Kapalikarana, Kapālīkaraṇa, Kapali-karana: 2 definitions

Introduction:

Kapalikarana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Kapalikarana in Yoga glossary
Source: Google Books: Roots of Yoga

Kapālīkaraṇa (कपालीकरण) refers to the “skull technique” according to Hemacandra in his auto-commentary on the 11th-century Yogaśāstra.—Hemacandra describes further āsanans, including non-seated postures such as duryodhanāsana (named after one of the protagonists of the Mahābhārata), a headstand position which is said also to be known as “the skull technique” (kapālīkaraṇa). This name for the headstand does not resurface until the eighteenth century, when it is found in a manuscript of the Siddhāntamuktāvalī (a long recension of the Haṭhapradīpikā), the Jogpradīpakā and the account of Puran Puri.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Kapalikarana in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kapālīkaraṇa (कपालीकरण) or Kapālīkaraṇāsana is the name of a posture (āsana), according to chapter 2.1 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “the elephant of kings (i.e., Vimalavāhana) dismounted from the elephant’s shoulder and entered the garden, like a lion a mountain-cave. [...] He saw monks there, too, some in the [viz., kapālīkaraṇa-posture, ...] some engaged in kāyotsarga, and some in ukṣa-posture, indifferent to the body, who had carried out their vows in the midst of numerous attacks, like soldiers in battles, victorious over internal enemies, enduring trials, powerful from penance and meditation [...] The King, with devotion sprouted in the guise of horripilation, as it were, approached Ācārya Arindama and paid homage to him”.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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