Civara, Cīvara: 27 definitions

Introduction:

Civara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chivara.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to a “monk’s robe” once commonly worn and made by craftsmen in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The word ‘cīvara’, which occurs often in Buddhist literature for a monk’s robe, is used in this sense in the Nīlamata. Craftsmen and their tools are referred to in the Nīlamata which enjoins upon the inhabitants of Kaśmīra the worship of Viśvakarmā—the originator of all crafts.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Cīvara (चीवर) refers to “one who wears rags”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “Listen, O god, I will explain the excellent vow of Knowledge. [...] (This is true also) of the yogi who bears the Five Insignia, is covered in ashes and naked, or who wears rags (cīvara) and the bark of trees, or is adorned with all the ornaments, or who wears red clothes, or even one who wears whatever he pleases. The teaching of the scripture is that the vow is said to be in accord with the garment the best of adepts may assume”.

2) Cīvara (चीवर) refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Jālandhara (which is in the southern quarter), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight servants (ceṭāṣṭaka): Ali, Cīvara, Raktākṣa, Kṛṣṇa, Pakṣa, Khāṭaka, Somāda, Dhūmaka.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to “mendicant’s rags”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.29-36, while describing the appearance and worship of Rudra]—“The Buddha, the great Yogi, sits on a lotus, [head] bent, listening, and wearing mendicant’s rags (cīvara). [He possesses] beautiful lotus eyes, has a lotus-shaped mark, and is fixed with a jewel. [He is] established in the world, positioned in samādhi, his hands [making the] wish-granting and protection [mudrās]. Deva holds a rudrākṣa and a lotus. Thus, [the Mantrin] should worship and meditate upon Buddha, [who] grants the fruits of mokṣa to women”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to “ascetic clothing”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Putting on ochre garments, carrying a skull, plucking out clumps of hair, maintaining non-vedic religious observances, ashes, ascetic clothing (cīvara) and matted locks, behaving as if mad, [the ascetic practice of] nakedness, [studying] the Vedas, Tantras and so on and the meeting [of learned people] for [reciting] poetry in the assembly: All [this] is exertion for the sake of filling one's stomach and is not the cause of the highest good. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A teacher in Burma who wrote a tika to Janghadasa (sic) (Gv.64). Elsewhere (Gv.67, 74) the same work is ascribed to Vajira.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

N Piece of cloth used by a bhikkhu. Robe (exclusively for a bhikkhu).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to the “robe” worn by the Bhikṣus, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLI. When the Buddha attained bodhi, he knew that Kāśyapa’s robe (cīvara) should be worn by the Buddha, and Kāśyapa’s robe was worth ten myriad ounces of gold. Next, Jīvaka offered the Buddha a chen-mo-ken cotton robe also worth ten myriad ounces of gold. The Buddha asked Ānanda to take this robe away, cut it up and make a cloak out of it. This being done, the Buddha put it on and this outfit differed from all the rest.

However, it was following this event that the Buddha said to the Bhikṣus: “Starting from today, provided that a Bhikṣu mindfully seeks nirvāṇa and turns his back on saṃsāra, I allow him, if he so wishes, to wear a robe (cīvara) worth ten myriad ounces of gold, and I also allow him to eat the food of a hundred flavors”. Therefore at the beginning his robe was different and it was only later that he allowed the Bhikṣus to wear one similar to his. His bowl was unique of its type and he never allowed the Bhikṣus to have a similar one.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Puṣpa (पुष्प) refers to “religious robes”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “Then the Bodhisattva Apāyajaha addressed himself to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: ‘Son of good family, please pacify three evil existences’. [...] Then, the rain of gifts, such as flowers, garlands, incenses, unguents, aromatic powers, religious robes (cīvara), parasols, banners, pennons, five kinds of musical instruments, songs, male servants, female servants, wives, boys, girls, female attendants, horses, elephants, [...] poured down from the open space. [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to “one’s robe”, according to the 2nd-century Meghasūtra (“Cloud Sutra”) in those passages which contain ritual instructions.—Accordingly, “In the end of one’s robe (cīvara-karṇika) a knot must be tied with seven prayers by the prophet of the Law after he has previously made provision for his safety. This ‘Whirlwind’-Chapter, (also) called “The heart of all Serpents,” must be recited. [...]”

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to a “monk’s (head) dress”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Oṃ in the middle of mantra inhabited ground, arisen of the four seeds, yaṃ, etc., a maṇḍala of the great elements, wind, fire, water, and earth, Above that, (arising from) the letter suṃ, is the merumaṇḍala, Above that, on a jeweled lion-throne, lotus, and a lunar-disc, Śrī Vajrasattva, two arms, one face, white color, Holding a vajra (and) vajra-bell, (and) adorned wearing various colors, Bearing a monk’s headdress (cīvaraśirasi cīvara-dhāriṇaṃ), (and) a sapphire Akṣobhya adorned crown, Thus imagine the worshipful guru. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Cīvara.—cf. cīvarika (EI 8); garments of Buddhist monks. Note: cīvara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

cīvara : (nt.) the yellow robe (of a Buddhist monk).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Cīvara, (nt.) (*Sk. cīvara, prob.=cīra, applied orig. to a dress of bark) the (upper) robe of a Buddhist mendicant. C. is the first one of the set of 4 standard requisites of a wandering bhikkhu, vir. c°, piṇḍapāta almsbowl, senāsana lodging, a place to sleep at, gilānapaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhāra medicinal appliances for use in sickness. Thus mentioned passim e.g. Vin.III, 89, 99, 211; IV, 154 sq.; D.I, 61; M.II, 102; A.I, 49; Nd2 s. v.; It.111. In abbreviated form Sn.339; PvA.7; Sdhp.393. In starting on his begging round the bhikkhu goes patta-cīvaraṃ ādāya, The 3 robes are saṅghāṭi, uttarāsaṅga, antaravāsaka, given thus, e.g. at Vin.I, 289. that is literally “taking his bowl & robe.” But this is an elliptical idiom meaning “putting on his outer robe and taking his bowl.” A bhikkhu never goes into a village without wearing all his robes, he never takes them, or any one of the three, with him. Each of the three is simply an oblong piece of cloth (usually cotton cloth). On the mode of wearing these three robes see the note at Dialogues II.145.—Vin.III, 11; D.II, 85; Sn.p. 21; PvA.10, 13 & passim. The sewing of the robe was a festival for the laity (see under kaṭhina). There are 6 kinds of cloth mentioned for its manufacture, viz. khoma, kappāsika, koseyya, kambala, sāṇa, bhaṅga Vin. I.58=96=281 (cp. °dussa). Two kinds of robes are distinguished: one of the gahapatika (layman) a white one, and the other that of the bhikkhu, the c. proper, called paṃsukūlaṃ c. “the dust-heap robe” Vin.V, 117 (cp. gahapati).—On cīvara in general & also on special ordinances concerning its making, wearing & handling see Vin.I, 46, 49 sq., 196, 198, 253 sq., 285, 287 sq., 306=II.267 (of var. colours); II, 115 sq. (sibbati to sew the c.); III, 45, 58 (theft of a c.), 195—223, 254—266; IV, 59—62, 120—123, 173, 279 sq., 283 (six kinds).—A.III, 108 (cīvare kalyāṇakāma); V, 100, 206; Vism.62; It.103; PvA.185.—Sīse cīvaraṃ karoti to drape the outer robe over the head Vin.II, 207, 217; °ṃ khandhe karoti to drape it over the back Vin.II, 208, 217; °ṃ nikkhipati to lay it down or put it away Vin.I, 47 sq.; II, 152, 224; III, 198, 203, 263; °ṃ saṃharati to fold it up Vin.I, 46.—Var. expressions referring to the use of the robe: atireka° an extra robe Vin.III, 195; acceka° id. Vin.III, 260 sq.; kāla° (& akāla°) a robe given at (and outside) the specified time Vin.III, 202 sq.; IV, 284, 287; gahapati° a layman’s r. Vin.III, 169, 171; ti° the three robes, viz. saṅghāṭī, uttarāsaṅga, antaravāsaka Vin.I, 288, 289; III, 11, 195, 198 sq.; V, 142; adj. tecīvarika wearing 3 rs. Vin.V, 193; dubbala° (as adj.) with a worn-out c. Vin.III, 254; IV, 59, 154, 286; paṃsukūla° the dust-heap robe PvA.141; sa°-bhatta food given with a robe Vin.IV, 77; lūkha° (adj.) having a coarse robe Vin.I, 109 (+duccola); III, 263 (id.); A.I, 25; vihāra° a robe to be used in the monastery Vin.III, 212.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

civāra (चिवार).—f n (civā) A clump or cluster of the bamboo called civā. 2 n A kind of grass.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

civāra (चिवार).—f n A clump of the bamboo, call- ed civā. A kind of grass.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).—[ci-ṣvarac ni° dīrghaḥ; cīv-arac vā; cf. Uṇādi-sūtra 3.1]

1) A garment (in general); a tatter, rag; प्रेतचीवर- वसा स्वनोग्रया (pretacīvara- vasā svanograyā) R.11.16.

2) The dress of any mendicant, particularly of a Buddhist mendicant; चीवराणि परिधत्ते (cīvarāṇi paridhatte) Sk.; चीरचीवरपरिच्छदाम् (cīracīvaraparicchadām) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1; प्रक्षालितमेतन्मया चीवरखण्डम् (prakṣālitametanmayā cīvarakhaṇḍam) Mṛcchakaṭika 8.

Derivable forms: cīvaram (चीवरम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).—n.

(-raṃ) The tattered dress of a Baud'dha mendicant, or of any mendicant. E. ci to collect, &c. and varac Unadi aff. cīva-ac vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).— (perhaps from 1. ci by the affixes van + a), n. The tattered dress of a Buddhist mendicant, Mahābhārata 1, 3638; or of any mendicant, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 191, 15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).—[neuter] the dress of a mendicant; poss. vant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cīvara (चीवर):—m. iron filings, [Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa iv, 9, 7]

2) n. the dress or rags of a religious ([especially] Buddhist or Jain) monk, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra ii, 16, 2; Pāṇini 3-1, 20; Mahābhārata i, 36, 38; Mṛcchakaṭikā etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर):—(raṃ) 1. n. The tattered dress of a Bauddha mendicant.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Cīvara (चीवर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Cīvara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Civara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर) [Also spelled chivar]:—(nm) a mendicant’s tattered dress.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Cīvara.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Cīvara (ಚೀವರ):—

1) [noun] (in gen.) any article of clothing; a garment.

2) [noun] torn and hanging clothes; tatters; rags.

3) [noun] the garment of a mendicant.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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