Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.428:

व्याघ्रशब्दो यदा शौर्यात् पुरुषार्थोऽवतिष्ठते ।
तदाधिकरणाभेदात् समासस्यास्ति सम्भवः ॥ ४२८ ॥

vyāghraśabdo yadā śauryāt puruṣārtho'vatiṣṭhate |
tadādhikaraṇābhedāt samāsasyāsti sambhavaḥ || 428 ||

428. When the word vyāghra refers to the meaning of the word puruṣa because of the quality of courage (existing in both), then the formation of the compound becomes possible as the two constituents do not refer to two different objects.

Commentary

Now the points mentioned in the M. Bhā. on P. 2.1.56 are explained.

[Read verse 428 above]

[P. 2.1.56 teaches the formation of a compound of a word expressive of the object of comparison with one of the words in the group beginning with vyāghra, provided that the word expressive of the common attribute is not used. 1 hus in the sense of puruṣo'yaṃ vyāghra iva śūraḥ we cannot say puruṣavyāghraḥ śūraḥ. In puruṣavyāghraḥ the first constituent stands for the object of comparison and the second constituent for the standard of comparison. Thus, the two words do not stand for the same object, they are not samānādhikaraṇa and yet the compound has been formed even though the rule is given in the section dealing with samānādhikaraṇa compounds. How? If the word vyāghra is understood as referring to the puruṣa due to superimposition based on common qualities, then both the words refer to the same object and the compound becomes possible.]

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