Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 9.98.12

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तं स॑खायः पुरो॒रुचं॑ यू॒यं व॒यं च॑ सू॒रय॑: । अ॒श्याम॒ वाज॑गन्ध्यं स॒नेम॒ वाज॑पस्त्यम् ॥
तं सखायः पुरोरुचं यूयं वयं च सूरयः । अश्याम वाजगन्ध्यं सनेम वाजपस्त्यम् ॥
taṃ sakhāyaḥ purorucaṃ yūyaṃ vayaṃ ca sūrayaḥ | aśyāma vājagandhyaṃ sanema vājapastyam ||

English translation:

“May you and we, intelligent friends, eat the bright Soma fragrant and invigorating, may we obtain food and dwellings.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): ambarīṣa ṛjiṣvā ca;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pavamānaḥ somaḥ ;
Chandas (meter): virāḍanuṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तम् । स॒खा॒यः॒ । पु॒रः॒ऽरुच॑म् । यू॒यम् । व॒यम् । च॒ । सू॒रयः॑ । अ॒श्याम॑ । वाज॑ऽगन्ध्यम् । स॒नेम॑ । वाज॑ऽपस्त्यम् ॥
तम् । सखायः । पुरःरुचम् । यूयम् । वयम् । च । सूरयः । अश्याम । वाजगन्ध्यम् । सनेम । वाजपस्त्यम् ॥
tam | sakhāyaḥ | puraḥ-rucam | yūyam | vayam | ca | sūrayaḥ | aśyāma | vāja-gandhyam | sanema | vāja-pastyam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 9.98.12 English analysis of grammar]

taṃ < tam < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

sakhāyaḥ < sakhi

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

purorucaṃ < purorucam < puroruc

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

yūyaṃ < yūyam < tvad

[noun], nominative, plural


vayaṃ < vayam < mad

[noun], nominative, plural

“I; mine.”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

sūrayaḥ < sūri

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


aśyāma <

[verb], plural, Aorist optative

“get; reach; enter (a state).”

vājagandhyaṃ < vājagandhyam < vājagandhya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

sanema < san

[verb], plural, Aorist optative

“win; get; gain.”

vājapastyam < vāja

[noun], masculine

“prize; Vāja; reward; reward; Ribhus; vigor; strength; contest.”

vājapastyam < pastyam < pastyā

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“river; dwelling.”

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