence, they do not banish others’—this monk should be spoken to thus by the monks: ‘Venerable one, do not speak thus. The monks are not followers of desire and the monks are not followers of hatred and the monks are not followers of stupidity and the monks are not followers BD.1.325 of fear. The venerable one is one who brings families into disrepute and is of depraved conduct. The depraved doings of the venerable one are seen and heard, and families corrupted by the venerable one are seen and also heard. Let the venerable one depart from this residence; the venerable one has dwelt in this residence long enough.’ If this monk, when spoken to thus by the monks, should persist as before, that monk should be admonished up to three times by the monks for giving up his course. If after being admonished up to three times, he gives up that course, it is good. If he does not give it up, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.13.2.1 A monk (is dependent on) a certain village or a little town means: a village and a little town and a city, and thus a village and a little town.

Lives depending on means: there they are dependent for the requisites of robes, alms-food, lodgings and medicine for the sick.

A family means: there are four kinds of families: a noble family, a brahmin Vin.3.185 family, a merchant family, a low-caste family.[61]

One who brings a family into disrepute means: he brings families into disrepute by means of a flower[62] or a fruit[63] or with chunam or clay or with a toothpick or with bamboo or with medical treatment[64] or with going messages on foot.[65]

BD.1.326 Of depraved conduct means: he plants or causes to be planted a little flowering tree; he waters it and causes it to be watered; he plucks it and causes it to be plucked; he ties up garlands and causes them to be tied up.

Are seen and also heard means: those who are face to face with them see; those who are absent hear.

Families corrupted by him means: formerly they had faith, now thanks to him they are without faith; having been virtuous, now they are without virtue.

Are seen and also heard means: those who are face to face with them see; those who are absent hear.

That monk means: that monk who brings a family into disrepute.

By the monks means: by other monks; these see, these hear; it should be said by these: ‘The venerable one is one who brings families into disrepute and is of depraved conduct; the venerable one’s depraved conduct … has lived here long enough.’ And if the monk being spoken to thus by the monks should say: ‘… they do not banish others’.

This monk means: this monk against whom proceedings have been taken.

By the monks means: by other monks; these see, these hear; it should be said by these: ‘Do not, venerable one, speak thus … the venerable one has lived here long enough.’ A second time should they say … A third time should they say … if he gives up the course that is good; if he does not give it up it is an offence of wrong-doing. If, having heard, they do not speak, there is an offence of wrong-doing. That monk having been drawn into the middle of the Order, should be told: ‘Do not, venerable one, speak thus … you have lived here long enough.’ A second time he should be told … A third time he should be told … if he gives up his course it is good, but if he does not give it up there is an offence of wrong-doing.

That monk should be admonished. The Order should be informed through an experienced, competent monk: ‘Let the Order listen to me, honoured sirs. This monk, BD.1.327 so and so banished by an act of the order, makes the monks fall into wrong courses by following desire, by following hatred, by following confusion, by following fear; and he does not give up his course. If it seems the right time to the Order, let the Order admonish this monk for the sake of giving up his course. This is the motion. Let the Order listen to me … Thus do I understand.’

According to the motion there is an offence of wrong-doing … grave offences subside.

An offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order means: the Order places him on probation on account of his offence, it sends him back to the beginning, it inflicts the mānatta discipline, it rehabilitates; it is not many people, it is not Vin.3.186 one man, therefore it is called an offence which in the earlier as well as in the later stages requires a formal meeting of the Order. A synonym for this class of offence is a work; therefore, again, it is called an offence which in the earlier as well as in the later stages entails a formal meeting of the Order.[66]


Bu-Ss.13.3.1 Thinking a legally valid act to be a legally valid act, he does not give it up—there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Being in doubt as to whether it is a legally valid act … Not thinking an act which is legally valid to be an act which is not legally valid, is an offence of wrong-doing.[67]


Bu-Ss.13.3.2 It is not an offence if he is not admonished, if he gives it up, if he is mad, if he is a beginner.


Told is the Thirteenth Offence entailing a Formal meeting of the Order: that of bringing families into disrepute


BD.1.328 The thirteen matters which require a formal meeting of the Order have been set down, venerable ones—nine which become offences at once,[68] and four which are not completed until the third admonition.[69]

If a monk offends against one or other of these, for as many days as he knowingly conceals his offence,[70] for so many days should probation be spent by this monk, even against his will.[71] When this monk has spent his probation, a further six days are to be allowed for the monk’s mānatta discipline. If, when the monk has performed the mānatta discipline, the company of monks numbers twenty, that monk may be rehabilitated.[72] But if the Order of monks should rehabilitate that monk when numbering less than twenty even by one, that monk is not rehabilitated and these monks are blameworthy. This is the proper course there. Now I ask the venerable ones: I hope that you are pure in this matter?[73] A second time I ask: I hope that you are pure in this matter? A third time I ask: I hope that you are pure in this matter? The venerable ones are pure in this matter, therefore they are silent. Thus do I understand.[74]


Told are the thirteen.

The summary of this is:

Emission and bodily contact;
lewd talk and one’s own pleasure,
Acting as a go-between; and a hut, and a vihāra;
without foundation,
BD.1.329 And some point, and a schism, even siding in with,
Difficult to speak to, and bringing a family into disrepute—
these are the thirteen offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

Told are the thirteen sections Vin.3.187

Footnotes and references:

1.

This whole passage = Vin.2.10ff.

2.

Vin-a.614, “they were the foremost of the sixfold group of monks”—the bad group, often giving trouble. ‘They say, ‘alms in the countryside are now abundant, now short. Let us not live in one place but in three places.’ So they chose Kāsī of the kingdom of Kosala, Aṅga of the kingdom of Magadha, and Kiṭāgiri. They did things not to be done and neglected the courses of training which had been set forth. So they are called ‘unscrupulous, evil monks.’” At Vin-a.579 (on Vin.3.160) it is said that Mettiya and Bhummajaka are the leaders of the sixfold group.

3.

āvāsika. Vin-a.613, āvāso ti vihāro. “Avāsikā are those to whom this āvāsa belongs, for they have the care of the new buildings and the repairs to the old: these are the residents. Those who only stay in a vihāra are called inmates (nevāsika), but these were residents (āvāsikā).” MN-a.3.187 defines āvāsikā as nibandhavāsino, “continual dwellers.”

4.

Vin-a.613, “that was the name of the countryside,” while MN-a.3.186 says, “that was the name of the township.”

5.

ekatovanṇṭikamāla. Vin-a.617, “a garland made with the stalks on one side of the flowers.”

6.

ubhatovantikamāla. Vin-a.617, “a garland made with the stalks of the flowers on both sides.”

7.

manjarika. Vin-a.617, “an arrangement of flowers.”

8.

vidhutika. Vin-a.617, “It is done by piercing the flowers of the Yitex negundo tree (sinduvara) with a needle or small stick.”

9.

vaṭaṃsaka. The commentary is of no use here. Sometimes as at Vv.38 an ear-ornament = kaṇṇikā, Vv-a.174. But here next item, āveḷa = kaṇṇikā Vin-a.617.

10.

uracchada. Vin-a.617, “floral garlands like a hāra to be put on the breast.”

11.

Vin-a.620, “they lie down on.”

12.

attharaṇa, literally strewing, spreading (neutral). Hence probably a mat or rug, or even something spread over them, some cover.

13.

Vin-a.620, “when a nautch-girl dances, they go dancing in front of her or behind her.”

14.

For these games cf. DN.i.6ff., and see Dialogues of the Buddha 1.11ff. for discussions on the terms.

15.

aṭṭhapada. Vin-a.620, “they play at dice on the chequered board,” having eight squares on each side.

16.

dasapada—i.e., a board with ten squares on each side. The commentary on this passage to “deformities,” below = DN-a.1.85f..

17.

Vin-a.620, “as they play on the dice or draught board, so they play in space.”

18.

parihārapatha. Vin-a.62 = DN-a.1.85, “having drawn a circle with various lines on the ground, there they play avoiding the line to be avoided.”

19.

santikāya kīḷanti. Vin-a.621, “putting together chessmen and little stones into heaps, they move them away and put (new ones) with the nails without letting them tremble; but if one trembles there is defeat.”

20.

ghaṭikena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, “they move about hitting a short stick with a long stick.”

21.

salākahatthena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621 = moistening the brush-hand in crimson lac or in floury water, and beating it on the ground or on a wall, he says, “‘What shall it be?’ and they play showing the form required”—elephants and horses.

22.

akkhena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, guḷena, with a ball. Critical Pali Dictionary says akkha is a die.

23.

paṅgacīrena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, “they play blowing that leafy pipe.”

24.

vaṅkakena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, “they play with the plaything, the small plough of village boys.” Variant readings caṅgakena, vaṅgakena.

25.

mokkhacikāya kīḷanti, derivation extremely obscure, see article Pali-English Dictionary and Journal of the Pali Text Society 1885, p.49. Vin-a.621 says “it is called a game of rolling about (samparivattaka)” (cf. Ja.2.142). “Holding a stick in the air, and putting the head on the ground, they play turning about by being upside down.” At Vin.1.275 the son of a great merchant disabled himself by playing this way. See also Vinaya Texts ii.184, n.

26.

ciṅgulakena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, “a wheel that is made of the leaves of palm-trees and so on; the wheel reels round at a breath of wind—they play with this.” On ciṅgulaka see Journal of the Pali Text Society 1885, p.50.

27.

pattāḷhakena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, pattāḷhakam vuccati paṇṇanāḷikā, and it also says, “they play measuring the leafy pipe with this sand and so on.” On the measures, āḷhaka and nāḷikā, see above, BD.1.103.

28.

rathakena, Vin-a.621, with a little cart.

29.

dhanukena kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, “with a little bow.” These last six and “tip-cat” are given as examples of childish games at MN.i.266 = AN.v.203 = Mil.230.

30.

akkharikāya kīḷanti, Vin-a.621, “they play the game of recognising syllables in the air or on their backs.”

31.

manesikāya, Vin-a.621, “they play the game of knowing the mind and thoughts.”

32.

yathāvajjena kīḷanti. This means the blind, the lame, the deformed and so on: imitating that which is a deformity, they play the game of exhibiting it.

33.

Vin-a.621, “they learn the learning which is to be learnt for the (craft and care) of elephants” and horses.

34.

Vin-a.621, “they learn the learning which is to be learnt for the (craft and care) of elephants” and horses.

35.

dhāvanti pi ādhāvanti, Vin-a.621, dhāvanti pī tiparammukhā gacchantā dhāvanti. Ādhāvanti pī ti yattakaṃ dhāvanti tattakaṃ eva abhimukhā puna āgacchantā ādhāvanti.

36.

usseḷhenti. So far this word appears only to come here and at the parallel passage, Vin.2.10. The translators at Vinaya Texts ii.349, n.1, “are quite uncertain how to render this word.” I admit I do not agree with their rendering, “they used to exhibit signs of anger,” as I think that all these activities were entered upon in a friendly spirit. See Pali-English Dictionary under seḷeti; also Morris, Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1885, p.54, who is inclined to think usseḷheti is connected with seleti, and signifies “to shout out.” Snp-a.485 (on Snp.682) explains seḷenti as mukhena usselanasaddaṃ muñcanti.

37.

Here, and at Vin.2.10, appoṭhenti. Pali-English Dictionary gives only apphoṭeti, with meaning of “to snap the fingers or clap the hands.” But at Mil.13, Mil.20 appoṭhe° is given as a variant reading, also apphoṭhe°.

38.

Vin-a.622, “they make a wrestling contest.”

39.

raṅgamajjha; cf. SN.iv.306, Ja.4.495.

40.

nalāṭikam denti, which Pali-English Dictionary says, “gives a frown.” Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.622 says, “they say, ‘Very good, sister,’ and placing their fingers on their own foreheads they then place them on her forehead.”

41.

From “he was pleasing” is more or less stock, cf., e.g., MN.iii.35, MN.iii.90; DN.i.70; AN.ii.104, AN.ii.106, AN.ii.210.

42.

iriyāpatha can mean “good behaviour” besides the postures, of which there are four.

43.

bhākuṭikaṇhākuṭiko. Vin-a.622, “having frowned when he cast down his eyes, they say that he goes about like an angry man with his mouth clenched.” These last two words are in Pali kuṭitamukha, for which there are variant readings saṅkuṭi°, saṅkuci°.

44.

saṇha = nipuṇa. “They greet a lay woman and are not like a fool of fools,” so Vin-a.622.

45.

Cf. DN.i.116 for some of these words.

46.

dānapatha.

47.

saṇṭhaheyya; or, may be put in order, may continue, may be established.

48.

Sāriputtā. Use of karotha and later karoma clearly indicates that both the chief disciples are meant. Cf. Vin.1.351 for similar use of Anuruddhā.

49.

pabbājaniyakamma. This is directed against those who bring families into disrepute.

50.

saddhivihārino. At Vin.2.171 the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu refused to prepare lodgings for Sāriputta and Moggallāna saying that they were men of evil desires. This Assaji is not the same as he who converted Sāriputta and Moggallāna to the teaching of the lord.

51.

Vin.2.13 here has some matter not given at Vin.3.183. But the story continues in Vin.2.14 as above.

52.

Vin-a.625, “they did not do well in the eighteen duties.”

53.

“Through not following a suitable course they are not subdued,” Vin-a.625, and taking the variant reading paṇṇalomā, pannalomā instead of pana na loma, as given in the printed edition of the Vin-a. Pali-English Dictionary says, lomaṃ pāteti means to let the hair drop, as a sign of modesty or subduedness. By this must be meant some analogy with an animal (such as a dog or cat) who, having raised the fur (loma), lets it fall back as a sign of good temper restored. Hence this phrase is almost certainly meant to be taken metaphorically. In Commentary, on Vin.2.5 (see Vin.2.309), where this same expression occurs, Buddhaghosa explains lomaṃ pātenti by paṇṇalomā honti, which means those whose down is flat, not standing up in excitement, and whose minds are therefore subdued. Cf. “he takes up the wrong course,” MN-a.3.153 on MN.i.442.

54.

Na netthāraṃ vattanti. Vin-a.625, “they did not follow the way of the overcoming of self.” Commentary on Vin.2.5, given at Vin.2.309, is fuller: netthāraṃ vattantī ti nittharantānaṃ etan ti netthāraṃ yena sakkā nissāranā nittharituṃ taṃ aṭṭhārasavidhaṃ sammāvattaṃ vattantī ti attho. Same phrase occurs at MN.i.442, translated at Further Dialogues of the Buddha 1.316 “fails to atone,” but this rendering is, I think, too Christian in tone to fit. MN-a.3.153 on MN.i.442 says: na nitthāraṃ vattatī ti nitthāraṇakavattam hi na vattati āpattivuṭṭhānatthaṃ turitaturito chandajāto na hoti., variant reading nitthāra, as at MN.i.442.

55.

Vin-a.625, “‘we have done badly, we will not do so again, forgive us.’ They did not ask for forgiveness.”

56.

Vin-a.625, “They swore at those who did the commission of the Order with the ten expressions of cursing.” These are given at Dhp-a.1.211.

57.

Dhp-a.1.211–212, “They made dread appear in these.”

58.

These are the four so-called agatis. At DN.iii.133 = AN.iv.370, they occur among the nine “Impossibles” (abhabbaṭṭhāna) for a monk who is khīṇāsava. The agati-formula is stock; cf., e.g., Vin.1.283; Vin.2.167, Vin.2.176, Vin.2.177; Vin.3.238, Vin.3.246; DN.iii.182, DN.iii.228; AN.i.72; AN.ii.18; AN.iii.274.

59.

vibbhamanti. Vin-a.625 says, ekacce gihī honti. Cf. BD.1.60, n.3.

60.

Here at Vin.3.184, the next normal step is omitted: “Then the lord on that occasion, in that connection, having convened the Order of monks, asked the monks.” This is given at parallel passage, Vin.2.14.

62.

Vin-a.626, a monk must not steal a flower from lay followers in order to make a gift or to offer in worship at a cetiya, or to give to people to use in worship; and it is not right to urge people to use flowers in worship.

63.

Vin-a.626, a fruit means his own property, which he can give to his parents and relations; but he must not give his own property or that of others to win favour with families, but to sick men or to lords who have arrived, or to those whose earnings are destroyed.

64.

Vin-a.628, “here it is the art of medical treatment as explained in the Commentary on the Third Pārājika.”

65.

Vin-a.626, “taking up a householder’s order—this should not be done; taking it up and going is a dukkaṭa offence for each step.”

66.

Cf. above, BD.1.196.

68.

paṭhamāpattikā.

69.

yāvatatiyakā: name of the last four Saṅghādisesas, where before punishment can be inflicted, the monks must have been admonished so as to give up their wrong courses, even up to the third time.

70.

Vin-a.629, “for as many days as he knowingly conceals his offence, saying: ‘I have fallen into such and such an offence,’ and does not tell his co-religionists.”

71.

Vin-a.629, taking up probation (parivāsa) it may be spent unwillingly, not under his power.

72.

Abbheti, to rehabilitate after suspension for breach of rules.

73.

I.e., of being at least a group of twenty.

74.

For this passage cf. Vin.4.242.