Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 5.31.12

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आयं ज॑ना अभि॒चक्षे॑ जगा॒मेन्द्र॒: सखा॑यं सु॒तसो॑ममि॒च्छन् । वद॒न्ग्रावाव॒ वेदिं॑ भ्रियाते॒ यस्य॑ जी॒रम॑ध्व॒र्यव॒श्चर॑न्ति ॥
आयं जना अभिचक्षे जगामेन्द्रः सखायं सुतसोममिच्छन् । वदन्ग्रावाव वेदिं भ्रियाते यस्य जीरमध्वर्यवश्चरन्ति ॥
āyaṃ janā abhicakṣe jagāmendraḥ sakhāyaṃ sutasomam icchan | vadan grāvāva vedim bhriyāte yasya jīram adhvaryavaś caranti ||

English translation:

Indra, oḥ people, has come to see you, wishing to behold his friend the offerer of the libation; let us creaking stones, for whose rotation the priests hasten, supply the altar.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): amahīyuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): svarāṭpaṅkti;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आ । अ॒यम् । ज॒नाः॒ । अ॒भि॒ऽचक्षे॑ । ज॒गा॒म॒ । इन्द्रः॑ । सखा॑यम् । सु॒तऽसो॑मम् । इ॒च्छन् । वद॑न् । ग्रावा॑ । अव॑ । वेदि॑म् । भ्रि॒या॒ते॒ । यस्य॑ । जी॒रम् । अ॒ध्व॒र्यवः॑ । चर॑न्ति ॥
आ । अयम् । जनाः । अभिचक्षे । जगाम । इन्द्रः । सखायम् । सुतसोमम् । इच्छन् । वदन् । ग्रावा । अव । वेदिम् । भ्रियाते । यस्य । जीरम् । अध्वर्यवः । चरन्ति ॥
ā | ayam | janāḥ | abhi-cakṣe | jagāma | indraḥ | sakhāyam | suta-somam | icchan | vadan | grāvā | ava | vedim | bhriyāte | yasya | jīram | adhvaryavaḥ | caranti

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.31.12 English analysis of grammar]

āyaṃ < āyan < e < √i

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“come; travel.”

janā < janāḥ < jana

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“people; national; man; relative; jan; Janaloka; person; jana [word]; man; attendant; Jana; foreigner; inhabitant; group.”

abhicakṣe < abhicakṣ < √cakṣ

[verb noun]

jagāmendraḥ < jagāma < gam

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“go; situate; enter (a state); travel; disappear; [in]; elapse; leave; reach; vanish; love; walk; approach; issue; hop on; gasify; get; come; die; drain; spread; transform; happen; discharge; ride; to be located; run; detect; refer; go; shall; drive.”

jagāmendraḥ < indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

sakhāyaṃ < sakhāyam < sakhi

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

sutasomam < suta < su

[verb noun]

“press out; su.”

sutasomam < somam < soma

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

icchan < iṣ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“desire; recommend; approve; seek; call; search; try; prefer; love; commend; assent; permit; choose.”

vadan < vad

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“describe; teach; speak; tell; say; call; name; enumerate; declare; diagnose; address; say; pronounce; express; instruct; order.”

grāvāva < grāvā < grāvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“stone; millstone; grindstone; mountain.”

grāvāva < ava



vedim < vedi

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“Vedi; pedestal.”

bhriyāte < bhṛ

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“bring; hold; fill; support; wear; possess; carry; nourish; keep; hire; have; satiate; follow; bear.”

yasya < yad

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

jīram < jīra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

adhvaryavaś < adhvaryavaḥ < adhvaryu

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Adhvaryu; adhvaryu [word]; Yajur-Veda.”

caranti < car

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“car; wander; perform; travel; bore; produce; make; dwell; dig; act; observe; enter (a state); observe; cause; crop; behave; practice; heed; process; administer.”

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