A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 20 - Twenty Strokes

To exhort, persuade, admonish.

勸化 To exhort to conversion, to convert.

勸發 To exhort to start (in the Buddhist way).

勸誡 Exhortation and prohibition; to exhort and admonish; exhort to be good and forbid the doing of evil.

勸轉 The second, or exhortation turn of the Buddha's wheel, v. 三轉法輪, men must know the meaning and cause of suffering, cut off its accumulation, realize that it may be extinguished, and follow the eightfold path to attainment.

勸門 The method of exhortation or persuasion, in contrast with prohibition or command.

Commanding, strict, awe-inspiring, glorious. For 華嚴 v. Twelve Strokes.

嚴淨 Glorious and pure, gloriously pure.

嚴王 i.e. 妙莊王 in the Lotus Sutra.

嚴飾 Gloriously adorned.

Retribution; an illicit son; son of a concubine.

罪孽 Sins, crimes.

ratna, precious, a treasure, gem, pearl, anything valuable; for saptaratna v. 七寶. Also maṇi, a pearl, gem.

寶乘 The precious vehicle of the Lotus Sutra; the Mahāyāna.

寶光天子 Precious light deva, Sūrya-deva, the sun-prince, a manifestation of Guanyin.

寶光明池 A lake in Magadha, where the Buddha is said to have preached.

寶典 The precious records, or scriptures.

寶刹 The precious kṣetra, or Buddha-realm; a monastery.

寶勝 Ratnaketu, one of the seven tathāgatas; also said to be a name for 寶生 q.v.

寶印 Precious seal, or symbol. (1) The second of the triratna, i.e. 法寶. (2) The three evidences of the genuineness of a sutra, v. 三法印. (3) The symbols of buddhas, or bodhisattvas. (4) Their magical 種子, i.e. germ-letters, or sounds.

寶印三昧 The ratnamudrāsamādhi, in which are realized the unreality of the ego, the impermanence of all things, and nirvana.

寶吉祥天 deva of the precious omen, i.e. Candradeva, deva of the moon, a manifestation of Mahāsthāmaprāpta.

寶國 Precious country, the Pure Land.

寶坊 Precious place, or the abode of the triratna, a monastery.

大寶坊 The place between the desire-world and the form-world where Buddha expounded the 大集經.

寶城 The city full of precious things, in the Nirvana Sutra, i.e. the teaching of the Buddha.

寶塔 A stupa, or fane for precious things, or relics; a pagoda adorned with gems; the shrine of 多寶 Prabhūtaratna in the Lotus Sutra.

寶女 kanyā-ratna; precious maidens, one of the seven treasures of the cakravartin; also 玉女.

寶幢 ratnadhvaja; a banner decorated with gems. A deva in the Tuṣita heaven who presides over music.

寶性 The precious nature, or tathāgatagarbha, underlying all phenomena, always pure despite phenomenal conditions.

寶悉底迦 The precious svastika, or sign on Buddha's breast.

寶手 Precious hand, the hand which gives alms and precious things.

寶所 The place of precious things, i.e. the perfect nirvana.

寶林 The groves, or avenues of precious trees (in the Pure Land). The monastery of Huineng, sixth patriarch of the Chan sect, in 韶州典江縣 Dianjiang Xian, Shaozhou, Guangdong, cf. 慧 15. The 寶林傳 and supplement contain the teachings of this school.

寶樹 The jewel-trees (of the Pure Land).

寶池 The precious lake of the eight virtuous characteristics in the Pure Land.

寶沙麽洗 pauṣamāsa, the tenth Indian month, "beginning on the 16th day of the 12th Chinese month." Eitel.

寶洲 The precious continent, or wonderful land of a Buddha.

寶渚 ratnadvīpa; precious islet, island of pearls or gems; synonym for perfect nirvana; also an old name for Ceylon. (Eitel.)

寶王 The Precious King, or King of Treasures, a title of Buddha; the ruler of the continent west of Sumeru, also called 寶主 Jewel-lord, or Lord of jewels.

寶王三昧 The King of Treasures samādhi, achieved by fixing the mind on Buddha.

寶珠 maṇi, a precious pearl, or gem; a talisman; a symbol of Śāriputra.

寶甁 kuṇḍikā, a precious vase, vessels used in worship; a baptismal vase used by the esoteric sects for pouring water on the head.

寶生 Ratnasaṃbhava, one of the five dhyāni-buddhas, the central figure in the southern 'diamond' maṇḍala, The realm of Subhūti on his becoming Buddha.

寶界 The saptaratna realm of every buddha, his Pure Land.

寶相 The precious likeness, or image (of Buddha). ratnaketu, one of the seven tathāgatas; a name of Ānanda as a future buddha; the name under which 2,000 of Śākyamuni's disciples are to be reborn as buddhas.

寶積 ratna-rāśi, or ratna-kūṭa. Gem-heap; collection of gems; accumulated treasures.

寶積三昧 The samādhi by which the origin and end of an things are seen.

寶積佛 Buddha adorned with heaps of treasures, i.e. powers, truths, etc.

寶積經 v. 大寶積經.

寶積長者子 The sons of the elders of Vaiśālī, who are said to have offered canopies of the seven precious things to Śākyamuni in praise of his teaching.

寶筏 The precious raft of buddha-truth, which ferries over the sea of mortality to nirvana.

寶篋 ratna-piṭaka, or ratna-karaṇḍaka; a precious box, or box of precious things.

寶網 Indra's net of gems; also 帝網; 因陀羅網.

寶聚 Jewel-collection; a collection of precious things, e.g. the Buddhist religion.

寶華 Precious flowers, deva-flowers.

寶蓋 A canopy above an image or dais, decorated with gems.

寶藏 The treasury of precious things, the wonderful religion of Buddha.

寶藏如來 Ratnagarha; a Buddha to whom Śākyamuni and Amitābha are said to have owed their awakening.

寶處三昧 The samādhi of the precious place, the ecstatic trance of Śākyamuni by which he dispensed powers and riches to all beings.

寶號 Precious name or title, especially that of buddhas and bodhisattvas.

寶車 The precious cart (in the Lotus Sutra), i.e. the one vehicle, the Mahāyāna.

寶鐸 Bells hung on pagodas, etc.; also 風鐸; 簷鐸.

寶陀巖 Potalaka, the abode of Guanyin, v. 補.

寶雲 Baoyun, a monk of 涼州 Liangzhou, who travelled to India, circa A.D. 397, returned to Chang'an, and died 449 aged 74.

Suspend, hang.

懸曠 Hanging and widespread, e.g. sun and sky, the mystery and extensiveness (or all-embracing character of buddha-truth).

懸記 Prophecy; to prophecy.

懸談 A foreword, or introduction, to be a discourse on a scripture, outlining the main ideas; also 玄懸.

kṣamayati, "to ask pardon"; to seek forgiveness, patience or indulgence, kṣamā meaning patience, forbearance, tr. as 悔過 repentance, or regret or error; also as confession. It especially refers to the regular confessional service for monks and for nuns.

懺儀 The rules for confession and pardon.

懺悔 chan is the translit. of kṣamā, 悔 its translation, i.e. repentance; but also the first is intp. as confession, cf. 提 deśanā, the second as repentance and reform.

懺摩 叉磨 kṣama, kṣamayati, see above; to forbear, have patience with; ask for consideration, or pardon.

懺摩衣 Clothing made of kṣauma, i.e. wild flax.

懺法 The mode of action, or ritual, at the confessional; also the various types of confessional, e.g. that of Guanyin, Amitābha, etc.

懺除 Confession and forgiveness.

A stove, fireplace, censer.

爐壇 A fire-altar.

To offer up, present.

爐身 To offer up one's body as a sacrifice.

markaṭa, 獮猴 a monkey, typical of the mind of illusion, pictured as trying to pluck the moon out of the water; also of the five desires; of foolishness; of restlessness.

獮猴地 獮猴江 The place in Vaiśālī where Buddha preached.

To itch.

癢和子 A back-scratcher; a term for 如意, a ceremonial sceptre, a talisman.

To wrangle, emulate.

竸伽 v. 恒河. Gaṅgā, the Ganges.

竸伽河門 Gaṅgādvāra, the gate of the Ganges. "A famous devālaya, the object of pilgrimages, the present Hurdwar," or Haridwar. Eitel.

To calculate, devise, plan; a tally.

籌量 Reckoning, to reckon and measure.

To continue, inherit, adopt, 相繼; 繼嗣.

To plait, a plait, queue.

辮髮 To plait the hair.

臛臛婆 The third of the cold hells, where the sinner's tongue is so cold that he can only utter the word hehepo or apapa. Also 嚯嚯婆, 阿波波.

Luxuriant, graceful; translit. ai.

藹吉 (藹吉支) v. 毘; idem vetāla.

藹羅筏拏 Airāvaṇa, a king of the nāgas; Indra's elephant; also Elāpattra, v. 伊.

Greens, bean-stalks, etc.; bishopwort, a kind of mint; the tamāla, 多摩羅 (多摩羅跋) Xanthochymus pictorius, Lauras cassia, and other odoriferous shrubs.

藿香 A scent from the above.

Reeds, rushes.

蘆葉達磨 Bodhidharma and his rush-leaf boat in which he is said to have crossed the Yangze.

skandha, v. 塞; older tr. 陰, intp. as that which covers or conceals, implying that physical and mental forms obstruct realization of the truth; while the tr. 蘊, implying an accumulation or heap, is a nearer connotation to skandha, which, originally meaning the shoulder, becomes stem, branch, combination, the objects of sense, the elements of being or mundane consciousness. The term is intp. as the five physical and mental constituents, which combine to form the intelligent 性 or nature; rūpa, the first of the five, is considered as physical, the remaining four as mental; v. 五蘊. The skandhas refer only to the phenomenal, not to the 無爲 non-phenomenal.

蘊落 Any unit, or body, consisting of skandhas.

蘊處界 The five skandhas, twelve āyatana or bases, and eighteen 界 dhātu or elements.

蘊識 The skandha of intelligence, or intellectuation; also intp. as 有情 consciousness, or emotion.

蘊馱南 udāna, v. 優, an expression of joy, or praise; voluntary addresses (by the Buddha).

蘊魔 The evil spirit (or spirits) that works (or work) through the five skandhas.

Refreshing thyme; revive, cheer; Suzhou; translit. su, so, sa, s. Most frequently it translit. the Sanskait su, which means good, well excellent, very. Cf. 須, 修.

蘇伐剌 suvarṇa, gold, v. 金; also 蘇伐羅; 蘇嚩囉 and v. 素.

蘇伐剌拏瞿怛羅 Suvarṇuagotra, a matriarchal kingdom, somewhere in the Himalayas, described as the Golden Clan.

蘇偷婆 Stupa, v. 率.

蘇利耶 sūrya, the sun, also 蘇哩耶; 須梨耶.

蘇囉多 surata, enjoyment, amorous pleasures.

蘇怛羅 sūtra; thread; a classical work 經 especially the sermons or sayings of the Buddha, v. 素 and 修.

蘇悉地 susiddhi, a mystic word of the Tantra School, meaning "may it be excellently accomplished", v. the蘇悉地經 Susiddhi Sutra and 蘇悉地羯羅經 Susiddhikāra Sutra.

蘇揭多 sugata; svāgata; well come, or well departed, title of a Buddha; also 蘇伽多 or 蘇伽陁; v. 修, 沙, 渉, 索.

蘇摩 soma, to distil, extract, generate; the moon-plant, hence the moon; probably wild rhubarb (Stein). The alcoholic drink made from the plant and formerly offered to the Brahminical gods; tr. 神酒, wine of the gods. Also rendered 香油 a sweet-smelling oil.

蘇摩提婆 Soma-deva, i.e. Candra-deva, the moon-deva.

蘇摩蛇 ? Sūmasarpa, a former incarnaton of Śākyamuni when he gave his body as a great snake to feed the starving people.

蘇末那 sumanā. A yellow sweet-smelling flower growing on a bush 3 or 4 feet high, perhaps the 'great-lowered jasmine'; associated by some with the soma plant, saumanā, a blossom; also 蘇摩那; 蘇蔓那; 須摩那.

蘇槃多 subanta, also 蘇漫多, the case of a noun.

蘇槃伐窣多 蘇婆薩都 Śubhavastu, the river Swat.

蘇樓波 surūpa, of beautiful form, handsome.

蘇油 ghṛta, ghee, or clarified butter; scented oil extracted from the sumanā plant.

蘇波訶 svāhā, Hail! A kind of Amen; a mystic word indicating completion, good luck, nirvana, may evil disappear and good be increased; in India it also indicates an oblation especially a burnt offering; the oblation as a female deity. Also 蘇和訶; 蘇婆訶; 蘇呵, also with 沙, 娑, 莎, 薩, 率, ? as initial syllable.

蘇燈 A lamp using butter and fragrant oil; also 酥燈.

蘇盧多波 srota-āpanna 入流 v. 須 and 窣.

蘇跋陀羅 Subhadra, a learned brahmin, 120 years old, the last convert made by Śākyamuni.

蘇迷 (蘇迷盧) Sumeru, "the Olympus of Hindu mythology," M.W. It is the central mountain of every world. Also 蘇彌樓 v. 須.

蘇達多 Sudatta, v. 須 name of Anāthapiṇḍaka.

蘇達拏 Sudāna, name of Śākyamuni as a great almsgiver in a previous incarnation.

蘇達梨舍那 sudarśana, the fourth of the seven concentric circles around Sumeru; also 蘇跌里舍那; v. 修 and 須.

蘇部底 Subhūtti, also 蘇補底; v. 須 and the 般若 sutra.

Wrigglers, crawlers, e.g. worms.

蠕動 To wriggle, etc.

Stockings, socks; also 韈.

bodhi, from bodha, 'knowing, understanding', means enlightenment, illumination; 覺 is to awake, apprehend, perceive, realize; awake, aware; (also, to sleep). It is illumination, enlightenment, or awakening in regard to the real in contrast to the seeming; also, enlightenment in regard to moral evil. Cf. 菩提 and 佛.

覺了 Completely and clearly enlightened; clearly to apprehend.

覺人 An enlightened man who has apprehended buddha-truth.

覺他 To awaken others; to enlighten others.

覺位 The stage of perfect enlightenment, that of Buddha.

覺分 bodhyaṅga, the seven 菩提分q.v.; also applied to the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika, 三十七道品, q.v.

覺城 The walled city of enlightenment, into which illusion cannot enter. Gayā, where the Buddha attained enlightenment.

覺堅 Firm, or secure, enlightenment.

覺如 idem 覺眞如 v. 眞如.

覺山 The mountain of enlightenment, i.e. buddha-truth.

覺岸 The shore of enlightenment, which Buddha has reached after crossing the sea of illusion.

覺心 The mind of enlightenment, the illuminated mind, the original nature of man.

覺性 The enlightened mind free from all illusion. The mind as the agent of knowledge, or enlightenment. Also used for dharmakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc.

覺悟 To awake, become enlightened, comprehend spiritual reality.

覺悟智 Enlightened wisdom; wisdom that extends beyond the limitations of time and sense; omniscience.

覺支 The various branches or modes of enlightenment; for the seven覺支 v. 七菩提分.

覺日 Timelessness, eternity, changelessness, the bodhi-day which has no change. Also 覺時.

覺樹 The tree of knowledge, or enlightenment, the pippala under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, also called bodhidruma and ficus religiosa. To plant virtue in order to attain enlightenment.

覺母 Mother of enlightenment, a title of Mañjuśrī as the eternal guardian of mystic wisdom, all buddhas, past, present, and future, deriving their enlightenment from him as its guardian; also 佛母.

覺海 The fathomless ocean of enlightenment, or buddha-wisdom.

覺王 The king of enlightenment, the enlightened king, Buddha; also覺帝.

覺用 nirmāṇakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc.

覺相 saṃbhogakāya, v. 三身; 三寶, etc..

覺策 To awaken and stimulate the mind against illusion and evil.

覺者 An enlightened one, especially a buddha, enlightening self and others, 自覺覺他.

覺苑 Garden of enlightenment, a Pure Land, or Paradise; also the mind.

覺華 The flower of enlightenment, which opens like a flower.

覺行 The procedure, or discipline, of the attainment of enlightenment for self and others.

覺觀 Awareness and pondering, acts of intellectuation, later called 尋伺, both of them hindrances to abstraction, or dhyāna. They are described as 麤 and 細, general and particular, respectively.

覺道 The way of enlightenment, also 覺路.

覺道支 (覺道) The 七覺 and 八正道 q.v.

覺雄 The lord, or hero, of enlightenment, Buddha; also 世雄.

To butt, strike against; contact. sparśa, touch, contact, collision, the quality of tangibility, feeling, sensation. M.W. Eleven kinds of sensation are given— hot, cold, hard, soft, etc. sparśa is one of the twelve nidānas, cf. 十二因緣, and of the sadāyatana, cf. 六入. It is also used with the meaning of 濁 unclean.

觸因 Touch, or sensation cause, v. 二十五圓通.

觸塵 The medium or quality of touch.

觸指 The fourth and fifth fingers of the left hand which in India are used at stool, the unclean fingers.

觸桶 觸甁 A commode, ordure tub, etc.

觸樂 The pleasure produced by touch.

觸欲 Desire awakened by touch.

觸毒 The poison of touch, a term applied to woman.

觸禮 To prostrate one's hand to a stool, footstool, in reverence.

觸穢 To touch anything unclean and become unclean.

觸鐘 To strike a bell.

觸食 Food made unclean by being touched, or handled; any food soiled, or unclean; the food of sensation, or imagination, mentally conceived.

To warn.

警覺 To warn, arouse, stimulate.

警策 A switch to awaken sleepers during an assembly for meditation.

To translate, 繙譯; 翻譯. An oral interpreter, 傳譯; 譯官.

To compare, allegorize; like, resembling; parable, metaphor, simile.

譬喩 A parable, metaphor; the avadāna section of the canon, v. 阿波; there are numerous categories, e.g. the seven parables of the Lotus Sūtra, the ten of the Prajñā and Vimalakīrti sūtras, etc.

譬喩師 (譬喩論師) Reputed founder of the 經量部 Sautrāntika school, also known as 日出論者.

譬喩量 The example in Logic.

Incoherent talk.

譫浮洲 Jambudvīpa, v. 贍部洲.

To supply; supplied, enough; translit. jam.

贍部 jambū, 'a fruit tree, the rose apple, Eugenia jambolana, or another species of Eugenia.' M.W. Also 贍部提; 閻浮; 剡浮; 譫浮; also applied to Jambudvīpa.

贍部洲 Jambudvīpa. Name of the southern of the four great continents, said to be of triangular shape, and to be called after the shape of the leaf of an immense Jambu-tree on Mount Meru, or after fine gold that is found below the tree. It is divided into four parts: south of the Himālayas by the lord of elephants, because of their number; north by the lord of horses; west by the lord of jewels; east by the lord of men. This seems to imply a region larger than India, and Eitel includes in Jambudvīpa the following countries around the Anavatapta lake and the Himālayas. North: Huns, Uigurs, Turks. East: China, Corea, Japan, and some islands. South: Northern India with twenty-seven kingdoms, Eastern India ten kingdoms, Southern India fifteen kingdoms, Central India thirty kingdoms. West: Thirty-four kingdoms.

贍部金 (贍部) jambūnada, the produce of the river Jambūnadī, i.e. gold, hence 贍部光像is an image of golden glory, especially the image of Śākyamuni attributed to Anathapiṇḍaka.

贍部捺陀金 jambūnadasuvarṇa, the gold from the Jambūnadī river.

To separate out, set free, unloose, explain; Buddhism, Buddhist; translit. śa, śi; also , ḍh.

釋侶 Any follower or disciple of the Buddha; any Buddhist comrade; Buddhists.

釋典 The scriptures of Buddhism.

釋女 The women of the Śākya clan.

釋子 śākyaputriya, sons of Śākyamuni, i.e. his disciples in general.

釋宮 The Śākya palace, from which prince Siddhārtha went forth to become Buddha.

釋家 The Śākya family, i.e. the expounders of Buddhist sūtras and scriptures.

釋帝 Śakra, Indra, lord of the thirty-three heavens; also 帝釋; 釋迦 (釋迦婆) q.v.

釋師 The Śākya teacher, Buddha.

釋師子 The lion of the Śākyas, Buddha.

釋提桓因 Śakro-devānāmindra, 釋 Śakra 提桓 devānām 因 Indra; Śakra the Indra of the devas, the sky-god, the god of the nature-gods, ruler of the thirty-three heavens, considered by Buddhists as inferior to the Buddhist saint, but as a deva-protector of Buddhism. Also 釋羅; 賒羯羅因陀羅; 帝釋; 釋帝; v. 釋迦. He has numerous other appellations.

釋摩男 Śākya Mahānāma Kulika, one of the first five of the Buddha's disciples, i.e. prince Kulika.

釋教 Buddhism; the teaching or school of Śākyamuni.

釋梵 Indra and Brahma, both protectors of Buddhism.

釋氏 The Śākya clan, or family name; Śākyamuni.

釋疑 Explanation of doubtful points, solution of doubts.

釋種 Śākya-seed; Śākya clan; the disciples of Śākyamuni, especially monks and nuns.

釋翅 (釋翅搜) ? Śākyesu, defined as a name for Kapilavastu city; also 釋氏廋.

釋藏 The Śākya thesaurus, i.e. the Tripiṭaka, the Buddhist scriptures, cf. 藏.

釋論 The Prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra; also explanatory discussions, or notes on foundation treatises.

釋輪 Śakra's wheel, the discus of Indra, symbol of the earth.

釋迦 Śākya. the clan or family of the Buddha, said to be derived from śāka, vegetables, but intp. in Chinese as powerful, strong, and explained by 能 powerful, also erroneously by 仁charitable, which belongs rather to association with Śākyamuni. The clan, which is said to have wandered hither from the delta of the Indus, occupied a district of a few thousand square miles lying on the slopes of the Nepalese hills and on the plains to the south. Its capital was Kapilavastu. At the time of Buddha the clan was under the suzerainty of Kośala, an adjoining kingdom Later Buddhists, in order to surpass Brahmans, invented a fabulous line of five kings of the Vivartakalpa headed by Mahāsammata 大三末多; these were followed by five cakravartī, the first being Mūrdhaja 頂生王; after these came nineteen kings, the first being Cetiya 捨帝, the last Mahādeva 大天; these were succeeded by dynasties of 5,000, 7,000, 8,000, 9,000, 10,000, 15,000 kings; after which long Gautama opens a line of 1,100 kings, the last, Ikṣvāku, reigning at Potala. With Ikṣvāku the Śākyas are said to have begun. His four sons reigned at Kapilavastu. 'Śākyamuni was one of his descendants in the seventh generation.' Later, after the destruction of Kapilavastu by Virūḍhaka, four survivors of the family founded the kingdoms of Udyana, Bamyam, Himatala, and Sāmbī. Eitel.

釋迦 (釋迦婆) Śakra.

釋迦提婆因 (or 釋迦提桓) (釋迦提婆因陀羅) Śakra-devendra; Śakra-devānāminindra; v. 釋迦帝 i.e. Indra.

釋迦尊 The honoured one of the Śākyas, i.e. Śākyamuni.

釋迦牟尼 釋迦文 (釋迦文尼); 釋伽文 Śākyamuni, the saint of the Śākya tribe. muni is saint, holy man, sage, ascetic monk; it is: intp. as 仁 benevolent, charitable, kind, also as 寂默 one who dwells in seclusion. After '500 or 550' previous incarnations, Śākyamuni finally attained to the state of Bodhisattva, was born in the Tuṣita heaven, and descended as a white elephant, through her right side, into the womb of the immaculate Māyā, the purest woman on earth; this was on the 8th day of the 4th month; next year on the 8th day of the 2nd month he was born from her right side painlessly as she stood under a tree in the Lumbinī garden. For the subsequent miraculous events v. Eitel. also the 神通遊戲經 (Lalitavistara), the 釋迦如來成道記, etc. Simpler statements say that he was born the son of Śuddhodana, of the kṣatriya caste, ruler of Kapilavastu, and Māyā his wife; that Māyā died seven days later, leaving him to be brought up by her sister Prājapati; that in due course he was married to Yaśodharā who bore him a son, Rāhula; that in search of truth he left home, became an ascetic, severely disciplined himself, and finally at 35 years of age, under a tree, realized that the way of release from the chain of rebirth and death lay not in asceticism but in moral purity; this he explained first in his four dogmas, v. 四諦 and eightfold noble way 八正道, later amplified and developed in many sermons. He founded his community on the basis of poverty, chastity, and insight or meditation, ad it became known as Buddhism, as he became known as Buddha, the enlightened. His death was probably in or near 487 B.C., a few years before that of Confucius in 479. The sacerdotal name of his family is Gautama, said to be the original name of the whole clan, Śākya being that of his branch, v. 瞿, 喬.; his personal name was Siddhārtha, or Sarvārthasiddha, v. 悉.

釋迦獅子 Śākyasiṃha, the lion of the Śākyas, i.e. the Buddha.

釋迦菩薩 Śākya-bodhisattva, one of the previous incarnations of the Buddha.

釋門 The school of Śākyamuni, Buddhism.

釋雄 The hero of the Śākyas, Buddha; also 世雄.

釋風 The custom of Buddhism; also its 'breeze' or progress.

ghaṇṭā, 犍稚 a bell, a chime.

百八鐘 The 108 strokes of the temple bell struck at dawn and dusk.

鐘樓 Bell-tower.

鐼子 xun-zi, a bowl (or bowls) within an almsbowl. Buddha's bowl consisted of four heavy deva-bowls which he received miraculously one on the other; they are to be recovered with the advent of Maitreya; v. 鍵M086767.

A hand-bell, cymbals.

To open, spread, enlarge, expand, expound; translit. chan.

闡提 v. 一闡提 icchantika, intp. as unable to become Buddha (a) because of unbelief, or abandoned character; (b) because of a bodhisattva vow.

闡陀 Chandaka, name of the Buddha's driver when he left home; he became a monk; also 闡那; 闡擇迦; 闡釋迦; 闡鐸迦; 車匿; also a form of metre; poetry; hymns; a style of poetic recitation.

Trouble, sad; poetic, learned; translit. su, s.

騷伽陁 騷揭多 Sugata, v. 修.

騷毗羅 ? parisrāvana, a filtering cloth or bag, v. 鉢里.

To mount, rise; translit. tang.

騰蘭 Tang and Ran, i.e. Mātaṇga (Kāśyapa Mātaṇga) and Gobharaṇa, the two monks brought to China, according to tradition, by Ming Di's emissaries, v. 摩, 迦, and 竺.

A crocodile.

鰐魚 v. kumbhīra.

A stork.

鶖子 (鶖鷺子) Śāriputra, also 秋露子 meaning son of Śārī, his mother; śārī is a kind of bird 'commonly called the Maina'. M.W. It is tr. as a stork. Cf. 舍.

Salty, salted.

鹹水 Salt water.

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