Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 5.31.11

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सूर॑श्चि॒द्रथं॒ परि॑तक्म्यायां॒ पूर्वं॑ कर॒दुप॑रं जूजु॒वांस॑म् । भर॑च्च॒क्रमेत॑श॒: सं रि॑णाति पु॒रो दध॑त्सनिष्यति॒ क्रतुं॑ नः ॥
सूरश्चिद्रथं परितक्म्यायां पूर्वं करदुपरं जूजुवांसम् । भरच्चक्रमेतशः सं रिणाति पुरो दधत्सनिष्यति क्रतुं नः ॥
sūraś cid ratham paritakmyāyām pūrvaṃ karad uparaṃ jūjuvāṃsam | bharac cakram etaśaḥ saṃ riṇāti puro dadhat saniṣyati kratuṃ naḥ ||

English translation:

“He, (Indra), has formerly arrested in battle the rapid chariot of the sun; Etaśa has born away the wheel, and (with it Indra) demolishes (his foes); may he, giving us precedence, be propitiated by our rite.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Etaśa has borne away the wheel: bharaccakram etaśaḥ: etaśaḥ is put for etasaya, he, Indra, has taken the wheel for Etaśa


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): amahīyuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सूरः॑ । चि॒त् । रथ॑म् । परि॑ऽतक्म्यायाम् । पूर्व॑म् । क॒र॒त् । उप॑रम् । जू॒जु॒ऽवांस॑म् । भर॑त् । च॒क्रम् । एत॑शः । सम् । रि॒णा॒ति॒ । पु॒रः । दध॑त् । स॒नि॒ष्य॒ति॒ । क्रतु॑म् । नः॒ ॥
सूरः । चित् । रथम् । परितक्म्यायाम् । पूर्वम् । करत् । उपरम् । जूजुवांसम् । भरत् । चक्रम् । एतशः । सम् । रिणाति । पुरः । दधत् । सनिष्यति । क्रतुम् । नः ॥
sūraḥ | cit | ratham | pari-takmyāyām | pūrvam | karat | uparam | jūju-vāṃsam | bharat | cakram | etaśaḥ | sam | riṇāti | puraḥ | dadhat | saniṣyati | kratum | naḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.31.11 English analysis of grammar]

sūraś < sūraḥ < svar


“sun; sky; sunlight.”

cid < cit


“even; indeed.”

ratham < ratha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

paritakmyāyām < paritakmyā

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

pūrvaṃ < pūrvam < pūrva

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“aforesaid(a); antecedent; previous(a); first; eastern; former(a); pūrva [word]; age-old; anterior; bygone; fore(a); predictive; firstborn; easterly; instrumental.”

karad < karat < kṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist conj./subj.

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

uparaṃ < uparam < upara

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“later(a); future(a); nether.”

jūjuvāṃsam <

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“animate; encourage; impel; inspire.”

bharac < bharat < bhṛ

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“bring; hold; fill; support; wear; possess; carry; nourish; keep; hire; have; satiate; follow; bear.”

cakram < cakra

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“wheel; Cakra; discus; army; cakra; oil mill; cakrikā; cakra; group.”

etaśaḥ < etaśa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Etaśa; horse.”

saṃ < sam


“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

riṇāti < ri

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“free; liberate; run; let go of.”

puro < puras


“ahead; puras [word]; easterly; eastward; east; earlier.”

dadhat < dhā

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

saniṣyati < san

[verb], singular, Future

“win; get; gain.”

kratuṃ < kratum < kratu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; decision; plan; deliberation; intelligence; Kratu; will; kratu [word]; desire; resoluteness; ritual.”

naḥ < mad

[noun], genitive, plural

“I; mine.”

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