Civara, Cīvara: 14 definitions

Introduction

Civara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chivara.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to a “monk’s robe” once commonly worn and made by craftsmen in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The word ‘cīvara’, which occurs often in Buddhist literature for a monk’s robe, is used in this sense in the Nīlamata. Craftsmen and their tools are referred to in the Nīlamata which enjoins upon the inhabitants of Kaśmīra the worship of Viśvakarmā—the originator of all crafts.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A teacher in Burma who wrote a tika to Janghadasa (sic) (Gv.64). Elsewhere (Gv.67, 74) the same work is ascribed to Vajira.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

N Piece of cloth used by a bhikkhu. Robe (exclusively for a bhikkhu).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Cīvara (चीवर) refers to the “robe” worn by the Bhikṣus, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLI. When the Buddha attained bodhi, he knew that Kāśyapa’s robe (cīvara) should be worn by the Buddha, and Kāśyapa’s robe was worth ten myriad ounces of gold. Next, Jīvaka offered the Buddha a chen-mo-ken cotton robe also worth ten myriad ounces of gold. The Buddha asked Ānanda to take this robe away, cut it up and make a cloak out of it. This being done, the Buddha put it on and this outfit differed from all the rest.

However, it was following this event that the Buddha said to the Bhikṣus: “Starting from today, provided that a Bhikṣu mindfully seeks nirvāṇa and turns his back on saṃsāra, I allow him, if he so wishes, to wear a robe (cīvara) worth ten myriad ounces of gold, and I also allow him to eat the food of a hundred flavors”. Therefore at the beginning his robe was different and it was only later that he allowed the Bhikṣus to wear one similar to his. His bowl was unique of its type and he never allowed the Bhikṣus to have a similar one.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Cīvara.—cf. cīvarika (EI 8); garments of Buddhist monks. Note: cīvara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

cīvara : (nt.) the yellow robe (of a Buddhist monk).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Cīvara, (nt.) (*Sk. cīvara, prob.=cīra, applied orig. to a dress of bark) the (upper) robe of a Buddhist mendicant. C. is the first one of the set of 4 standard requisites of a wandering bhikkhu, vir. c°, piṇḍapāta almsbowl, senāsana lodging, a place to sleep at, gilānapaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhāra medicinal appliances for use in sickness. Thus mentioned passim e.g. Vin.III, 89, 99, 211; IV, 154 sq.; D.I, 61; M.II, 102; A.I, 49; Nd2 s. v.; It.111. In abbreviated form Sn.339; PvA.7; Sdhp.393. In starting on his begging round the bhikkhu goes patta-cīvaraṃ ādāya, The 3 robes are saṅghāṭi, uttarāsaṅga, antaravāsaka, given thus, e.g. at Vin.I, 289. that is literally “taking his bowl & robe.” But this is an elliptical idiom meaning “putting on his outer robe and taking his bowl.” A bhikkhu never goes into a village without wearing all his robes, he never takes them, or any one of the three, with him. Each of the three is simply an oblong piece of cloth (usually cotton cloth). On the mode of wearing these three robes see the note at Dialogues II.145.—Vin.III, 11; D.II, 85; Sn.p. 21; PvA.10, 13 & passim. The sewing of the robe was a festival for the laity (see under kaṭhina). There are 6 kinds of cloth mentioned for its manufacture, viz. khoma, kappāsika, koseyya, kambala, sāṇa, bhaṅga Vin. I.58=96=281 (cp. °dussa). Two kinds of robes are distinguished: one of the gahapatika (layman) a white one, and the other that of the bhikkhu, the c. proper, called paṃsukūlaṃ c. “the dust-heap robe” Vin.V, 117 (cp. gahapati).—On cīvara in general & also on special ordinances concerning its making, wearing & handling see Vin.I, 46, 49 sq., 196, 198, 253 sq., 285, 287 sq., 306=II.267 (of var. colours); II, 115 sq. (sibbati to sew the c.); III, 45, 58 (theft of a c.), 195—223, 254—266; IV, 59—62, 120—123, 173, 279 sq., 283 (six kinds).—A.III, 108 (cīvare kalyāṇakāma); V, 100, 206; Vism.62; It.103; PvA.185.—Sīse cīvaraṃ karoti to drape the outer robe over the head Vin.II, 207, 217; °ṃ khandhe karoti to drape it over the back Vin.II, 208, 217; °ṃ nikkhipati to lay it down or put it away Vin.I, 47 sq.; II, 152, 224; III, 198, 203, 263; °ṃ saṃharati to fold it up Vin.I, 46.—Var. expressions referring to the use of the robe: atireka° an extra robe Vin.III, 195; acceka° id. Vin.III, 260 sq.; kāla° (& akāla°) a robe given at (and outside) the specified time Vin.III, 202 sq.; IV, 284, 287; gahapati° a layman’s r. Vin.III, 169, 171; ti° the three robes, viz. saṅghāṭī, uttarāsaṅga, antaravāsaka Vin.I, 288, 289; III, 11, 195, 198 sq.; V, 142; adj. tecīvarika wearing 3 rs. Vin.V, 193; dubbala° (as adj.) with a worn-out c. Vin.III, 254; IV, 59, 154, 286; paṃsukūla° the dust-heap robe PvA.141; sa°-bhatta food given with a robe Vin.IV, 77; lūkha° (adj.) having a coarse robe Vin.I, 109 (+duccola); III, 263 (id.); A.I, 25; vihāra° a robe to be used in the monastery Vin.III, 212.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

civāra (चिवार).—f n (civā) A clump or cluster of the bamboo called civā. 2 n A kind of grass.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

civāra (चिवार).—f n A clump of the bamboo, call- ed civā. A kind of grass.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).—[ci-ṣvarac ni° dīrghaḥ; cīv-arac vā; cf. Uṇ.3.1]

1) A garment (in general); a tatter, rag; प्रेतचीवर- वसा स्वनोग्रया (pretacīvara- vasā svanograyā) R.11.16.

2) The dress of any mendicant, particularly of a Buddhist mendicant; चीवराणि परिधत्ते (cīvarāṇi paridhatte) Sk.; चीरचीवरपरिच्छदाम् (cīracīvaraparicchadām) Māl.1; प्रक्षालितमेतन्मया चीवरखण्डम् (prakṣālitametanmayā cīvarakhaṇḍam) Mk.8.

Derivable forms: cīvaram (चीवरम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).—n.

(-raṃ) The tattered dress of a Baud'dha mendicant, or of any mendicant. E. ci to collect, &c. and varac Unadi aff. cīva-ac vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).— (perhaps from 1. ci by the affixes van + a), n. The tattered dress of a Buddhist mendicant, Mahābhārata 1, 3638; or of any mendicant, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 191, 15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīvara (चीवर).—[neuter] the dress of a mendicant; poss. vant.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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