Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.604:

एकस्यापि प्रतीयते भिन्ना प्रतिकृतिः सह ।
काश्यपस्येति तेनायं प्रत्येकमवतिष्ठते ॥ ६०४ ॥

ekasyāpi pratīyate bhinnā pratikṛtiḥ saha |
kāśyapasyeti tenāyaṃ pratyekamavatiṣṭhate || 604 ||

604. The different images might be understood as similar to one Kāśyapa. Therefore, it (the standard of comparison) is connected with each object of comparison.


[Kāśyapa iva imāḥ pratikṛtayaḥ Kāśyapāḥ = these images are Kāśyapāḥ because they are like Kāśyapa. Here the singular number is used after the word expressive of the standard of comparison. One might, therefore, understand that, just as the elephants are similar to Garuḍa when arranged in his shape, in the same way, the many images are similar to Kāśyapa because of some shape or mode of being in him. One would not understand that for each image, Kāśyapa is the standard of comparison. In order that it may be understood, the word Kāśyapa must be connected with each image, the object of comparison, separately. Before, it was said that when the word expressive of the object of comparison is not used, the standard of comparison becomes diversified, in order that the diversity of the object of comparison may be understood. Here it is stated that, when the word expressive of the object of comparison is used, the standard of comparison, being separate in each case, it is presented as many from the very beginning, in order that one may understand that each object of comparison is compared to a separate standard of comparison.]

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