A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 19 - Nineteen Strokes

Translit. kṣi in dakṣiṇā, which means a donation, gift, e.g. 嚫施; 嚫物; 嚫財; 嚫資; 嚫金; 嚫錢 cf. 噠.

Translit. va, ba; cf. 縛; e.g. 嚩日羅 vajra.

嚩泥 v. 婆那 vana.

嚩盧枳諦 Avalokita, cf. 觀 to behold, see.

嚩嚕拏 Varuṇa, the deva of the sky, and of the waters, of the ocean, etc.

Translit. ru, ro, lṛ, lo, v. 廬.

To go to ruin, decay, perish, destroy, spoil, worn out, rotten, bad.

壞劫 saṃvarta, v. 劫 7, the periodical gradual destruction of a universe, one of its four kalpas, i.e. 成 vivarta, formation; 住 vivarta-siddha; abiding, or existence; 壞 saṃvarta, decay, or destruction; 滅 saṃvarta-siddha, final annihilation.

壞山 As the hills wear down, so is it with man.

壞法 Any process of destruction, or decay to burn the bones of a deceased person so that they may not draw him to rebirth.

壞相 The aspect, or state of destruction or decay.

壞色 kaṣāya, cf. 袈 a brown colour; but it is described as a neutral colour through the dyeing out of the other colours, i.e. for the monk's 壞色衣 or 壞衲 rag-robe.

壞苦 The suffering of decay, or destruction, e.g. of the body, reaction from joy, etc.

壞見 Corrupt, or bad views; the advocacy of total annihilation.

壞道 To destroy the truth, or the religion, e.g. by evil conduct.

壞驢車 A worn-out donkey cart; —i. e. Hīnayāna.

v. 寶 20.

A hut, shelter, hovel.

廬舍那 locana; illuminating; one of the forms of the trikāya, similar to the saṃbhogakayā. Also used for Vairocana, v. 毘.

To carry in the bosom, mind, or heart; to embrace, cherish; the bosom.

懷兎 śaśa-dhara, i.e. the hare-bearer, or in Chinese the hare-embracer, moon.

懷靈 Spirit-enfolders, i.e. all conscious beings.

Lazy, negligent, disinclined. 懶惰.

To grasp, drag, pull, detain; climb, clamber.

攀緣 Something to lay hold of, a reality, cause, basis; used for 緣 q.v.

攀覺 Seizing and perceiving, like a monkey jumping from branch to branch, i.e. attracted by externals, unstable.

Spacious, extensive; waste; wilderness; far, long, wide.

曠劫 A past kalpa; the part of a kalpa that is past.

曠野 A wilderness, wild, prairie.

Bright, glistening, flashing, shining; translit. c, ś.

爍羯囉 Śakra, cf. 賒; 釋 name of Indra.

爍覩嚧 cf. 說 śatru, enemy, a demon.

爍迦羅 cakra, a wheel, cf. 斫.

vatsa; a calf, young animal, offspring, child.

犢子 Vatsa, the founder of the犢子部, Vātsīputrīyas (Pali Vajjiputtakas), one of the main divisions of the Sarvāstivāda (Vaibhāṣika) school; they were considered schismatics through their insistence on the reality of the ego; "their failure in points of discipline," etc.; the vinaya as taught by this school "has never reached China". Eitel. For other forms of Vātsīputrīya, v. 跋私; also 婆 and 佛.

An animal, a brute.

獸主 Paśupati, lord of the animals, or herds; Śiva; also name of a non-Buddhist sect. Cf. 畜生 10.

A section, or division (of a melon).

瓣香 Incense with sections resembling a melon.

kumbha, a pitcher, jar, pot.

甕形 Jar-shaped, kumbhāṇḍaka, v. 鳩.

v. 痴 13.

A stumbling-block; hindrance; cf. 障.

A winnowing fan; to winnow.

簸臈復多 prabhūta, abundant, numerous; a yakṣa.

簸利婆羅闍迦 Parivrājaka, a Śivaitic sect; v. 般.

簿 Notebook, register, etc.

簿旬羅 or簿拘羅 Vakula, an intelligent disciple of Śākyamuni. A demon.

String, cord.

繩床 A string-bed.

To fasten, attach to, connect; think of, be attached to, fix the thoughts on.

繫念 To fix the mind, attention, or thought on.

繫珠 A pearl fastened in a man's garment, yet he, in ignorance of it, is a beggar.

繫縛 To fasten, tie; tied to, e.g. things, or the passions; 繫緣 and 繫著 are similar.

A bear.

羆菩薩 The bodhisattva who appeared as a bear and saved a dying man by providing him with food; he told hunters of its lair; they killed it, gave him of its flesh, and he died.

A net (for catching birds), gauze, open work; sieve; to arrange in order; translit. la and ra sounds, e.g. 南羅 S. Lāra; Lāḍa; Lāṭa, in Gujarāt; 北羅 N. Lāra, Valabhī, on the western coast of Gujarāt.

羅刹 (羅刹姿) rākṣasa, also羅叉娑; from rakṣas, harm, injuring. Malignant spirits, demons; sometimes considered inferior to yakṣas, sometimes similar. Their place of abode was Laṅkā in Ceylon, where they are described as the original inhabitants, anthropophagi, once the terror of shipwrecked mariners; also described as the barbarian races of ancient India. As demons they are described as terrifying, with black bodies, red hair, green eyes, devourers of men.

羅刹私 rākṣasī, also羅叉私; 羅刹斯; 羅刹女 Female demons, of whom the names of eight, ten, and twelve are given, and 500 are also mentioned.

羅刹天 The deva controlling these demons, who has his abode in the southwest corner of the heavens.

羅刹國 An island in the Indian Ocean, supposed to be Ceylon.

羅刹羅 akṣara, a syllable, word, letter.

羅十 Kumārajīva, also 羅什; v. 鳩.

羅婆 lava, also 羅預 A division of time, an instant.

羅婆那 Rāvana, king of Ceylon and ruler of the rākṣasas, overcome by Rāmacandra, v. the Rāmāyaṇa.

羅惹 rājan, rāja; king, sovereign, ruler.

羅摩 rāma, delightful, joyful; also the name of a grove, perhaps ārāma, a pleasaunce, garden.

羅摩伽 is tr. as 入法界 entering the realm of the law.

羅摩印度 Helmend a river rising in Afghanistan.

羅縠 A gauze-like ethereal garment.

羅漢 arhan, arhat; worthy, worshipful, an arhat, the saint, or perfect man of Hīnayāna; the sixteen, eighteen, or 500 famous disciples appointed to witness to buddha-truth and save the world; v. 阿.

羅睺 Rāhu, also羅護; 羅虎; "the demon who is supposed to seize the sun and moon and thus cause eclipses." M.W.

羅睺羅 Rāhula, the eldest son of Śākyamuni and Yaśodharā; also羅睺; 羅吼; 羅云; 羅雲; 曷怙羅 or 何怙羅 or 羅怙羅. He is supposed to have been in the womb for six years and born when his father attained buddhahood; also said to have been born during an eclipse, and thus acquired his name, though it is defined in other ways; his father did not see him till he was six years old. He became a disciple of the Hīnayāna, but is said to have become a Mahāyānist when his father preached this final perfect doctrine, a statement gainsaid by his being recognized as founder of the Vaibhāṣika school. He is to be reborn as the eldest son of every buddha, hence is sometimes called the son of Ānanda.

羅睺羅多 Rāhulatta, of Kapila, the sixteenth Patriarch, "who miraculously transported himself to the kingdom of Śrāvastī, where he saw on the Hiraṇyavatī the shadow of five Buddhas"; a sage, Saṅghanandi, was there in meditation and him he appointed as his successor.

羅睺阿修羅 Rāhu-asura, the asura who in fighting with Indra can seize sun and moon, i.e. cause eclipses.

羅被那 ravaṇa, clamorous, demanding.

羅誐 rāga, desire, covetousness.

羅越 Rājagṛha, v. 羅閱.

羅門 brāhmaṇa, v. 婆羅門.

羅閱 Rājagṛha, also 羅閱祇 (羅閱祇迦羅); 羅閱耆; 羅閱揭黎醯; 羅越; 囉惹訖哩呬 The capital of Magadha, at the foot of the Gṛdhrakūṭa mountain, first metropolis of Buddhism and seat of the first synod; v. 王舍.

羅陀 (羅陀那) ratna, anything precious, a gem, etc.; also 羅怛那 or 羅怛曩 or 羅怛囊. Cf. 寳 and 七寳.

羅齋 To collect contributions of food; an almsbowl.

Dried flesh; to sacrifice to the gods three days after the winter solstice; the end of the year; a year; a monastic year, i.e. the end of the annual summer retreat, also called 戒臘; 夏臘; 法臘.

臘八 The 8th day of the last month of the year, the 8th of the 12th month, the day of the Buddha's enlightenment.

臘次 In order of years, i.e. of ordination.

臘伐尼 v. 嵐. Lumbinī.

臘佛 The offerings to Buddha after the summer retreat, maintained on the 15th day of the 7th month; also All Souls' Day, v. 盂 8; the臘餠 annual cakes are then offered and eaten.

臘縛 lava, a brief time; the 900th part of a day and night, or 1 minute 36 seconds.

The water-lily root, arrowroot.

藕絲 Lily-root fibres.

A marsh, reserve, retreat, refuge, lair: translit. s, su.

藪斗婆 v. 塔 13 stūpa.

藪達梨舍菟 Sudarśana, the fourth circle round Meru, cf. 蘇 20.

Creepers, canes.

藤蛇 Seeing a cane and thinking it a snake.

Medicine, chemicals.

藥上菩薩 Bhaiṣajyasamudgata, bodhisattva of healing, he whose office, together with his brother, is to heal the sick. He is described as the younger of two brothers, the elder of whom is the 藥王 below.

藥叉 yakṣa; also 藥乞叉 v. 夜.

藥師 Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhāṣa; 藥師璢璃光如來; 大醫王佛; 醫王善逝, etc. The Buddha of Medicine, who heals all diseases, including the disease of ignorance. His image is often at the left of Śākyamuni Buddha's, and he is associated with the east. The history of this personification is not yet known, but cf. the chapter on the 藥王 in the Lotus Sutra. There are several sutras relating to him, the藥王璢璃光, etc., tr. by Xuanzang circa A.D. 650, and others. There are shrines of the 藥王三尊 the three honoured doctors, with Yaoshi in the middle and as assistants 日光邊照 the Bodhisattva Sunlight everywhere shining on his right and 月光邊照 the Bodhisattva Moonlight, etc., on his left. The 藥王七佛 seven healing Buddhas are also all in the east. There are also the 藥王十二神將 twelve spiritual generals or protectors of Yaoshi, for guarding his worshippers.

藥王十二誓願 The twelve vows of the Buddha of Medicine are: (1) To shine upon all beings with his light; (2) to reveal his great power to all beings; (3) to fulfil the desires of all beings; (4) to cause all beings to enter the Great Vehicle; (5) to enable all beings to observe all the moral laws; (6) to heal all those whose senses are imperfect; (7) to remove all diseases and give perfect health of body and mind and bring all to perfect enlightenment; (8) to transform women into men (in the next rebirth); (9) to enable all beings to escape false doctrines and bonds and attain to truth; (10) to enable all beings to escape evil kalpas, etc.; (11) to give superior food to the hungry; (12) and wonderful garments to the naked.

藥王菩薩 Bhaiṣajya-rāja Bodhisattva, the elder of the two brothers, who was the first to decide on his career as bodhisattva of healing, and led his younger brother to adopt the same course; see above. They are also styled Pure-eyed and Pure-treasury, which may indicate diagnosis and treatment. He is referred to in the Lotus Sutra as offering his arms as a brunt sacrifice to his Buddha.

藥王樹 藥樹王 The king of healing herbs and trees.

藥樹王身 The body or form which is taken by this bodhisattva at any time for healing the sick.

藥草 Medicine, herbs.


蟻術 The duty and mode of saving the lives of ants.

Ridicule, jeer at; inspect.

譏嫌 To hold in contempt; to satirize.

Gossip, talk; to boast.

譚婆 Translit. of a term defined as eaters of dog's flesh.

To prove, witness to, testify, substantiate, attain to; evidence; experience; realize; assurance, conviction; v. 阿 abhisaṃbuddha.

證入 Experiential entry into buddha-truth, (1) partial, as in Hīnayāna and the earlier Mahāyāna; (2) complete, as in the perfect school of Mahāyāna.

證得 To realize, to attain truth by personal experience.

證大菩提 To experience, attain to, realize, or prove, perfect enlightenment.

證德 Attainment of virtue, or spiritual power, through the four dogmas, twelve nidānas and six pāramitās, in the Hīnayāna and Madhyamayāna.

證悟 Mystic insight; conviction by thinking, realization, to prove and ponder.

證明 To prove clearly, have the clear witness within.

證智 adhigamavābodha. Experiential knowledge; realization; the attainment of truth by the bodhisattva in the first stage.

證果 The fruits or rewards of the various stages of attainment.

證覺 To prove and perceive, to know by experience.

證道 The way of (mystic) experience; to witness to the truth.

教證 The two ways of learning, by teaching or experience.

vijñāna, "the art of distinguishing, or perceiving, or recognizing, discerning, understanding, comprehending, distinction, intelligence, knowledge, science, learning . . . wisdom." M.W. parijñāna, "perception, thorough knowledge," etc. M.W. It is intp. by 心 the mind, mental discernment, perception, in contrast with the object discerned; also by 了別 understanding and discrimination. There are classifications of 一識 that all things are the one mind, or are metaphysical; 二識 q. v. discriminating the ālaya-vijñāna or primal undivided condition from the mano-vijñāna or that of discrimination; 三識 in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, fundamental, manifested and discriminate; 五識 q.v. in the 起信論, i.e. 業, 轉, 現, 知, and 相續識; 六識 the perceptions and discernings of the six organs of sense; also of 8, 9, 10, and 11 識. The most important is the eight of the 起信論, i.e. the perceptions of the six organs of sense, eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (or touch), and mind, together with manas, intp. as 意識 the consciousness of the previous moment, on which the other six depend; the eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, v. 阿賴耶, in which is contained the seed or stock of all phenomena and which 無沒 loses none, or nothing, is indestructible; a substitute for the seventh is ādāna 'receiving' of the 唯識, which is intp. as 無解 undiscriminated, or indefinite perception; there is a difference of view between the 相 and the 性 schools in regard to the seventh and eight 識; and the latter school add a ninth called the amala, or pure vijñāna, i.e. the non-phenomenal 眞如識. The esoterics add that all phenomena are mental and all things are the one mind, hence the one mind is 無量識 unlimited mind or knowledge, every kind of knowledge, or omniscience. vijñāna is one of the twelve nidānas.

識主 The lord of the intellect, the mind, the ālaya-vijñāna as discriminator.

識住 That on which perception, or mind, is dependent; the four 識住are phenomenon, receptivity, cognition, and reaction; a further category of seven 識住 is divided into phenomenal and supra-phenomenal.

識宿命通 pūrva-nivāsānusmṛti-jñāna; knowledge of all forms of previous existence of oneself and others.

識幻 The illusion of perception, or mind.

識心 The perceptive mind.

識浪 The waves or nodes of particularized discernment, produced on the bhūtatathatā considered as the sea of mind.

識海 The ocean of mind, i.e. the bhūtatathatā as the store of all mind.

識無處邊 The brahmaloka of limitless knowledge or perception, v. 四空天 or 四空處 and 識處天. 識無處邊定 The dhyāna corresponding to it. 識無處邊解脫 The vimokṣa, or liberation from it to a higher stage.

識牛 Intellect the motive power of the body, as the ox is of the cart.

識界 vijñāna-dhātu, the elements of consciousness, the realm of mind, the sphere of mind, mind as a distinct realm.

識精 Pure or correct discernment or knowledge; the essence of mind.

識藏 The storehouse of mind, or discernment, the ālaya-vijñāna whence all intelligence or discrimination comes.

識蘊 vijñāna-skandha, one of the five aggregates or attributes.

識處天 The heaven of (limitless) knowledge, the second of the caturārūpyabrahmalokas, or four formless heavens, also see below.

識處定 The dhyāna, or abstract state, which corresponds to the above.

識變 Mental changes, i.e. all transformations, or phenomenal changes, are mental, a term of the 法相 school.

識食 Spiritual food, mental food, by which are kept alive the devas of the formless realms and the dwellers in the hells.

To assist.

贊寧 Zanning, a learned Sung monk of the tenth century, author of many works, e.g. 宋高僧傳 the biographies of noted monks.

贊那曩 candana, sandal-wood incense.

A present (at parting), a souvenir; posthumous honours; a title patent.

贈五重 A service of the Pure-land sect, consisting of five esoteric rituals, for admitting the deceased into the lineage of the Buddha to ensure his welfare in the next life.

贈別夜 The night (of ceremony) before a funeral.

A phrase, words, language; to decline, resign.

辭無礙智 Unhindered knowledge of all languages or terms.

A side, edge, margin, border.

邊地 The countries bordering on Jambudvīpa. The border land to Amitābha's Pure Land, where the lax and haughty, cf. 懈慢, are detained for 500 years, also called 胎宮 womb-palace and 邊界 border-realm.

邊州 The countries bordering on, or outside of India.

邊獄 The side hells, or Lokāntarika hells.

邊罪 Sins of expulsion from the order, i.e. sexual intercourse, killing, stealing, lying.

邊見 邊執見 The two extreme views of annihilation and personal immortality.

邊際 Utmost limit, ultimate, final.

邊際智 The perfect wisdom of a bodhisattva who has attained complete enlightenment.

Libations or offerings, especially to ancestors; the offerings of All Souls' Day v. 盂 8; emptied, finished.

Pickle. Translit. hi, he, hai.

醯兜婆拖部 Hetuvādapūrva Sthavirāḥ, the first school of the sthavirās treating of causality, or hetuvāda, the 因論 school; it was a subdivision of the Sarvastivādāḥ.

醯摩嚩多 醯摩跋陀 A ruler of the Himalayas, in the retinue of Vaiśravaṇa, v. 毘.

醯摩嚩多部 Haimavatāḥ, school of the snow mountains, "a schismatic philosophical school, one of the five subdivisions" of the Māhāsaṅghikāḥ. Eitel.

醯羅 Hiḍḍa, five miles south of Jellālabad. Eitel.

醯都 hetu, a cause, logical reason.

醯都費陀 hetuvidyā, 因明, logic.

醯都鉢羅底也 hetupratyaya, primary and secondary cause.

ādarśa. A mirror.

鏡像 The image in a mirror, i.e. the transient.

鏡谷 Mirror and gully, reflection and echo, i.e. the response of the buddhas to prayers.

A metal chime.

To shut, a closed place, barrier, frontier; to include, concern, involve.

關帝 Guandi, the god of War, a deified hero of the Three Kingdoms, a protector of Buddhism.

Difficult, hard; distress, adversity; opposite of 易 easy; translit. nan, nam.

難伏 Hard to subdue, or submit; unconquerable.

難入 Hard to enter, or attain.

難勝 Hard to overcome, or be overcome; unconquerable; the fifth of the ten bodhisattva 地 stages when all passion and illusion is overcome and understanding of all things attained.

難化 Difficult of conversion, or transformation.

難度 Hard to cross over, to save or be saved.

難度海 The ocean hard to cross, the sea of life and death, or mortality.

難思 Hard to think of, hard to realize, incredible.

難拏 daṇḍa, 檀難; a club, mace, Yama's symbol.

難提 Nandi, "the happy one," name of Viṣṇu, Śiva, and of a Buddhist monk; also said to be a term for stūpa.

難提迦 Nandika, brother of 調達 Devadatta.

難提迦物多 nandikāvarta; nandyāvarta; joyous, or auspicious turning; defined as turning to the right, i.e. curling as a Buddha's hair.

難有 Hard to have, similar to 希有, rare.

難陀 難陁 nanda, "happiness, pleasure, joy, felicity." M.W. Name of disciples not easy to discriminate; one is called Cowherd Nanda, an arhat; another Sundarananda, to distinguish him from Ānanda, and the above; also, of a milkman who gave Śākyamuni milk; of a poor woman who could only offer a cash to buy oil for a lamp to Buddha; of a nāga king; etc.

難陀跋難陀 Nanda Upananda, two nāga brothers, who protected Magadha.

To leave, part from, apart from. abandon; translit. li, le, r, re, rai.

離佉 likh, to write; lekha, writings, documents.

離垢 To leave the impure, abandon the defiling influence of the passions, or illusion.

離垢世界 The world free from impurity, the name of Śāriputra's buddha-realm.

離垢地 The second of the ten bodhisattva stages in which he overcomes all passion and impurity.

離垢眼 To abandon the eye of impurity, or contamination, and attain the eye which beholds truth and reality.

離塵服 The monk's robe, or kaṣāya, freed from the dusty world, i.e. freed from the contamination of the senses.

離婆多 離波多; 離越; 離曰; 梨婆多 Revata; one of the twenty-eight Indian constellations, corresponding with 室 the 'house', (a) Markab, (b) Scheat, Pegasus; name of a disciple of Śākyamuni; of the leader of the second synod; of a member of the third synod; cf. 頡.

離微 Apart from all the phenomenal; li is intp. as spirit, wei as its subtle, mysterious functioning; li is also intp. as nirvana in character, wei as prajñā , or intelligence, knowledge, discrimination.

離性無別佛 Apart from mind, or the soul, there is no other Buddha, i.e. the 性 is Buddha.

離染服 The monk's robe which separates him from contamination; also the nun's.

離欲 To leave, or be free from desire, or the passions.

離生 To leave the chain of rebirth.

離生性 The true nature of the holy man which leaves the round of mortality.

離生喜樂地 The first dhyāna heaven, where is experienced the joy of leaving the evils of life.

離相 One of the 三相 q.v.

離相戒 無相戒 The inner commands, or observance in the heart, in contrast with external observance or ritual.

離繫子 The Nirgrantha sect of naked devotees who abandoned all ties and forms.

離蓋 To abandon the 五蓋 q.v. five obscurers, or hindrances to truth.

離言 That which cannot be described in words, e.g. the bhūtatathatā, which is beyond definition.

離車 (離車毘); 離奢; 利車; 梨車毘; 隸車; 黎昌; 栗唱; 栗呫婆 or 栗呫毘. Licchavi, the kṣatriyas who formed the republic of Vaiśālī, and were "among the earliest followers of Śākyamuni". Eitel. The term is intp. as 皮薄 thin-skinned, or 豪 heroic, etc.

離間語 Talk which causes estrangement between friends; alienating words; one of the ten wicked things.

Class, species; to classify.

類智 Knowledge which is of the same order, e.g. the four fundamental dogmas (四諦 or 法智) applicable on earth which are also extended to the higher realms of form and non-form and are called 類智.

Overturn, upset, upside down; the forehead, top.

顚倒 viparyaya; error. Upside down, inverted; contrary to reality; to believe things to be as they seem to be, e.g. the impermanent to be permanent, the apparent ego to be real; cf. 七 and八顚倒.

顚倒忘想 Upside-down and delusive ideas.

praṇihita; praṇidhāna; resolve, will, desire, cf. 誓.

願主 The original resolve in a previous existence which incites a man to build a pagoda, copy a sutra, etc., leading him to become Buddha or reach the Pure Land.

願佛 A Buddha of the vow, who passes through the eight forms of an incarnate Buddha, v. 八相.

願作 Resolve to be or become, e.g. 願作佛 resolve to become Buddha.

願力 The power of the vow.

願土 The land of the vow, the Pure Land of Amitābha.

願度 Salvation through trust in the vow e.g. of Amitābha.

願心 The heart of resolve (of Buddha to save all beings).

願智 Wisdom resulting from the vow.

願波羅蜜 The vow pāramitās, the eighth of the ten pāramitās, a bodhisattva's vow to attain bodhi, and save all beings to the other shore.

願海 The bodhisattva vow is deep and wide like the ocean.

願船 The Amitābha's vow likened to a boat which ferries all beings to his Pure Land.

願行 To vow and perform the discipline the vow involves.

願身 The resolve of a Buddha to be born in the Tuṣita heaven for the work of saving all beings, also idem願佛 above.

願輪 The vow-wheel, which overcomes all opposition; also the revolving of the bodhisattva's life around his vow.

願食 Vow-food; to nourish the life by the vow, and thus have strength to fulfil its duties.

A whale.

鯨魚 makara, sea-monster, whale.

鯨音 A reverberating sound, like that of a bell, or gong.

A magpie; jay, daw.

鵲巢 A magpie's nest, sometimes applied to a place of meditation.

鵲園 Magpie garden, applied to the Veṇuvana, v. 竹林.

Elegant, beautiful; to display.

麗塔 An elegant pagoda.

麗M012278 毘 Licchavi, v. 離, 梨.

麗藏 The Korean tripiṭaka.

高麗 Korea.

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