Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.124.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ब॒ह्वीः समा॑ अकरम॒न्तर॑स्मि॒न्निन्द्रं॑ वृणा॒नः पि॒तरं॑ जहामि । अ॒ग्निः सोमो॒ वरु॑ण॒स्ते च्य॑वन्ते प॒र्याव॑र्द्रा॒ष्ट्रं तद॑वाम्या॒यन् ॥
बह्वीः समा अकरमन्तरस्मिन्निन्द्रं वृणानः पितरं जहामि । अग्निः सोमो वरुणस्ते च्यवन्ते पर्यावर्द्राष्ट्रं तदवाम्यायन् ॥
bahvīḥ samā akaram antar asminn indraṃ vṛṇānaḥ pitaraṃ jahāmi | agniḥ somo varuṇas te cyavante paryāvard rāṣṭraṃ tad avāmy āyan ||

English translation:

“I spent many years within this (altar), preferring Indra I abandon the progenitor; Agni, Soma, Varuṇa,fall (from their power); returning, I protect that kingdom which awaits me.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Progenitor: i.e., the touchwood


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): agniḥ [agni];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ब॒ह्वीः । समाः॑ । अ॒क॒र॒म् । अ॒न्तः । अ॒स्मि॒न् । इन्द्र॑म् । वृ॒णा॒नः । पि॒तर॑म् । ज॒हा॒मि॒ । अ॒ग्निः । सोमः॑ । वरु॑णः । ते । च्य॒व॒न्ते॒ । प॒रि॒ऽआव॑र्त् । रा॒ष्ट्रम् । तत् । अ॒वा॒मि॒ । आ॒ऽयन् ॥
बह्वीः । समाः । अकरम् । अन्तः । अस्मिन् । इन्द्रम् । वृणानः । पितरम् । जहामि । अग्निः । सोमः । वरुणः । ते । च्यवन्ते । परिआवर्त् । राष्ट्रम् । तत् । अवामि । आयन् ॥
bahvīḥ | samāḥ | akaram | antaḥ | asmin | indram | vṛṇānaḥ | pitaram | jahāmi | agniḥ | somaḥ | varuṇaḥ | te | cyavante | pari-āvarta | rāṣṭram | tat | avāmi | āyan

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.124.4 English analysis of grammar]

bahvīḥ < bahu

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“many; much(a); bahu [word]; abundant; long; large; abounding in(p); perennial.”

samā < samāḥ < samā

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“year; samā [word]; Devi.”

akaram < kṛ

[verb], singular, Thematic aorist (Ind.)

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”



“inside; in; antar [word]; midmost; between; among.”

asminn < asmin < idam

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

indraṃ < indram < indra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

vṛṇānaḥ < vṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“choose; ask.”

pitaraṃ < pitaram < pitṛ

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”

jahāmi <

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“abandon; decrease; want; kill; deteriorate; get rid of; exclude; lose; avoid; remove; leave; abandon; neglect; leave; discard; apostatize; discontinue; weaken; abandon; assail; subtract; foreswear; pour away; withdraw; depart; reduce.”

agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

somo < somaḥ < soma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

varuṇas < varuṇaḥ < varuṇa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

te < tad

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

cyavante < cyu

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“fall down; issue; shoot; ejaculate; deviate; banish; drop; dislodge; miss; deprive.”

paryāvard < < paryāvṛt < √vṛt

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

rāṣṭraṃ < rāṣṭram < rāṣṭra

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“kingdom; kingdom; kingship; rāṣṭra [word]; citizenry.”

tad < tat < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

avāmy < avāmi < av

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“support; help; prefer; prefer; like.”

āyan < e < √i

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“come; travel.”

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