Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the four kinds of fe-determining karma (ayus) which is verse 8.10 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 10 of the chapter Bondage of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 8.10 - The four kinds of fe-determining karma (āyus)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 8.10:

नारकतैर्यग्योनमानुषदैवानि ॥ ८.१० ॥

nārakatairyagyonamānuṣadaivāni || 8.10 ||

The life-determining (āyuḥ [āyus]) karma has four subdivisions: life as an infernal being–narakāyuḥ [narakāyu], life as plant and animal–tiryañcāyuḥ [tiryañcāyu], life as a human being–manuṣyāyuḥ [manuṣyāyu] and life as a celestial being–devāyuḥ [devāyu]. (10)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [नारकतैर्यग्योनमानुषदैवानि] नरकायु, तिर्यंचायु, मनुष्यायु और देवायु-ये चार भेद आयुकर्म के हैं।

Anvayartha: [narakatairyagyonamanushadaivani] narakayu, tiryamcayu, manushyayu aura devayu-ye cara bheda ayukarma ke haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The subdivisions of the life-determining (āyuḥ [āyu/āyus]) karma are described next.

In states of existence, like the infernal being, the period of life is indicated by the life-determining (āyuḥ [āyus]) karma. The life in the infernal regions is narakāyuḥ [narakāyus/narakāyu]. The life in the plants and animal world is tiryañcāyuḥ [tiryañcāyus/tiryañcāyu]. The life in the human world is manuṣyāyuḥ [manuṣyāyus/manuṣyāyu]. And, the life in the celestial regions is devāyuḥ [devāyus/devāyu]. That by which an individual lives a long span of life in the infernal regions where there is intense heat and cold is the infernal life-karma. Similarly it must be understood with regard to the rest.

Out of the ten vitalities (prāṇa), the life-duration (āyuḥ-prāṇa) holds the most important place. This is the primary cause of life. As long as life-duration (āyuḥ-prāṇa) is present, the living-being is alive; when life-duration (āyuḥ-prāṇa) is absent, the living-being is dead. Food, etc., are just the helpful causes of maintaining life. The life-determining (āyuḥ [āyus/āyu]) karma is the primary cause of attaining the particular state of existence.

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