Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.599:

यथा गुडतिलादीनां प्रयोगादेकसंख्यता ।
पाकादेरप्रयोगे तु भिन्नसंख्याभिधीयते ॥ ५९९ ॥

yathā guḍatilādīnāṃ prayogādekasaṃkhyatā |
pākāderaprayoge tu bhinnasaṃkhyābhidhīyate || 599 ||

599. It is like the use of the singular number when the things to be cooked are mentioned and the use of the dual and the plural numbers when they are not mentioned.


[An illustration is now given. Guḍa-tila-taṇḍulānāṃ pākaḥ = the cooking of jaggery, sesame and rice, tāmraḥ palāśeṣu babhūva rāgaḥ = the colour of the palāśa leaves became red. In such sentences, even though because of the plurality of the things to be cooked, the cooking is also understood as being more than one, the word pāka is put in the singular number. When words indicative of the plurality of the things to be cooked or of the substrata of the red colour are not used and only the word pāka or rāga is used, a doubt arises as to whether the cooking relates to one thing only or to many and whether the colour has only one substratum or more than one. In order to resolve the doubt, one has to use the dual or the plural case endings.]

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