Dhutanga, Dhuta-anga, Dhutaṅga: 6 definitions

Introduction

Dhutanga means something in Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

(lit. 'means of shaking off (the defilements)'); 'means of purification', ascetic or austere practices. These are strict observances recommended by the Buddha to monks as a help to cultivate contentedness, renunciation, energy and the like. One or more of them may be observed for a shorter or longer period of time.

"The monk training himself in morality should take upon himself the means of purification, in order to gain those virtues through which the purity of morality will become accomplished, to wit: fewness of needs, contentedness, austerity, detachment, energy, moderation, etc." (Vis.M. II).

Vis.M. II describes 13 dhutangas, consisting in the vows of

  • 1. wearing patched-up robes: pamsukūlik'anga,
  • 2. wearing only three robes: tecīvarik'anga,
  • 3. going for alms: pindapātik'anga,
  • 4. not omitting any house whilst going for alms: sapadānikanga,
  • 5. eating at one sitting: ekāsanik'anga,
  • 6. eating only from the alms-bowl: pattapindik'anga,
  • 7. refusing all further food: khalu-pacchā-bhattik'anga,
  • 8. living in the forest: āraññik'anga,
  • 9. living under a tree: rukkha-mūlik'anga,
  • 10. living in the open air: abbhokāsik'anga,
  • 11. living in a cemetery: susānik'anga,
  • 12. being satisfied with whatever dwelling: yathā-santhatik'anga,
  • 13. sleeping in the sitting position (and never lying down): nesajjik'anga.

These 13 exercises are all, without exception, mentioned in the old sutta texts (e.g. M. 5, 113; A.V., 181-90), but never together in one and the same place.

"Without doubt, o monks, it is a great advantage to live in the forest as a hermit, to collect one's alms, to make one's robes from picked-up rags, to be satisfied with three robes" (A.I, 30).

The vow, e.g. of No. 1, is taken in the words: "I reject robes offered to me by householders," or "I take upon myself the vow of wearing only robes made from picked-up rags." Some of the exercises may also be observed by the lay-adherent.

Here it may be mentioned that each newly ordained monk, immediately after his being admitted to the Order, is advised to be satisfied with whatever robes, alms-food, dwelling and medicine he gets: "The life of the monks depends on the collected alms as food ... on the root of a tree as dwelling ... on robes made from patched-up rags ... on stale cow's urine as medicine. May you train yourself therein all your life."

Since the moral quality of any action depends entirely upon the accompanying intention and volition, this is also the case with these ascetic practices, as is expressly stated in Vis.M. Thus the mere external performance is not the real exercise, as it is said (Pug. 275-84): "Some one might be going for alms; etc. out of stupidity and foolishness - or with evil intention and filled with desires - or out of insanity and mental derangement - or because such practice had been praised by the Noble Ones...." These exercises are, however properly observed "if they are taken up only for the sake of frugality, of contentedness, of purity, etc."(App.)

On dhutanga practice in modern Thailand, see With Robes and Bowl, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (WHEEL 82/83).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Living under a tree is one of the ascetical practices (dhutanga).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Discover the meaning of dhutanga in the context of Theravada from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Dhutaṅga ( “renunciation”) refers to a group of thirteen austerities in Buddhism.

Source: Amaravati: Glossary

(Thai: tudong) special strict monastic observances. Dhutanga bhikkhus are noted for their diligence and impeccability. In Thailand, such monks often undertake the mendicants wandering practice of the Buddhas time - hence the phrase, o wander (or go) tudong.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (D) next»] — Dhutanga in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dhutaṅga : (nt.) an ascetic practice.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dhutaṅga refers to: a set of practices leading to the state of or appropriate to a dhuta, that is to a scrupulous person First occurs in a title suffixed to a passage in the Parivāra deprecating such practices. The passage occurs twice (Vin.V, 131, 193), but the title, probably later than the text, is added only to the 2nd of the two. The passage gives a list of 13 such practices, each of them an ascetic practice not enjoined in the Vinaya. The 13 are also discussed at Vism.59 sq. The Milinda devotes a whole book (chap. VI, ) to the glorification of these 13 dhutaṅgas, but there is no evidence that they were ever widely adopted. Some are deprecated at M.I, 282, & examples of one or other of them are given at Vin.III, 15; Bu I.59; J.III, 342; IV, 8; Miln.133, 348, 351; Vism.59 (°kathā), 65 (°cora), 72 (id.), 80 (definition); SnA 494; DhA.I, 68; II, 32 (dhūtaṅga); IV, 30. Nd1 188 says that 8 of them are desirable.

Note: dhutaṅga is a Pali compound consisting of the words dhuta and aṅga.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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