Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.493:

ब्राह्मणायेव दातव्यं वैश्यायेत्येवमादिषु ।
सम्प्रदानादियोगश्च क्रियामात्रे न कल्पते ॥ ४९३ ॥

brāhmaṇāyeva dātavyaṃ vaiśyāyetyevamādiṣu |
sampradānādiyogaśca kriyāmātre na kalpate || 493 ||

493. If the word (brāhmaṇa) stands for action only in expressions like: “One should give to a vaiśya as to a Brāhmaṇa” its association with the functions of Recipient (Sampradāna) etc. would be inexplicable.


[If it is held that the word brāhmaṇa denotes only the act of studying, then one cannot have expressions like: brāhmaṇavad vaiśyāya dātavyam, brāhmaṇavad vaiśyād adhyetavyam, brāhmaṇavad vaiśye vartitavyam, because a mere action cannot fulfil the functions of saṃpradāna, apādāna and adhikaraṇa. One cannot study from the brāhmaṇa’s act of studying. But if the word denotes a person who studies, all these expressions would be possible.]

It is now stated that this view is also opposed to the Bhāṣya.

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