Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the subdivisions of deluding karma (mohaniya) which is verse 8.9 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 9 of the chapter Bondage of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 8.9 - The subdivisions of deluding karma (mohanīya)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 8.9:

अनन्तानुबन्ध्यप्रत्याख्यानप्रत्याख्यानसंज्वलन विकल्पाश्चैकशः क्रोधमानमायालोभाः ॥ ८.९ ॥

anantānubandhyapratyākhyānapratyākhyānasaṃjvalana vikalpāścaikaśaḥ krodhamānamāyālobhāḥ || 8.9 ||

There are three, two, nine, and sixteen subdivisions of faith-deluding (darśanamohanīya), conduct-deluding (cāritramohanīya), quasi-passions-feeling (akaṣāya-vedanīya) and passions-feeling (kaṣāyavedanīya) karmas, respectively. The three subdivisions of faith-deluding (darśanamohanīya) karmas are subsidential-right-belief (samyaktva), wrong-belief (mithyātva), and mixed-right-and-wrong-belief (samyagmithyātva). Quasi-passions-feeling (akaṣāyavedanīya) and passions-feeling (kaṣāyavedanīya) are the two kinds of conduct-deluding (cāritramohanīya) karmas. Further, quasi-passions-feeling (akaṣāyavedanīya) are of nine kinds: laughter (hāsya), liking (rati), disliking (arati), sorrow (śoka), fear (bhaya), disgust (jugupsā), female-sex-passion (strīveda), male-sex-passion (puṃveda), and neuter-sex-passion (napuṃsakaveda). Passions-feeling (kaṣāyavedanīya) are of sixteen kinds: the four passions (kaṣāya)–anger (krodha), pride (māna), deceitfulness (māyā) and greed (lobha)–are of four kinds each–that which binds infinitely (anantānubandhī), that which hinders partial abstinence (apratyākhyāna), that which disturbs complete self-restraint (pratyākhyāna) and that which interferes with perfect conduct (saṃjvalana). Thus, deluding (mohanīya) karma is of twenty-eight kinds. (9)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [दर्शनचारित्रमोहनीयाकषायकषायवेदनीयाख्याः] दर्शनमोहनीय, चारित्रमोहनीय, अकषायवेदनीय और कषायवेदनीय-ये चार भेदरूप मोहनीय कर्म के हैं और इसके अनुक्रम से [त्रिद्विनवषोडशभेदाः] तीन, दो, नव और सोलह भेद हैं। वे इस प्रकार से हैं-[सम्यक्त्वमिथ्यात्वतदुभयानि] सम्यक्त्व मोहनीय, मिथ्यात्व मोहनीय और सम्यमिथ्यात्वमोहनीय-ये दर्शन मोहनीय के तीन भेद हैं; [अकषायकषायौ] अकषायवेदनीय और कषायवेदनीय ये दो भेद चारित्र मोहनीय के हैं; [हास्यरत्यरतिशोकभयजुगुप्सास्त्रीपुनपुंसकवेदाः] हास्य, रति, अरति, शोक, भय, जुगुप्सा, स्त्रीवेद, पुरुषवेद और नपुंसकवेद-ये अकषायवेदनीय के नव हैं; और [अनन्तानुबन्ध्यप्रत्याख्यानप्रत्याख्यानसंज्वलनविकल्पाः च] अनन्तानुबन्धी, अप्रत्याख्यान, प्रत्याख्यान तथा संज्वलन के भेद से तथा [एकशः क्रोधमानमायालोभाः] इन प्रत्येक के क्रोध, मान, माया और लोभ ये चार प्रकार-ये सोलह भेद कषायवेदनीय के हैं। इस तरह मोहनीय कर्म के कुल अट्ठाईस भेद हैं।

Anvayartha: [darshanacaritramohaniyakashayakashayavedaniyakhyah] darshanamohaniya, caritramohaniya, akashayavedaniya aura kashayavedaniya-ye cara bhedarupa mohaniya karma ke haim aura isake anukrama se [tridvinavashodashabhedah] tina, do, nava aura solaha bheda haim | ve isa prakara se haim-[samyaktvamithyatvatadubhayani] samyaktva mohaniya, mithyatva mohaniya aura samyamithyatvamohaniya-ye darshana mohaniya ke tina bheda haim; [akashayakashayau] akashayavedaniya aura kashayavedaniya ye do bheda caritra mohaniya ke haim; [hasyaratyaratishokabhayajugupsastripunapumsakavedah] hasya, rati, arati, shoka, bhaya, jugupsa, striveda, purushaveda aura napumsakaveda-ye akashayavedaniya ke nava haim; aura [anantanubandhyapratyakhyanapratyakhyanasamjvalanavikalpah ca] anantanubandhi, apratyakhyana, pratyakhyana tatha samjvalana ke bheda se tatha [ekashah krodhamanamayalobhah] ina pratyeka ke krodha, mana, maya aura lobha ye cara prakara-ye solaha bheda kashayavedaniya ke haim | isa taraha mohaniya karma ke kula atthaisa bheda haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The subdivisions of the fourth, deluding (mohanīya) karma, are described next.

The faith-deluding (darśanamohanīya) karmas are of three kinds. The conduct-deluding (cāritramohanīya) karmas are of two kinds. The quasi-passions-feeling (akaṣāyavedanīya) karmas are of nine kinds. And, the passions-feeling (kaṣāyavedanīya) karmas are of sixteen kinds. (see Fig.-2)

The deluding (mohanīya) karmas are primarily divided into two classes, namely,

  1. the karmas that delude right belief–darśana-mohanīya–and
  2. the karmas that delude right conduct–cāritra-mohanīya.

The former consists of three kinds, subsidential-right-belief (samyaktva), wrong-belief (mithyātva), and mixed-right-and-wrong-belief (samyagmithyātva). It is one with regard to bondage, but it becomes three according to the species of karma. On the rise of wrong-belief (mithyātva), the individual turns away from the path revealed by the Omniscient, becomes indifferent to faith in the true nature of reality and is incapable of discriminating between what is beneficial to him and what is not. When wrong-belief (mithyātva) is restrained by virtuous thought-activity, due to auspicious disposition, it becomes quiescent and no longer obstructs right faith. It is then called subsidential-right-belief (samyaktva). The person in this state is called a right-believer (samyagdṛṣṭi). The perverse attitude–wrong-belief (mithyātva)–when it attains partial cleansing or purification, appears along with its purified state; this is called mixed-right-and-wrong-belief (samyagmithyātva). On the rise of it the attitude becomes mixed, like that arising from the use of the half-cleansed intoxicating grain called ‘kodrava’.

The karmas which delude conduct–cāritramohanīya–are of two kinds, the quasi-passions-feeling (akaṣāyavedanīya) and the passions-feeling (kaṣāyavedanīya). The word ‘quasi’ in quasi-passions (akaṣāya or nokaṣāya) is used in the sense of ‘little’ or ‘slight’. The quasi-passions (akaṣāya) are nine. The rise of which causes laughter is hāsya. The rise of which causes attraction for certain objects is rati. The rise of which causes repulsion for certain objects is arati. The rise of which causes grief or sorrow is śoka. The rise of which causes fear is bhaya. The rise of which causes covering of the faults in the self and unearthing of the faults in others is jugupsā. The rise of which causes disposition typical of a woman is strīveda. The rise of which causes disposition typical of a man is puṃveda. The rise of which causes disposition typical of the neuter gender is napuṃsakaveda.

Sixteen kinds of passions-feeling (kaṣāyavedanīya) karmas are as follows. The passions (kaṣāya) are four, viz., anger (krodha), pride (māna), deceitfulness (māyā) and greed (lobha).

And each of these passions (kaṣāya) is subdivided into four classes:

  1. 1) most malignant, that bind infinitely (anantānubandhī),
  2. 2) highly malignant, that hinder partial abstinence (apratyākhyāna),
  3. 3) malignant, that disturb complete self-restraint (pratyākhyāna), and
  4. 4) mild, that interfere with perfect conduct (saṃjvalana).

Being the cause of endless cycle of worldly existence, wrong-belief (mithyādarśana) is called ‘ananta’, and the passions (kaṣāya) which give rise to such wrong-belief (mithyādarśana) are called anantānubandhī. In presence of apratyākhyāna variety of passions (kaṣāya), the person is able to acquire right faith but is not able to observe even partial-restraint of the householder. In presence of pratyākhyāna variety of passions (kaṣāya), the person is able to observe partial-restraint of the householder but is not able to observe complete-restraint of the ascetic. In presence of saṃjvalana variety of passions (kaṣāya), the person is not able to observe perfect conduct–śukladhyāna–of the advanced ascetic. These, together, make up sixteen kinds of passions-feeling (kaṣāyavedanīya) karmas. (see also sūtra 6-14, p. 250-251)

[Figure 2—{transcription} Divisions of deluding (mohanīya) karmas; Deluding (mohanīya) karmas; Faith-deluding; (darśanamohanīya); Conduct-deluding; (cāritramohanīya); Subsidential right-belief (samyaktva); Wrong-belief; Tattvārthasūtra; (mithyātva); Mixed right and wrong belief (samyagmithyātva); Quasi-passions-feeling (akaṣāyavedanīya); Passions-feeling; (kaṣāyavedanīya); Anger; (krodha); Pride; (māna); Deceitfulness; (māyā); Greed; (lobha) anantānubandhī, that lead to endless worldly existence apratyākhyānāvaraṇa, that hinder partial abstinence pratyākhyānāvaraṇa, that prevent complete self-restraint saṃjvalana, gleaming; that hinder perfect conduct; Laughter; (hāsya); Liking; (rati); Disliking; (arati); Sorrow; (śoka); Fear; (bhaya); Disgust; (jugupsā); Male-sex-passion (puṃveda); Female-sex-passion (strīveda); Neuter-sex-passion (napuṃsakaveda)]

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