Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 8.45.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अयु॑द्ध॒ इद्यु॒धा वृतं॒ शूर॒ आज॑ति॒ सत्व॑भिः । येषा॒मिन्द्रो॒ युवा॒ सखा॑ ॥
अयुद्ध इद्युधा वृतं शूर आजति सत्वभिः । येषामिन्द्रो युवा सखा ॥
ayuddha id yudhā vṛtaṃ śūra ājati satvabhiḥ | yeṣām indro yuvā sakhā ||

English translation:

“Though before powerless to combat, the hero by his might now subdues one surrounded by allies, (ifhelped by those) of whom the ever-young Indra is the friend.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Powerless to combat: ayuddhaḥ = unopposed;prāg ayoddha eva; but, cf. RV 1.32.6


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): triśokaḥ kāṇvaḥ [triśoka kāṇva];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): gāyatrī;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अयु॑द्धः । इत् । यु॒धा । वृत॑म् । शूरः॑ । आ । अ॒ज॒ति॒ । सत्व॑ऽभिः । येषा॑म् । इन्द्रः॑ । युवा॑ । सखा॑ ॥
अयुद्धः । इत् । युधा । वृतम् । शूरः । आ । अजति । सत्वभिः । येषाम् । इन्द्रः । युवा । सखा ॥
ayuddhaḥ | it | yudhā | vṛtam | śūraḥ | ā | ajati | satva-bhiḥ | yeṣām | indraḥ | yuvā | sakhā

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 8.45.3 English analysis of grammar]

ayuddha < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

ayuddha < yuddhaḥ < yudh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“fight; overcome.”



“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”

yudhā < yudh

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“battle; fight; war; combat.”

vṛtaṃ < vṛtam < vṛ

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“surround; accompany; cover; cover; obstruct; check; spread; envelop.”

śūra < śūraḥ < śūra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“hero; cock; śūra; Śūra; Vatica robusta; Plumbago zeylanica; warrior; hero; attacker; lentil; wild boar; lion; dog.”

ājati < āj < √aj

[verb], singular, Present indikative

satvabhiḥ < satvan

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine


yeṣām < yad

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

indro < indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

yuvā < yuvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“young; youthful.”

sakhā < sakhi

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

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