Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.620-621:

सादृश्यग्रहणं सूत्रे सदृशस्योपलक्षणम् ।
तुल्ययोरव्ययीभावे सहशब्दोऽभिधायकः ॥ ६२० ॥
वीप्सासादृश्ययोर्वृत्तिर्या यथार्थाभिधायिनः ।
स चायमव्ययीभावे भेदो भेदेन दर्शितः ॥ ६२१ ॥

sādṛśyagrahaṇaṃ sūtre sadṛśasyopalakṣaṇam |
tulyayoravyayībhāve sahaśabdo'bhidhāyakaḥ || 620 ||
vīpsāsādṛśyayorvṛttiryā yathārthābhidhāyinaḥ |
sa cāyamavyayībhāve bhedo bhedena darśitaḥ || 621 ||

620-621. The word sādṛśya mentioned in the sūtra (P. 2.1.6) stands for sadṛśa, (the dharmī and not for dharma only.) When an avyayībhāva is formed of two words expressive of two objects which resemble each other it is the word saha which is expressive of what is similar.

Commentary

Remarks: The indeclinable expressive of the meaning of yathā enters into the compound in the sense of repetition and resemblance and that has been shown separately.

[If thāl, taught in the sense of prakāra really means sādṛśya, why is sādṛśya, mentioned separately in P. 2.1.6 which teaches the formation of avyayībhāva compounds, considering that yathā has already been mentioned before. The reason is that there is really no repetition here, sādṛśya here means sadṛśa. The former is a dharma which presupposes the dharmī, its substratum. The example given is sakhyā sadṛśaḥ sasakhi. In this avyayībhāva, the avyaya is saha which has become sa and stands for the dharmī and not dharma only. As the word so formed expresses the sadṛśa which is something concrete, a substance, it should not really be an indeclinable, but being an avyayībhāva, it is indeclinable according to P. 1.1.41. The avyayībhāva formed in the sense of vīpsā, one of the four meanings of yathā, namely, pratyartham expresses dharma only. So, it can be an indeclinable. No compound of this kind can be formed in the sense of sādṛśya, the fourth meaning of yathā. The sūtra P. 2.1.7. also makes this point clear.]

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