A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 21 - Twenty-one Strokes

To chew.

嚼蠟 Chewing wax, tasteless.

Translit. .

囀羅呬 Vārāhī, tr. as the gods below the earth.

Fear, dread; translit. gu.

懼曩 guṇa, a power, quality, v. 求.

To collect, gather together, combine, include; lay hold of; assist, act for or with; control, direct, attend to; translit. ś, śa.

攝取 攝受 To gather, gather up, receive.

攝哩藍 śarīra, v. 舍 relics.

攝嚩 śava, a corpse (not yet decayed).

攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra, a collection of Mahāyāna śāstras, ascribed to Asaṅga, of which three tr. were made into Chinese.

攝心 To collect the mind, concentrate the attention.

攝念山林 The hill-grove for concentrating the thoughts, a monastery.

攝意音樂 Music that calms the mind, or helps to concentration.

攝拖苾馱 Śabda-vidyā, (a śāstra on) grammar, logic.

攝摩騰 Kāśyapa-Mātaṇga, v. 迦 according to tradition the first official Indian monk (along with Gobharana) to arrive in China, circa A.D. 67; tr. the Sūtra of the Forty-two Sections.

攝衆生戒 接生戒 The commands which include or confer blessing on all the living.

攝論 The collected śāstras, v. supra.

攝論宗 The school of the collected śāstras.

Of old, ancient; translit. na.

曩莫 nāmaḥ, v. 南.

A rail, handrail; pen, fold.

欄楯 Barrier, railing.

To water, sprinkle, pour; to flow together, or into, accumulate.

灌佛 浴佛 To wash a Buddha's image with scented water, which is a work of great merit and done with much ceremony.

灌室 The building in which the esoterics practise the rite of baptism.

灌洗 To wash a Buddha's image.

灌臘 The washing of a Buddha's image at the end of the monastic year, the end of summer.

灌頂 abhiṣecana; mūrdhābhiṣikta; inauguration or consecration by sprinkling, or pouring water on the head; an Indian custom on the investiture of a king, whose head was baptized with water from the four seas and from the rivers in his domain; in China it is administered as a Buddhist rite chiefly to high personages, and for ordination purposes. Amongst the esoterics it is a rite especially administered to their disciples; and they have several categories of baptism, e.g. that of ordinary disciples, of teacher, or preacher, of leader, of office-bearer; also for special causes such as relief from calamity, preparation for the next life, etc.

灌頂住 The tenth stage of a bodhisattva when he is anointed by the Buddhas as a Buddha.

Glittering, as iridescent fish.

爛魚 Rotten, soft; pulp.

A gem, a necklace.

瓔珞 A necklace of precious stones; things strung together.

A kitchen-stove.

竈神 The kitchen-stove god, or kitchen-god who at the end of each year is supposed to report above on the conduct of members of the family.

To bind with cords; bonds; another name for 煩惱 the passions and delusions, etc.

纏報 The retribution of transmigrational-bondage.

纏無明 The bondage of unenlightenment.

纏縛 Bondage; to bind; also the 十纏 and 四縛 q.v.

To join on; continue, add, supplementary, a supplement.

續命 (Prayers for) continued life, for which the 續命神幡 flag of five colours is displayed.

Crowding sheep, confusion; translit. kṣan, ṣan.

羼底 (or羼提) kṣānti, patience, forbearance, enduring shame, one of the six pāramitās.

羼提仙人 Kṣāntiṛṣi, name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation, the patient or enduring ṛṣi.

羼提羅 śaṇḍila, a sterile woman, cf. 扇.

The epidendrum, orchid; scented, refined; pledged, sworn; translit. ra, ram, ran; abbrev. for 偸蘭遮 q.v.

蘭室 蘭若 araṇya, lit. forest, hence hermitage, v. 阿; a monastery.

蘭盆 (蘭會) Ullambana, Lambana, Avalamba, v. 盂. The festival of masses for destitute ghosts on the 15th of the 7th month.

蘭菊 Orchid and chrysanthemum, spring and autumn, emblems of beauty.

蘭闍 蘭奢 (蘭奢待) A Mongol or Turkish word implying praise.

蘭香 Orchid fragrance, spring.

A shrub, tree stump, etc., translit. g, ga, gan.

蘖哩訶 蘖羅訶 Gṛha; Grāha; the seizer, name of a demon.

蘖喇婆 garbha, tr. 中心; the womb, interior part.

蘖嚕拏 v. 迦 garuḍa.

蘖馱矩吒 Gandhakutī, a temple for offering incense in the Jetavana monastery and elsewhere).


蠟印 To seal with wax, a wax seal.

To look at, view; translit. raṃ-; associated with fire.

To protect, guard, succour.

護世者 The four lokapālas, each protecting one of the four quarters of space, the guardians of the world and of the Buddhist faith.

護命 Protection of life.

護國 The four lokapālas, or rāṣṭrapālas, who protect a country.

護寺 vihārapāla, guardian deity of a monastery.

護念 To guard and care for, protect and keep in mind.

護戒神 The five guardian-spirits of each of the five commandments, cf. 二十五神.

護摩 homa, also 護磨; 呼麽 described as originally a burnt offering to Heaven; the esoterics adopted the idea of worshipping with fire, symbolizing wisdom as fire burning up the faggots of passion and illusion; and therewith preparing nirvāṇa as food, etc.; cf. 大日經; four kinds of braziers are used, round, semi-circular, square, and octagonal; four, five, or six purposes are recorded i.e. śāntika, to end calamities; pauṣṭika (or puṣṭikarman) for prosperity; vaśīkaraṇa, 'dominating,' intp. as calling down the good by means of enchantments; abhicaraka, exorcising the evil; a fifth is to obtain the loving protection of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas; a sixth divides puṣṭikarman into two parts, the second part being length of life; each of these six has its controlling Buddha and bodhisattvas, and different forms and accessories of worship.

護明大士 Prabhāpāla; guardian of light, or illumination, name of Śākyamuni when in the Tuṣita heaven before earthly incarnation.

護法 To protect or maintain the Buddha-truth; also name of Dharmapāla q.v.

護法神 The four lokapālas, seen at the entrance to Buddhist temples, v, supra.

護童子法 Method of protecting the young against the fifteen evil spirits which seek to harm them.

護符 A charm used by the esoterics.

護苾那 Hupian, 'the capital of Vridjisthāna, probably in the neighbourhood of the present Charekoor... to the north of Cabool.' Eitel.

護身 Protection of the body, for which the charm 護符 is used, and also other methods.

To discuss, argue, discourse.

辯才 Ability to discuss, debate, discourse; rhetoric.

辯才天 Sarasvatī, goddess of speech and learning, v. 大辯才天.

辯無礙 Power of unhindered discourse, perfect freedom of speech or debate, a bodhisattva power.

Translit. vaṃ, associated with water and the ocean; also, the embodiment of wisdom.

A metal ring; a ring.

鐶釧 Finger-rings and armlets.


鐵圍山 Cakravāla, Cakravāda. The iron enclosing mountains supposed to encircle the earth, forming the periphery of a world. Mount Meru is the centre and between it and the Iron mountains are the seven 金山 metal-mountains and the eight seas.

鐵城 The iron city, hell.

鐵札 Iron tablets in Hades, on which are recorded each person's crimes and merits.

鐵輪 The iron wheel; also 鐵圍山 Cakravāla, supra.

鐵輪王 Iron-wheel king, ruler of the south and of Jambudvīpa, one of the 四輪王.

鐵鉢 Cf. 四鉢. Iron pātra, or almsbowl.

鐵際 The boundary of the 鐵圍山 Cakravāla, v. supra.

A bell with a clapper; translit. da.

鐸曷攞 dahara, small, young; a monk ordained less than ten years.

To open; translit. pi, v. 毘.

闢妄 To explain, or set free from, illusion.

闢展 Pidjan, or Pizhan, near Turfan.

An inner door (especially of the women's rooms); a recess, corner; translit. da, dha, etc.

闥婆 gandharvas, v. 乾.

Dew; symbol of transience; to expose, disclose.

露命 Dew-like life; transient.

露地 Bare ground; like dew on the ground, dewy ground.

露形 露身 Exposed form, naked, e.g. the Nirgrantha ascetics.

露牛 The great white ox and oxcart revealed in the open, i.e. the Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sūtra.

Crash, rumble.

霹靂 A thunder-crash.

Hunger, famine.

饑餓地獄 The hell of hunger.

饑饉災 The calamity of famine.

Spare; abundance, surplus; to pardon.

饒王 (饒王佛) Lokeśvara, 'the lord or ruler of the world; N. of a Buddha' (M.W.); probably a development of the idea of Brahmā, Viṣṇu or Śiva as lokanātha, 'lord of worlds.' In Indo-China especially it refers to Avalokiteśvara, whose image or face, in masculine form, is frequently seen, e.g. at Angkor. Also 世饒王佛. It is to Lokeśvara that Amitābha announces his forty-eight vows.

饒益 To enrich.

饒舌 A fluent tongue; loquacious.

To drive out or away, expel, urge.

驅烏 Scarecrow, term for an acolyte of from seven to thirteen years of age, he being old enough to drive away crows.

驅龍 Dragon-expeller, a term for an arhat of high character and powers, who can drive away evil nāgas.

kapāla; a skull.

髏鬘 A chaplet or wreath of skulls, worn by the Kāpālikas, a Śivaitic sect; kapālī is an epithet of Śiva as the skull-wearer.

A head-dress, coiffure; a chaplet, wreath, etc.; idem 末利.

A mountain demon resembling a tiger; 魅 is a demon of marshes having the head of a pig and body of a man. The two words are used together indicating evil spirits.

魔羅 Māra, killing, destroying; 'the Destroyer, Evil One, Devil' (M.W.); explained by murderer, hinderer, disturber, destroyer; he is a deva 'often represented with a hundred arms and riding on an elephant'. Eitel. He sends his daughters, or assumes monstrous forms, or inspires wicked men, to seduce or frighten the saints. He 'resides with legions of subordinates in the heaven Paranirmita Vaśavartin situated on the top of the Kāmadhātu'. Eitel. Earlier form 磨; also v. 波 Pāpīyān. He is also called 他化自在天. There are various categories of māras, e.g. the skandha-māra, passion-māra, etc.

魔事 Māra-deeds, especially in hindering Buddha-truth.

魔天 Māra-deva, the god of lust, sin, and death, cf. Māra.

魔女 The daughters of Māra, who tempt men to their ruin.

魔忍 Māra-servitude, the condition of those who obey Māra.

魔怨 Māra enmity; Māra, the enemy of Buddha.

魔戒 Māra-laws, Māra-rules, i.e. those of monks who seek fame and luxury.

魔梵 Māra and Brahmā; i.e. Māra, lord of the sixth desire-heaven, and Brahmā, lord of the heavens of form.

魔檀 Māra-gifts, in contrast with those of Buddha.

魔民 mārakāyikas, also 魔子魔女 Māra's people, or subjects.

魔旬 (魔波旬) Māra-pāpīyān, cf. 波.

魔王 The king of māras, the lord of the sixth heaven of the desire-realm.

魔界 The realm of the māras; also 魔境; 魔道.

魔禪 māra-dhyāna, evil thoughts, wrong and harmful meditation.

魔縛 Māra-cords; Māra-bonds; also 魔繫.

魔緣 Māra-circumstance, or environment, or conditioning cause, i.e. hindering the good.

魔網 The net of Māra.

魔羅 Māra, v. 魔; also 麽羅; for 魔羅耶 v. 摩.

魔軍 The army of Māra.

魔道 The Māra path, or way, i.e. one of the six destinies.

魔鄕 Māra-country, i.e. the world.

魔醯首羅 Maheśvara, Śiva.

魔醯因陀羅 Mahendra, a younger brother of Aśoka.

魔醯濕羅補羅 Maheśvarapura, the present Machery in Rajputana.

魔醯邏矩羅 Mihirakula, king of the Punjab, later of Kashmir, about A.D. 400, a persecutor of Buddhism, v. 摩.

魔障 Māra-hindrances; also 障 is an interpretation of 魔.

v. 雞 Eighteen Strokes.

The crane; the egret; translit. ha, ho.

鶴林 鶴樹 Crane grove, a name for the place where Śākyamuni died, when the trees burst into white blossom resembling a flock of white cranes.

鶴勒那夜奢 Haklenayaśas, or Padmaratna, the twenty-third patriarch, born in the palace of the king of Tokhara.

鶴悉那 Hosna, or Ghazna, 'the capital of Tsaukūṭa, the present Ghuznee' (Ghazni) in Afghanistan. Eitel.

鶴秣 Homa, 'a city on the eastern frontier of Persia, perhaps the modern Humoon' Eitel.

鶴苑 Crane-garden, a term for a monastery.

鶴薩羅 Hasara, 'the second capital of Tsaukūṭa, perhaps the modern Assaia Hazaréh between Ghuznee and Kandahar in Afghanistan.' Eitel.

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