Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 2.284:

ऋष्यादौ प्राप्तसंस्कारो यः शब्दोऽन्येन युज्यते ।
तत्रान्तरङ्गः संस्कारो बाह्येऽर्थे न निवर्तते ॥ २८४ ॥

ṛṣyādau prāptasaṃskāro yaḥ śabdo'nyena yujyate |
tatrāntaraṅgaḥ saṃskāro bāhye'rthe na nivartate || 284 ||

284. A word which attains its correct form as the name of a Ṛṣi and is then applied to denote something else does not lose its inner correctness of form when applied to a different object.


[A word gets its correct form before it enters into a sentence and it-keeps that form even after entering into the sentence in a secondary sense. As the Vṛtti puts it.. .tadā svaviṣaye siddhaḥ saṃskāro bahiraṅgārthaprādurbhāve na nivartate.]

Some deny the distinction between primary and secondary meanings. They are answered as follows—

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