A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 9 - Nine Strokes

Connect, bind, involve; is, are.

係念 To think of, be drawn to.

Suddenly, on the point of.

俄那鉢底 Gaṇapati, v. 誐.

M000656伽定 The nāga meditation, which enables one to become a dragon, hibernate in the deep, prolong one's life and meet Maitreya, the Messiah.

Protect, ward, guard; guarantee.

保境將軍 The guardian general of the region.

便 Convenient, convenience; then, so; easy; cheap.

便利 Convenient and beneficial; to urinate or evacuate the bowels; a latrine.

便旋 A mere turn, i.e. immediate and easy.

便膳那 (or 便善那or 便社那); ?膳便 vyañjana, 'making clear, marking, distinguishing,' M. W. a 'relish'; intp. by 文 a mark, sign, or script which manifests the meaning; also 味 a taste or flavour, that which distinguishes one taste from another.

common, ordinary, usual, vulgar.

俗人 gṛhastha, an ordinary householder; an ordinary man; the laity.

俗塵 Common dust, earthly pollution.

俗形 Of ordinary appearance, e.g. the laity.

俗戒 The common commandments for the laity.

俗我 The popular idea of the ego or soul, i.e. the empirical or false ego 假我 composed of the five skandhas. This is to be distinguished from the true ego 眞我 or 實我, the metaphysical substratum from which all empirical elements have been eliminated; v.八大自在我.

俗智 Common or worldly wisdom, which by its illusion blurs or colours the mind, blinding it to reality.

俗流 The common run or flow.

俗諦 世諦 Common principles, or axioms; normal unenlightened ideas, in contrast with reality.

śraddhā. Faith; to believe; belief; faith regarded as the faculty of the mind which sees, appropriates, and trusts the things of religion; it joyfully trusts in the Buddha, in the pure virtue of the triratna and earthly and transcendental goodness; it is the cause of the pure life, and the solvent of doubt. Two forms are mentioned: (1) adhimukti, intuition, tr. by self-assured enlightenment. (2) śraddhā, faith through hearing or being taught. For the Awakening of Faith, Śraddhotpāda, v. 起信論.

信伏 To believe in and submit oneself to.

信仰 To believe in and look up to.

信力 śraddhābala. The power of faith; one of the five bala or powers.

信受 The receptivity and obedience of faith; to believe and receive (the doctrine).

信受奉行 In faith receive and obey, a sentence found at the end of sutras.

信向 To believe in and entrust oneself to the triratna 三寳.

信士 upāsaka, 信事男 a male devotee, who remains in the world as a lay disciple. A bestower of alms. Cf. 優.

信女 upāsikā. A female devotee, who remains at home. Cf. 優.

信度 Sindhu, Sindh, Scinde, 辛頭 the country of 信度河 the Indus, one of the 'four great rivers.' Sindhu is a general name for India, but refers especially to the kingdom along the banks of the river Indus, whose capital was Vichavapura.

信德 The merit of the believing heart; the power of faith.

信心 A believing mind, which receives without doubting.

信忍 Faith-patience, faith-endurance: (1) To abide patiently in the faith and repeat the name of Amitābha. (2) To believe in the Truth and attain the nature of patient faith. (3) According to Tiantai the 別教 meaning is the unperturbed faith of the Bodhisattva (that all dharma is unreal).

信慧 Faith and wisdom, two of the 五根.

信戒 Faith and morals, i.e. the moral law, or commandments; to put faith in the commandments.

信手 Faith, regarded as a hand grasping the precious truth of Buddha.

信施 Almsgiving because of faith; the gifts of the faith.

信根 śraddhendriya. Faith, one of the five roots or organs producing a sound moral life.

信樂 To believe and rejoice in the dharma; the joy of believing.

信水 Faith pure and purifying like water.

信海 The ocean of faith: the true virtue of the believing hear is vast and boundless as the ocean.

信珠 The pearl of faith; as faith purifies the hear it is likened to a pearl of the purest water.

信現觀 Firm faith in the triratna as revealing true knowledge; one of the 六現觀.

信種 The seed of faith.

信藏 The treasury of faith (which contains all merits).

信行 Believing action; faith and practice. Action resulting from faith in another's teaching, in contrast with 法行 action resulting from direct apprehension of the doctrine; the former is found among the 鈍根, i.e. those of inferior ability, the latter among the 利根, i.e. the mentally acute.

信解 Faith and interpretation, i.e. to believe and understand or explain the doctrine; the dull or unintellectual believe, the intelligent interpret; also, faith rids of heresy, interpretation of ignorance.

信解行證 Faith, interpretation, performance, and evidence or realization of the fruit of Buddha's doctrine.

信順 To believe and obey.

信首 Faith as the first and leading step.

信鼓 The drum or stimulant of faith.

To risk; rash; counterfeit; introduce.

冒地 bodhi.

冒地質多 bodhicitta, the enlightened mind, idem 善提心.

冒地薩恒嚩 Bodhisattva. Cf. 菩提.

Pattern, rule; then, therefore.

則劇 To play; a form of play.

To shave.

剃刀 A razor.

剃頭 To shave the head.

剃髮 To shave the hair, following Śākyamuni, who cut off his locks with a sharp sword or knife to signify his cutting himself off from the world.

pūrva. Before; former, previous; in front.

前世 前生 Former life or lives.

前中後 Former, intermediate, after.

前佛 A preceding Buddha; former Buddhas who have entered into nirvana.

前堂 The front hall, or its front part.

前塵 Previous impure condition (influencing the succeeding stage or stages).

前正覺山 Prāgbodhi, v. 鉢 A mountain in Magadha, reported to have been ascended by Śākyamuni before his enlightenment, hence its name.

前身 The previous body, or incarnation.

前後際斷 Discontinuous function, though seemingly continuous, e.g. a 'Catherine-wheel,' or torch whirled around.

To cut, slash; translit. la, ra, ya.

剌瑟胝 yaṣṭi, pole, staff, stick, intp. flagpole.

剌竭節 (or 糲竭節) laguḍa, a staff, stick.

剌那 cf. 囉, 羅 ratna, precious thing, jewel, etc.

剌那尸棄 Ratnaśikhin, cf. 尸棄, 'the 999th Buddha of the preceding kalpa, the second of the Sapta Buddha.' Eitel.

剌那伽羅 Ratnākara, a 'jewel-mine, the ocean' (M. W.), intp. jewel-heap; name of a Buddha and Bodhisattva; the 112th Buddha of the present kalpa; also of 'a native of Vaiśālī, contemporary of Śākyamuni.'

剌闍 囉惹 rajas, atmosphere, vapour, gloom, dust, dirt, etc.; intp. dust, minute; also hatred, suffering.

Imperial commands.

敕命 The sovereign commands of the Buddha.

Brave, bold, courageous, fearless.

勇猛精進 Bold advance, or progress.

勇施菩薩 Pradhānaśūra, a Bodhisattva now in Śākyamuni's retinue.

Shooting plants; a comet.

勃沙 弗沙 puṣya; foam; a lunar mansion, i.e. the three arrow stars in the 鬼 constellation of which ? Cancri is one.

勃陀 勃馱; 勃塔耶; 馞陀; 佛陀 Buddha; intp. by 覺 and 佛 q.v.

勃伽夷 Bhagai, 'a city south of Khotan with a Buddha-statue which exhibits all the' lakṣaṇani, or thirty-two signs, 'brought there from Cashmere.' Eitel.

dakṣina, south; translit. nāṃ and as a suffix intp. as meaning plural, several, i.e. more than three.

南中三教 The three modes of Śākyamuni's teaching as expounded by the teachers south of the Yangtze after the Ch'i dynasty A.D. 479-501. (1) The 漸教 gradual method, leading the disciples step by step to nirvana. (2) The 頓教 immediate method, by which he instructed the Bodhisattvas, revealing the whole truth. (3) The 不定教 undetermined method, by which the teaching is adapted to each individual or group.

南天 (南天竺) Southern India.

南宗 The Southern sect, or Bodhidharma School, divided into northern and southern, the northern under 神秀 Shen-hsiu, the southern under 慧能 Hui-nang, circa A.D. 700, hence 南能北秀; the southern came to be considered the orthodox Intuitional school. The phrase 南頓北漸 or 'Southern immediate, northern gradual' refers to the method of enlightenment which separated the two schools.

南山 Southern hill, name of a monastery which gave its name to 道宣 Tao-hsuan of the Tang dynasty, founder of the 四分律 school.

南方 The southern quarter; south.

南方佛教 Southern Buddhism in contrast with 北方 northern Buddhism.

南方無垢世界 (南無垢) The Southern Pure Land to which the dragon-maid went on attaining Buddhahood, cf. Lotus Sutra.

南泉 Nan-ch'uan, a monk of the Tang dynasty circa 800, noted for his cryptic sayings, inheritor of the principles of his master, Ma Tsu 馬祖.

南海摩羅耶山 Mālayagiri 'the Mālaya mountains in Malabar answering to the western Ghats; a district in the south of India.' M. W. A mountain in Ceylon, also called Lanka.

南無 namaḥ; Pali: namo; to submit oneself to, from to bend, bow to, make obeisance, pay homage to; an expression of submission to command, complete commitment, reverence, devotion, trust for salvation, etc. Also written 南牟; 南謨; 南忙; 那謨 (or 那模 or 那麻); 納莫 (or 納慕); 娜母; 曩莫 (or 曩謨); 捺麻(or捺謨), etc. It is used constantly in liturgy, incantations, etc., especially as in namaḥ Amitābha, which is the formula of faith of the Pure-land sect, representing the believing heart of all beings and Amitābha's power and will to save; repeated in the hour of death it opens the entrance to the Pure Land.

南無佛 南無三寳 I devote myself entirely to the Buddha, or triratna, or Amitābha, etc.

南無師 Masters of namaḥ, i.e. Buddhist or Taoist priests and sorcerers.

南羅 Southern Lāra; Mālava, an ancient kingdom in Central India; head quarters of heretical in the present Malwa.

北南 was Valabhī, in Gujarat.

南能北秀 v. 南宗.

南藏 The Southern Collection, or Edition, of the Chinese Buddhist Canon, published at Nanking under the reign of Tai Tsu, the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, who reigned A.D. 1368-1398.

南行 dakṣiṇāyana. The course or declination of the sun to the south it moves from north to south; a period of six months.

南贍部洲 南閻浮提 Jambūdvīpa. One of the four continents, that situated south of Mt. Meru, comprising the world known to the early Indians. Also 南州; 南浮; 南部.

南陽 Nan-yang, a noted monk who had influence with the Tang emperors Su Tsung and Tai Tsung, circa 761-775.

南頓北漸 v. 南宗.

To draw up to, or near; approach; forthwith; to be; i.e. alias; if, even if; 就是. It is intp. as 和融 united together; 不二not two, i.e. identical; 不離 not separate, inseparable. It resembles implication, e.g. the afflictions or passions imply, or are, bodhi; births-and-deaths imply, or are, nirvana; the indication being that the one is contained in or leads to the other. Tiantai has three definitions: (1) The union, or unity, of two things, e.g. 煩惱 and 菩提, i.e. the passions and enlightenment, the former being taken as the 相 form, the latter 性 spirit, which two are inseparable; in other words, apart from the subjugation of the passions there is no enlightenment. (2) Back and front are inseparables; also (3) substance and quality, e.g. water and wave.

卽中 The via media is that which lies between or embraces both the 空 and the 假, i.e. the void, or noumenal, and the phenomenal.

卽事卽理 The identity of phenomena with their underlying principle, e.g. body and spirit are a unity; 卽事而眞 approximates to the same meaning that phenomena are identical with reality, e.g. water and wave.

卽得 Immediately to obtain, e.g. rebirth in the Pure Land, or the new birth here and now.

卽心 Of the mind, mental, i.e. all things are mental, and are not apart from mind.

卽心卽佛, 卽心是佛 (or 卽心成佛) The identity of mind and Buddha, mind is Buddha, the highest doctrine of Mahāyāna; the negative form is 非心非佛 no mind no Buddha, or apart from mind there is no Buddha; and all the living are of the one mind.

卽心念佛 To remember, or call upon, Amitābha Buddha within the heart, which is his Pure Land.

卽時 Immediately, forthwith.

卽有卽空 All things, or phenomena, are identical with the void or the noumenon.

卽相卽心 Both form and mind are identical, e.g. the Pure Land as a place is identical with the Pure Land in the mind or heart—a doctrine of the Pure Land or Jōdo sect.

卽空卽假卽中 All things are void, or noumenal, are phenomenal, are medial, the three meditations 三觀 of Tiantai.

卽身 The doctrine of the Shingon 眞言 sect that the body is also Buddha; in other words Buddha is not only 卽心 mind, but body; hence 卽身成佛; 卽身菩提 the body is to become (consciously) Buddha by Yoga practices.

卽離 Identity and difference, agreement and disagreement.

卽非 Identity and difference.

Alas! mourn, wail.

哀愍 哀憐 Pity for one in misery.

哀雅 Ai ya! an exclamation of pain, or surprise.

To laugh; to bite. Translit. t.

咥哩若底 trijāti, the three stages of birth, past, present, future.

摩咥哩迦 咥哩迦 Mātṛkā, a name for the Abhidharmapiṭaka.

uc3589吒 Kheṭa, name of a preta, or hungry ghost.

哈密 Hami, 'an ancient city and kingdom in Central Asia north-east of lake Lop in Lat. 43゜3 N., Long, 93°10 E.' Eitel. From Han to Tang times known as I-wu 伊吾, now called Kumul by Turki Mohammadans. For more than 1500 years, owing to its location and supply of water, Hami was a bridgehead for the expansion and control of the outposts of the Chinese empire in Central Asia.

All, entirely.

咸同 All together.

varga, 跋渠 class, series, rank, character; a chapter of a sutra.

上中下品 Superior, middle, and lower class, grade, or rank.

mala. Dust, impurity, dregs; moral impurity; mental impurity. Whatever misleads or deludes the mind; illusion; defilement; the six forms are vexation, malevolence, hatred, flattery, wild talk, pride; the seven are desire, false views, doubt, presumption, arrogance, inertia, and meanness.

垢有 v. 二眞如.

垢染 Taint of earthly things, or illusion.

垢汗 Defilement (of the physical as type of mental illusion).

垢結 The bond of the defiling, i.e. the material, and of reincarnation; illusion.

垢習 Habituation to defilement; the influence of its practice.

垢識 Defiling knowledge, the common worldly knowledge that does not discriminate the seeming from the real.

See under Ten Strokes.

A tally, covenant, bond; to agree with; devoted to; adopted (by).

契吒 Kakṣa; Kacha; Kach; ancient kingdom of Mālava, now the peninsula Cutch.

契會 To meet, rally to, or unite in the right or middle path and not in either extreme.

契範 The covenants and rules, or standard contracts, i.e. the sutras.

契線 契經 The sutras, because they tally with the mind of man and the laws of nature.

Chi, name of the concubine of Huang Ti; translit. g .

姞栗陀羅矩吒 (姞栗陀) gṛdhra, a vulture; Gṛdhrakūṭa, the Vulture Peak, v. 者.

Ten millions, tr. of ayuta 阿由他, nayuta, 那由他; but another account says 100 millions.

Matron, dame.

姥達羅 mudrā (mudrā-bala), 100,000 sexillions, 大姥達羅 a septillion; v. 洛.

prabhāva. Awe-inspiring majesty; also 威力 and 威神力.

威儀 Respect-inspiring deportment; dignity, i.e. in walking, standing, sitting, lying. There are said to be 3,000 and also 8,000 forms of such deportment.

威儀法師 (威儀師); 威儀僧 A master of ceremonies.

威德 Of respect-inspiring virtue; dignified.

威怒 Awe-inspiring; wrathful majesty.

威怒王 The wrathful maharāja. guardians of Buddhism.

威神 The awe-inspiring gods, or spirits.

威音王 Bhīṣma-garjita-ghoṣa-svara-rāja, the king with the awe-inspiring voice, the name of countless Buddhas successively appearing during the 離衰 kalpa; cf. Lotus Sutra.

Proclaim; spread abroad; widespread. 宣流; 宣說.

A guest, visitor, traveller, outsider, merchant.

客司 Guest room; reception of guests.

客山 The guest hill, or branch monastery, in contrast with the 主山 chief one.

客塵 āgantu-kleśa, the foreign atom, or intruding element, which enters the mind and causes distress and delusion; the mind is naturally pure or innocent till the evil element enters; v. 煩惱.

House, household, abode; translit. ś, s, śr;, śl. Cf. 尸; 舍; 音; for 室摩 v. 沙門.

室利 śrī, fortunate, lucky, prosperous; wealth; beauty; name applied to Lakṣmī and Śarasvatī, also used as a prefix to names of various deities and men; an abbrev. for Mañjuśrī.

室利嚩塞迦 śrīvāsas, turpentine.

室利蜜多羅 Śrīmitra, a prince of India, who became a monk and tr. three works in Nanking A. D. 317-322.

室利揭婆 Śrīgarbha, fortune's womb, epithet of Viṣṇu. M. W. also tr. it 'a sword,' but it is intp. as a precious stone.

室利提婆 Śrīdeva, name of 道希 Tao-hsi, a noted monk.

室利毱 Śrīgupta, an enemy of Śākyamuni, whom he tried to destroy with a pitfall of fire and a poisoned drink.

室利羅 śarīra, relics, v. 舍.

室利羅多 (or 室利邏多) Śrīlabdha, a celebrated commentator, to whom is attributed, inter alia, the chief commentary on the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; he was called the enlightener of northern India.

室利差呾羅 Śrīkṣetra, 'an ancient kingdom near the mouth of the Brahmaputtra;' capital probably 'modern Silhet (Śrihatta).' Eitel.

室利訖栗多底 Śrīkrītati, ancient name of Kashgar; Eitel.

室利靺蹉 śrīvatsa, the mark of Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa, a curl of hair on their breasts, resembling a cruciform flower (M. W. ), intp. as resembling the svastika.

室星 The Revatī constellation in India. that of the 'house' or the thirteenth constellation in China.

室灑 śiṣya, a pupil, disciple.

室獸摩羅 śiśumāra, a crocodile; see 失收摩羅.

室羅末尼羅 śrāmaṇera, v. 沙彌; also for 室羅摩拏洛迦(or 摩拏理迦).

室羅筏拏 (or 室羅縛拏) (室羅筏拏磨洗,室羅縛拏磨洗) śrāvaṇa (or śrāvaṇa-māsa). The hottest month of summer, July-August (from 16th of 5th moon to 15th of 6th moon).

室羅筏悉底 Śrāvastī or Śarāvatī, also 室羅伐. 舍衞國.

To seal, close (a letter); classifier, or numerative of letters, etc.; to appoint (imperially).

封體 To seal up a god or Buddha in a body by secret methods.

A house, a room.

屋裏人 The master of the house; the mind within; also a wife.

corpse (of a murdered person. v. 尸 and 毘陀羅.

屍鬼 A corpse-ghost (called up to kill an enemy).

屍陀林 śītavana, a cemetery.

屍黎密 Śrīmitra, cf. 室.


屎擔子 A load of night-soil, i.e. the human body that has to be carried about.

屎糞地獄 The excrement hell.

Ruler, sovereign; translit. t.

帝利耶瞿楡泥伽 傍行 tiryagyoni-gati; the animal path of reincarnation.

帝失羅叉 Tiṣya-rakṣitā; 'a concubine of Aśoka, the rejected lover and enemy of Kuṇāla' ( Eitel). M. W. says Aśoka's second wife.

帝居 The abode of Indra.

帝心 Title given to 杜順 Tu Shun, founder of the Huayan school, by Tang Tai Tsung.

帝沙 Tiṣya; an ancient Buddha; also the father of Śāriputra.

帝相 Indra-dhvaja, a Buddha 'said to have been a contemporary of Śākyamuni, living south-west of our universe, an incarnation of the seventh son of Mahābhijñajñānabhibhū.' Eitel.

帝釋 Sovereign Śakra; Indra; 能天帝 mighty lord of devas; Lord of the Trayastriṃśas, i.e. the thirty-three heavens 三十三天 q. v.; he is also styled 釋迦提桓因陀羅 (or 釋迦提婆因陀羅) (or 釋迦提桓因達羅 or 釋迦提婆因達羅); 釋帝桓因 Śakra-devānām Indra.

帝釋弓 (帝弓); 天弓 indradhanus, the rainbow.

帝釋巖 帝釋窟 Indraśīlāguhā, Indra's cave at Nālandā in Magadha, where Indra is supposed to have sought relief for his doubts from the Buddha.

帝釋甁 The vase of Indra, from which came all things he needed; called also 德祥甁(or 賢祥甁or 吉祥甁) vase of virtue, or of worth, or of good fortune.

帝網 (帝釋網) ? Indra-jala. The net of Indra, hanging in Indra's 宮 hall, out of which all things can be produced; also the name of an incantation considered all-powerful.

帝隸路迦也吠闍耶 Trailokya-vijaya, victor or lord over the 三世 three realms.|靑 Indranila, an emerald. 幽 Hidden, dark, mysterious. |儀 The mysterious form, the spirit of the dead. |冥 Mysterious, beyond comprehension; the shades. |途 The dark paths, i. e. of rebirth in purgatory or as hungry ghosts or animals. |靈 Invisible spirits, the spirits in the shades, the souls of the departed.

pāramitā, 波羅蜜; intp. by 渡 to ferry over; to save. The mortal life of reincarnations is the sea; nirvana is the other shore; v. pāramitā, 波. Also, to leave the world as a monk or nun, such is a 度得 or 度者.

度一切世間苦惱 Sarvalōkadhātupadravodvega-pratyuttīrṇa. ' One who redeems men from the misery of all worlds. A fictitious Buddha who dwelled west of our universe, an incarnation of the tenth son of Mahābhijñājñāna bhibhū.' Eite1.

度世 To get through life; to pass safely through this life. Also, to save the world.

度沃焦 An epithet of Buddha who rescues all the living from being consumed by their desires, which resemble the burning rock in the ocean above purgatory.

度洛叉 Daśalakṣa , 10 lakhs, a million.

度無極 To ferry across, or save, without limit.

度生 To save, rescue all beings; also idem 度世.

度科 The portion of the sutras supposed to be learned by religious novices as preparation for leaving the world as monks.

度脫 To give release from the wheel of transmigration; enlightenment.

To found, set up, establish, build.

建佗歌 Kaṇṭhaka, the horse on which Śākyamuni rode when he left home.

建志補羅 建志城 Kāñcīpura, capital of Drāviḍa, the modern Conjevaram, about 48 miles south-west of Madras.

建立 To found (a school of thought or practice); to set up; e. g. samāropa, assertion, Postulation, theory, opp. of 誹謗 apavāda, refutation.

Return, turn back, turn to, give back; a turn.

廻大入一 To turn to and enter the One Vehicle of Mahāyāna.

廻心 To turn the mind or heart towards (Mahāyāna).

廻向 The goal or direction of any discipline such as that of bodhisattva, Buddha, etc.; to devote one's merits to the salvation of others; works of supererogation.

廻施 is similar; cf. 囘向; 十廻向; 五悔; 三心; 九方便.

Stop, put down.

弭曼差 The Mīmāṃsa system of Indian philosophy founded by Jaimini, especially the Pūrva-mīmāṃsa. It was 'one of the three great divisions of orthodox Hindu Philosophy ,' M. W. Cf, the Nyāya and Saṃkhyā.

弭M067396賀 Mimaha, an ancient kingdom about seventy miles east of Samarkand, the present Moughian or Maghīn in Turkestan. ' Eitel.

Accomplished, refined.

彥琮 Yancong, a famous monk, translator and writer, A. D. 557-610.

彥悰 Yancong, Tang monk, translator and writer, date unknown.

彥達縛 Gandharva v. 乾.

To wait, treat, behave to.

待對 Relationship, in relation with, one thing associated with another.

After, behind, 1ater, posterior.

後世 The 1ife after this; later generations or ages.

後五百年 (後五 or 後五百歳) The Pratirūpaka 象法 (or 像法) symbol, formal, or image period, to begin 500 years after the Nirvana; also the last of the periods of 500 years when strife would prevail.

後光 The halo behind an image.

後唄 The third of the three chants in praise of Buddha.

後報 The retribution received in further incarnation (for the deeds' done in this life).

後夜 The third division of the night.

後得智 分別智 Detailed, or specific, knowledge or wisdom succeeding upon or arising from 根本智 fundamenta1 knowledge.

後有 Future karma; the person in the subsequent incarnation; also, the final incarnation of the arhat, or bodhisattva.

後法 像法 The latter, or symbol, age of Buddhism; see above.

後生 The after condition of rebirth; later born; youth.

後說 Spoken later, or after; the predicate of the major premise of a syllogism.

後身 The body or person in the next stage of transmigration.

vinaya, from vi-ni, to 1ead, train: discipline: v. 毘奈耶; other names are Prātimokṣa, śīla, and upalakṣa. The discipline, or monastic rules; one of the three divisions of the Canon, or Tripiṭaka, and said to have been compiled by Upāli.

律乘 The Vinaya-vehicle, the teaching which emphasizes the discipline.

律儀 Rules and ceremonies, an intuitive apprehension of which, both written and unwritten, enables the individual to act properly under all circumstances.

律儀戒 The first of the three 衆戒, i. e. to avoid evil by keeping to the discipline.

律宗 The Vinaya school, emphasizing the monastic discipline, founded in China by 道宣 Daoxuan of the Tang dynasty.

律派 The discipline branch, or school.

律師 Master and teacher of the rules of the discipline.

律懺 Repentance and penance according to the rules.

律法 The laws or methods of the discipline; rules and laws.

律相 The discipline, or its characteristics.

律禪 The two schools of Discipline and Intuition.

律藏 The Vinaya-piṭaka.

律行 The discipline in practice, to act according to the rules.

How? What? Why ? Anything.

怎生 How born? How did it arise?

Haste, urgency; promptly.

急施 Alms made under stress of urgency.

急施如律令 'Swiftly as Lu-ling runs,' used by sorcerers in their incantations.

Hate, annoyed, vexed. 恨心; 怨恨; 恨怒.

Constant; perseverance, persistence; translit. ga, ha.

恒常 Constant, regular.

恒伽河 The Ganges, v. 恒河.

恒伽提婆 Gaṅgādevī, name of a female disciple of the Buddha.

恒伽達 Gaṅgādatta, son of a wealthy landowner and disciple of the Buddha.

恒婆 (or恒亙婆), haṃsa, a goose.

恒河 恒水; 恒伽 (竸伽, 殑伽, or 強伽) Gaṅgā, the river Ganges, 'said to drop from the centre of Śiva's ear into the Anavatapta lake' (Eitel), passing through an orifice called variously ox's mouth, lion's mouth, golden elephant's mouth, then round the lake and out to the ocean on the south-east.

恒伽沙 more commonly 恒沙 gaṅgā-nadī-vālukā; as the sands of Ganges, numberless.

cint- 指底. Think, thought; turn the attention to; intp. by 心所法 mental action or contents, mentality, intellection.

思假 Thought or its content as illusion.

思惟 To consider or reflect on an object with discrimination; thought, reflection.

思惑 The illusion of thought.

思慧 The wisdom attained by meditating (on the principles and doctrines of Buddhism).

思擇力 Power in thought and selection (of correct principles).

思量 Thinking and measuring, or comparing; reasoning.

思量識 (思量能變識) The seventh vijñāna, intellection, reasoning. See also 三能變.

思食 Thought-food, mental food; to desire food.

Resentment, grievance, hatred.

怨家 怨敵 An enemy.

怨憎會苦 One of the eight sufferings, to have to meet the hateful.

怨結 The knot of hatred.

怨親 Hate and affection.

怨賊 The robber hatred, hurtful to life and goods.

怨靈 An avenging spirit or ghost.

To place, lay down, lay the hand on; examine; accord with.

按指 To make a finger-mark, or sign.

Take, lay hold of; translit. for d, n; e. g. dāmara, to affright (demons); v. 荼.

Pay respect (with the hands), worship: the forms of bowing and heeling are meticulously regulated.

拜佛 To worship the Buddhas, etc.

To gather, pick up, arrange; ten.

拾得 To gather; gathered up, picked up, a foundling.

Finger, toe; to point, indicate.

指兎 idem 指月 To indicate the hare (in the moon).

指印 To sign by a thumb-mark; a sign.

指多 質多 citta, the mind.

指方立相 To point to the west, the location of the Pure Land, and to set up in the mind the presence of Amitābha; to hold this idea, and to trust in Amitābha, and thus attain salvation. The mystics regard this as a mental experience, while the ordinary believer regards it as an objective reality.

指月 To point a finger at the moon: the finger represents the sūtras, the moon represents their doctrines.

指環 草指; 指釧 (or 草釧) Finger-ring; sometimes of grass, used by the esoteric sect.

指節 aṅgulī-parvan; finger-joint; a measure, the 24th part of a forearm (hasta).

指腹親 Related by the betrothal of son and daughter still in the womb.

指難 idem 支那 China.

指鬘 Aṅgulīmālya, name of a convert of Śākyamuni, who had belonged to a Śivaitic sect which wore chaplets of finger-bones, and 'made assassination a religious act'.

dhṛ; dhara. Lay hold of, grasp, hold, maintain, keep; control.

持句 One who holds to or retains the words (of the dhāraṇī).

持名 To hold to, i. e. rely on the name (of Amitābha).

持國者 A sovereign, ruler of a kingdom.

持國天 (or 治國天) Dhṛtarāṣṭra, one of the four deva-guardians or maharājas, controlling the east, of white colour.

持地 Dharaṇimdhara, holder, or ruler of the earth, or land; name of a Bodhisattva, who predicted the future of Avalokiteśvara.

持律 A keeper or observer of the discipline.

持念 To hold in memory.

持息念 The contemplation in which the breathing is controlled, v. ānāpāna 阿那.

持戒 To keep the commandments, or rules.

持戒波羅蜜 One of the six pāramitās, morality, keeping the moral law.

持本 Holding to the root, or fundamental; ruler of the earth, which is the root and source of all things.

持明 The dhāraṇī illuminant, i. e. the effective 'true word' or magical term.

持明仙 The magician who possesses this term.

持明藏 The canon of the dhāraṇīs; vidyādhara-piṭaka.

持水 Jātiṃdhara, a physician who adjusted prescriptions and diet to the seasons; reborn as Śuddhodana.

持法者 A keeper or protector of the Buddha-law.

持犯 'maintaining and transgressing', i. e. keeping the commandments by 止持 ceasing to do wrong and 作持 doing what is right, e. g. worship, the monastic life, etc.; transgression is also of two kinds, i. e. 作犯 positive in doing evil and 止犯 negative in not doing good.

持牛戒 Keepers of the law of oxen, an ascetic sect who ate and acted like oxen.

持瓔珞 Mālādharī, wearing a chaplet, name of a rākṣasī, or demoness.

To keep to vegetarian diet; vegetarian.

持軸山 Īṣādhara, the second of the seven concentric mountains round Mt. Meru. rounded like a hub.

持邊山 Nemiṃdhara, the outermost of the seven mountain circles around Mt. Meru.

持隻山 Yugaṃdhara: the first of the seven concentric mountains.

持金剛 執全剛 Vajradhara' or Vajrapāṇi, a Bodhisattva who holds a vajra or thunderbolt, of these there are several; a name for Indra.

持齋 To keep the fast, i. e. not eat after noon.

Government, administration, policy, politics.

政教 Political teaching, governmental education; politics and the church or religion).

Old, of old; from of old; cause; purposely; to die; tr. pūrva.

故二 pūrva-dvitīya, the former mate or wife of a monk.

故思業 (or 故作業) The karma produced by former intention.

故意 Intentionally.

故意方行位 The third to the seventh of the 十地 ten bodhisattva stages of development.

故紙 Old (or waste ) paper.

故苦 Old suffering; also the suffering resulting from prolongation, e. g. too much lying, standing, walking, at first a joy, becomes wearying.

故骨 Old bones, bones of a former incarnation or generation.

To chop; translit. ca, cha.

斫句迦 (or 拆句迦 or 所句迦) Chakoka, or Cugopa. 'An ancient kingdom and city in Little Bukharia, probably the modern Yerkiang (葉爾羌 ) in Lat. 38° 13 N., Long. 78° 49 E. ' Eitel. Or perhaps Karghalik in the Khotan region.

斫芻 (斫乞芻) cakṣu (s), the eye, one of the six organs of sense. Cakṣurdhātu is the 眼界 eye-realm, or sight-faculty. There are definitions such as the eye of body, mind, wisdom, Buddha-truth, Buddha; or human, deva, bodhisattva, dharma, and Buddha vision.

斫託羅 idem 斫迦羅 (or 柘迦羅); 遮伽羅 (or 遮迦羅); 賒羯羅 Cakra, a wheel, disc, cycle; the wheel of the sun's chariot, of time, etc.; like the vajra it is a symbol of sovereignty, of advancing or doing at will; to revolve the wheel is to manifest power or wisdom. Eitel. The cakra is one of the thirty-two signs on a Buddha's soles. It is a symbol of a 斫迦羅伐辣底 Cakravartī-rāja.

斫迦羅伐辣底 遮迦越羅; 轉輪王 Cakravartī-rāja, sovereign ruler, whose chariot wheels roll everywhere without hindrance: the extent of his realm and power are indicated by the quality of the metal, iron, copper, silver, or, for universality, gold. The highest cakravartī uses the wheel or thunder-bolt as a weapon and 'hurls his Tchakra into the midst of his enemies', but the Buddha 'meekly turns the wheel of doctrine and conquers every universe by his teaching'.

斫迦羅婆 (斫迦羅婆迦) Cakravāka, Cakrāhva, 'the ruddy goose', ' the Brāhmany duck '. M. W. The mandarin duck.

斫迦羅山 Cakravāla, Cakravāḍa, the circle of iron mountains' forming the periphery of a universe '.

dāna 檀那 Alms; charity. To give, bestow. See also 實.

施主 dānapati; an almsgiver, a patron of Buddhism.

施僧 To give alms to monks.

施化 To bestow the transforming truth.

施林 To give to the forest, i. e. burial by casting the corpse into the forest.

施無厭 (無厭寺), i. e. 那爛陀 Nālanda-saṃghārāma, a monastery seven miles north of Rājagṛha, where Xuanzang studied; built by Śakrāditya; now 'Baragong (i. e. vihāragrāma) '. Eitel.

施無畏 abhayandada; abhayadāna; the bestower of fearlessness, a title of Guanyin; a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu.

施行 The practice of charity.

施設 To set up, establish, start.

施設論部 Kārmikāḥ, the school of Karma, which taught the superiority of morality over knowledge.

施護 Dānapāla, a native of Udyāna who translated into Chinese some 111 works and in A. D. 982 received the title of Great Master and brilliant expositor of the faith.

施開廢 A Tiantai term indicating the three periods of the Buddha's teaching: (1) bestowing the truth in Hīnayāna and other partial forms; (2) opening of the perfect truth like the lotus, as in the Lotus Sutra; (3) abrogating the earlier imperfect forms.

施食 To bestow food (on monks), and on hungry ghosts.

Bright, illustrious.

昭玄寺 The bureau for nuns in the fifth century A. D.

The verb to be, is, are, etc.; right; this, these.

是心是佛 This mind is Buddha; the mind is Buddha, cf. 卽.

是處非處力 The power to distinguish right from wrong, one of the ten Buddha powers.

Tara, a star; the 25th constellation consisting of stars in Hydra; a spark.

星宿 The twenty-eight Chinese constellations 二十八宿; also the twenty-eight nakṣatras; the 十二宮 twelve rāṣi, or zodiacal mansions; and the 七曜 seven mobile stars: sun, moon, and five graha or planets; all which are used as auguries in 星占法 astrology. A list giving Sanskrit and Chinese names, etc・, is given in 佛學大辭典, pp. 1579-1 580.

星占法 astrology.

星宿劫 A future kalpa of the constellations in which a thousand Buddhas will appear.

星暦 jyotiṣa, relating to astronomy, or the calendar.

殊底色迦 Jyotiṣka; a native of Rājagṛha who gave all his goods to the poor.

星祭 星供 To sacrifice, or pay homage to a star, especially one's natal star.

How ? What ? Why ? Translit. a, ha, ra, ro.

曷利拏 hariṇa, deer of several kinds.

曷利沙伐彈那 Harṣavardhana, king of Kanyākubja, protector of Buddhism about A. D. 625.

曷剌怛那揭婆 ratnagarbha, jewel treasury, or throne.

曷剌? āraṇya, v. 阿.

曷羅怙羅 Rāhula, v. 羅.

曷羅胡 Rohu, 'an ancient city and province of Tukhāra, south of the Oxus.' Eitel.

曷羅闍姞利呬 羅閲城 Rājagṛha, v. 王舍城.

曷羅闍補羅 Rājapura, a province and city, now Rajaori in south-west Kashmir.

曷部多 adbhuta, remarkable, miraculous, supernatural.

Palisades, rails.

柵門那, idem 訕若 Saṅjaya.

Thorn, thorns; translit. ke, ki.

枳哩枳哩 Kelikila, one of the rājas who subdues demons.

枳吒 枳擔 (枳擔那) An island which rises out of the sea.

枳羅蘇 (or 枳羅婆 枳羅娑) kilasa, white leprosy, tr. as 'white' and a 'hill'.

See under Ten Strokes.

Pillar, post, support.

柱塔 A pagoda.

A spinous shrub; translit. k.

枸蘇摩 kusuma, a flower; especially the white China-aster.

枸蘇摩補羅 Kusumapura, the city of flowers, Pāṭaliputra, i. e. Patna.

枸盧舍 krośa, cf. 拘, 倶; the distance the lowing of an ox can be heard, the eighth part of a yojana.

Pliant, yielding, soft.

柔和 Gentle, forbearing, tolerant.

柔輭 (A heart) mild and pliable (responsive to the truth).

柔輭語 Gentle, persuasive words.

柔順忍 The patience of meekness, i. e. in meekness to accord with the truth.

Axe-handle; agent; translit. k, v. 呵, 迦, 哥, etc.

柯尸悲與 The Kāśyapīya school.

Wither, decay.

枯木 Withered timber, decayed, dried-up trees; applied to a class of ascetic Buddhists, who sat in meditation, never lying down, like 石霜枯木 petrified rocks and withered stumps.

枯木堂 The hall in which枯木 sat.

枯筏羅闍 1,000 sextillions, cf. 洛.

Berries of the nyctanthes or musk. āmra, a mango.

柰女 (or 柰氏) Āmradārikā, Āmrapālī, a woman who is said to have been born on a mango-tree, and to have given the Plum-garden 柰苑 (or 柰園) to the Buddha, cf. 菴羅.

A willow.

柳枝 Willow branches put in clean water to keep away evil spirits.

Cypress, cedar, Arbor vitae.

A handle; authority, power.

柄語Authoritative or pivotal words.

To dye, infect, contaminate, pollute; lust.

染垢 染汚 Soiled, contaminated, impure, especially by holding on to the illusory ideas and things of life; deluded. The kleśas or contaminations of attachment to the pleasures of the senses, to false views, to moral and ascetic practices regarded as adequate for salvation, to the belief in a self which causes suffering, etc.

染心 A mind contaminated (with desire, or sexual passion).

染恚痴 Lust, anger, stupidity (or ignorance); also 婬怒痴; 貪瞋痴.

染愛 Polluting desire.

染法 Polluted thing, i. e. all phenomena; mode of contamination.

染汚 idem 染垢.

染汚意 A name for the seventh vijñāna, the mind of contamination, i. e. in egoism, or wrong notions of the self.

染淨 Impurity and purity; the thoughts and things of desire are impure, the thoughts and methods of salvation are pure.

染淨不二門 Impurity and purity as aspects of the total reality and not fundamentally ideas apart, one of the 十不二門 q. v.

染淨眞如 The bhūtatathatā as contaminated in phenomena and as pure being.

染界 The sphere of pollution, i. e. the inhabited part of every universe, as subject to reincarnation.

染緣 The nidāna or link of pollution, which connects illusion with the karmaic miseries of reincarnation. From the 'water' of the bhūtatathatā, affected by the 'waves' of this nidāna-pollution, arise the waves of reincarnation.

染習 Contaminated by bad customs, or habit.

染著 Pollution-bond; a heart polluted by the things to which it cleaves.

染衣 (染色衣) Dyed garments, i. e. the kaṣāya of the early Indian monks, dyed to distinguish them from the white garments of the laity.

A piece; a section, paragraph. piṇda, a ball, lump, especially of palatable food, sustenance.

Contiguous; surrounded; hemmed in; liberal; to aid; manifest; translit. v, vi, vai, vya, ve, pi, bh, bhi. Cf. 鞞, 鼻, 吠.

毘佛略 vaipulya, large, spacious, intp. 方廣 q. v., expanded, enlarged. The term is applied to sūtras of an expanded nature, especially expansion of the doctrine; in Hīnayāna the Āgamas, in Mahāyāna the sutras of Huayan and Lotus type; they are found in the tenth of the 十二部經 twelve sections of the classics. Other forms are 鞞佛略 or 裴佛略; 毘富羅.

毘伽羅 vyākaraṇa, grammatical analysis, grammar; 'formal prophecy,' Keith; tr. 聲明記論 which may be intp. as a record and discussion to make clear the sounds; in other words, a grammar, or sūtras to reveal right forms of speech; said to have been first given by Brahmā in a million stanzas, abridged by Indra to 100,000, by Pāṇini to 8,000, and later reduced by him to 300. Also 毘耶羯剌諵; 毘何羯唎拏; in the form of 和伽羅 Vyākaraṇas q. v. it is prediction.

毘佉羅 (or 毘低羅) Vikāra, an old housekeeper with many keys round her waist who had charge of the Śākya household, and who loved her things so much that she did not wish to be enlightened.

毘倶胝 (or 毘倶知) Bhrūkuti, knitted brow; one of the forms of Guanyin.

毘利差 vṛkṣa means a tree, but as the intp. is 'a hungry ghost,' vṛka, wolf, seems more correct.

毘勒 piṭaka 螕勒. A Tiantai term for the 藏教 or Hīnayāna.

毘吠伽 viveka, 'discrimination, 'intp. 淸辯 clear distinction or discrimination.

媻毘吠伽 Bhāvaviveka, a disciple of Nāgārjuna, who 'retired to a rock cavern to await the coming of Maitreya'. Eitel.

毘囉拏羯車婆 vīranakacchapa, a tortoise, turtle.

毘多輸 Vītaśoka, younger brother of Aśoka, v. 阿.

毘奢蜜多羅 Viśvāmitra, name of Śākyamuni's school-teacher.

毘婆尸 Vipaśyin, 弗沙; 底沙 the first of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, Śākyamuni being the seventh. Also 毘婆沙; 毘頗沙; 毘鉢沙 (or 微鉢沙); 鞞婆沙 (or 鼻婆沙); 維衞.

毘婆沙 vibhāṣā, option, alternative, tr. 廣解 wider interpretation, or 異說 different explanation. (1) The Vibhāṣā-śāstra, a philosophical treatise by Kātyāyanīputra, tr. by Saṅghabhūti A. D. 383. The Vaibhāṣikas 毘婆沙論師 were the followers of this realistic school, 'in Chinese texts mostly quoted under the name of Sarvāstivādaḥ.' Eitel. (2) A figure stated at several tens of thousands of millions. (3) Vipaśyin, v. 毘婆尸.

毘婆舍那 (or 毘鉢舍那) vipaśyanā, discernment, intp. as 觀 insight, 正見 correct perception, or views, etc. vipaśyanā-vipaśyanā, thorough insight and perception.

毘婆闍婆提 Vibhajyavādins, answerers in detail, intp. as 分別說, discriminating explanation, or particularizing; a school of logicians. 'It is reasonable to accept the view that the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, as we have it in the Pali Canon, is the definite work of this school.' Keith.

毘富羅 vipula, 毘布羅 broad, large, spacious. A mountain near Kuśāgārapura, in Magadha; v. 毘佛略.

毘尸沙 viśeṣa, the doctrine of 'particularity or individual essence', i. e. the sui generis nature of the nine fundamental substances; it is the doctrine of the Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy founded by Kaṇāda.

毘嵐風 vairambha. The great wind which finally scatters the universe; the circle of wind under the circle of water on which the world rests. Also 毘藍 (毘藍婆) (鞞藍 or 鞞藍婆) (吠藍 or 吠藍婆); 鞞嵐; 吠嵐婆 (or 吠嵐儈伽); 毘樓那; and 毘藍婆 which is also Pralambā, one of the rākṣasīs.

毘怛迦 vitarka, 'initial attention, 'cognition in initial application,' 'judgment,' Keith; intp. as 尋 search or inquiry, and contrasted with 伺 spying out, careful examination; also as 計度 conjecture, supposition. Cf. 毘遮羅 vicāra.

毘指多婆多 vijitavat, one who has conquered, conqueror, intp. as the sun.

毘提訶 Videha, 佛提媻; 弗於逮. (1) Abbrev. for Pūrvavideha, 佛婆毘提訶 the continent east of Meru. (2) 'Another name for Vaiśālī and the region near Māthava.' Eitel.

毘摩 Bhīmā. (1) Śiva, also a form of Durgā, his wife (the terrible). (2) A city west of Khotan, possessing a statue of Buddha said to have transported itself thither from Udyāna. Eitel. Also used for 毘摩羅 vimalā, unsullied, pure; name of a river, and especially of Śiva's wife.

毘摩羅詰 鼻磨羅雞利帝; 維磨詰; Vimalakīrti, name of a disciple at Vaiśālī, whom Śākyamuni is said to have instructed, see the sūtra of this name.

毘摩質多 吠摩質呾利 Vimalacitra, a king of asuras, residing at the bottom of the ocean, father of Indra's wife.

毘播奢 Vipāśā, a river in the Punjab, 'the Hyphasis of the Greeks,' now called the Beas.

毘播迦 vipāka, ripeness, maturity, change of state; another name for the eighth 識.

毘曇 v. 阿毘達磨 Abhidharma.

毘木叉 v. 毘目叉.

毘柰耶 Vinaya, 毘那耶; 毘尼 (毘泥迦) (or 鞞尼, 鞞泥迦); 鼻那夜 Moral training; the disciplinary rules; the precepts and commands of moral asceticism and monastic discipline (said to have been given by Buddha); explained by 律 q. v ordinances; 滅 destroying sin; 調伏 subjugation of deed, word, and thought; 離行 separation from action, e. g. evil.

毘柰耶藏 The Vinayapiṭaka, the second portion of the Tripiṭaka, said to have been compiled by Upāli; cf. 律.

毘梨耶 vīrya, virility, strength, energy; 'well-doing,' Keith; intp. 精進 zeal, pure progress, the fourth of the ten pāramitās; it is also intp. as enduring shame. Also 毘利耶 (or 毘黎耶or 毘離耶); 尾唎也.

毘沙拏 viśāṇa, a horn. It is used for the single horn of the rhinoceros, as an epithet for a pratyekabuddha, v. 緣覺, whose aim is his own salvation.

毘沙門 (毘沙門天王) Vaiśravaṇa. Cf. 財 and 倶. One of the four mahārājas, guardian of the North, king of the yakṣas. Has the title 多聞; 普聞; universal or much hearing or learning, said to be so called because he heard the Buddha's preaching; but Vaiśravaṇa was son of Viśravas, which is from viśru, to be heard of far and wide, celebrated, and should be understood in this sense. Vaiśravaṇa is Kuvera, or Kubera, the Indian Pluto; originally a chief of evil spirits, afterwards the god of riches, and ruler of the northern quarter. Xuanzong built a temple to him in A. D. 753, since which he has been the god of wealth in China, and guardian at the entrance of Buddhist temples. In his right hand he often holds a banner or a lance, in his left a pearl or shrine, or a mongoose out of whose mouth jewels are pouring; under his feet are two demons. Colour, yellow.

毘沙拏五童子 The five messengers of Vaiśravaṇa. Other forms are 毗捨明; 鞞舍羅婆拏; 鞞室羅懣嚢.

毘流波叉 Virūpākṣa, 'irregular-eyed,' 'three-eyed like Śiva,' translated wide-eyed, or evil-eyed; one of the four mahārājas, guardian of the West, lord of nāgas, colour red. Also 毘流博叉 (or 毘樓博叉); 鼻溜波阿叉; 鞞路波阿迄.

毘濕婆 (or 毘濕波). A wind, said to be a transliteration of viśva, universal, cf. 毘嵐.

毘灑迦 ? Viśākhā, one of the retinue of Vaiśravaṇa.

毘璢璃 Virūḍhaka. Known as Crystal king, and as 惡生王 Ill-born king. (1) A king of Kośala (son of Prasenajit), destroyer of Kapilavastu. (2) Ikṣvāku, father of the four founders of Kapilavastu. (3) One of the four mahārājas, guardian of the south, king of kumbhāṇḍas, worshipped in China as one of the twenty-four deva āryas; colour blue. Also, 毘璢王; 流離王; 婁勒王 (毘婁勒王); 樓黎王 (維樓黎王); 毘盧釋迦王 (or 毘盧宅迦王); 鼻溜茶迦, etc.

毘盧舍那 Vairocana, 'belonging to or coming from the sun' (M. W.), i. e. light. The 眞身 q. v. true or real Buddha-body, e. g. godhead. There are different definitions. Tiantai says Vairocana represents the 法身 dharmakāya, Rocana or Locana the 報身 saṃbhogakāya, Śākyamuni the 應身 nirmāṇakāya. Vairocana is generally recognized as the spiritual or essential body of Buddha-truth, and like light 徧一切處 pervading everywhere. The esoteric school intp. it by the sun, or its light, and take the sun as symbol. It has also been intp. by 淨滿 purity and fullness, or fullness of purity. Vairocana is the chief of the Five dhyāni Buddhas, occupying the central position; and is the 大日如來 Great Sun Tathāgata. There are numerous treatises on the subject. Other forms are 毘盧; 毘盧遮那 (or 毘盧折那); 吠嚧遮那; 鞞嚧杜那.

毘目叉 vimokṣa, vimukti, 毘木叉; 毘木底 liberation, emancipation, deliverance, salvation, tr. 解脫 q. v.

毘目瞿沙 vimuktaghosa, the Buddha's voice of liberation (from all fear); also 毘目多羅.

毘睇 vidyā, 毘底牙 knowledge, learning, philosophy, science; incantation; intp. 明呪 an incantation to get rid of all delusion. The Vidyādharapiṭaka is a section of incantations, etc., added to the Tripiṭaka.

毘羅删拏 Vīrasana. 'An ancient kingdom and city in the Doab between the Ganges and the Yamuna. The modern Karsanah.' Eitel.

毘耶裟 Vyāsa, arranger, compiler; to distribute, diffuse, arrange; a sage reputed to be the compiler of the Vedas and founder of the Vedānta philosophy.

毘舍 veśa, entrance, house, adornment, prostitute; but it is probably vaiśya, the third caste of farmers and traders, explained by 居士 burghers, or 商賈 merchants; cf. 吠.

毘舍佉 Vaiśākha, viśākhā 吠舍佉; 鼻奢佉; one of the constellations similar to Di 底, the third of the Chinese constellations, in Libra; M. W. says the first month in the year, the Chinese interpret it as from the middle of their second to the middle of their third month.

毘舍佉母 鹿母 A wealthy matron who with her husband gave a vihāra to Śākyamuni, wife of Anāthapindika; v. 阿那.

毘舍支 (or 毘舍遮) ? Piśācī, female sprites, or demons, said to inhabit privies.

毘舍浮 Viśvabhū, the second Buddha of the 31st kalpa. Eitel says: 'The last (1,000th) Buddha of the preceding kalpa, the third of the Sapta Buddha 七佛 q. v., who converted on two occasions 130,000 persons.' Also 毘舍婆 (or 毘舍符); 毘濕婆部; 毘恕沙付; 毘攝羅; 鞞恕婆附; 鞞舍; 隨葉; 浮舍.

毘舍羅 Viśāla, a deity who is said to have protected the image of Buddha brought to Ming Di of the Han dynasty.

毘舍闍 Piśācāḥ. Imps, goblins, demons in the retinue of 持國天 Dhṛtarāṣtra. Also 毘舍遮 (or 畢舍遮) (or 毘舍支, 畢舍支); 辟舍柘 (or 臂舍柘).

毘舍離 吠舍離 (or 吠舍釐). Vaiśālī, an ancient kingdom and city of the Licchavis, where the second synod was held, near Basarh, or 'Bassahar, north of Patna'. Eitel. Also 毘耶 (毘耶離);毘城; 鞞舍離; 鞞隸夜; 維耶 (維耶離).

毘若底 vijñapti, information, report, representation; intp. as 識 knowledge, understanding, hence the 毘若底摩呾剌多 Vijñaptimātratā, or 唯識. Reality is nothing but representations or ideas. For 毘若南 v. 毘闍那.

毘苦媻補羅 Vichavapura. 'The ancient capital of Sindh.' Eitel.

毘茶 Bhiḍa, or Pañca-nada, an ancient kingdom called after its capital of Bhiḍa; the present Punjab. Eilel.

毘訖羅摩阿迭多 Vikramāditya, Valour-sun, intp. as surpassing the sun, a celebrated king who drove out the Sakas, or Scythians, and ruled over northern India from 57 B. C., patron of literature and famous benefactor of Buddhism. Also 馝柯羅摩阿迭多.

毘訶羅 vihāra, a pleasure garden, monastery, temple, intp. as 遊行處 place for walking about, and 寺 monastery, or temple. Also 鼻訶羅; 鞞訶羅; 尾賀羅.

毘訶羅波羅 vihārapāla, the guardian of a monastery.

毘訶羅莎弭 vihārasvāmin, the patron or bestower of the monastery.

毘跋耶斯 The smṛti-upasthāna 四念處, or four departments of memory; possibly connected with Vipaśyanā, v. 毘婆.

毘遮羅 vicāra, 'applied attention,' Keith, cf. 毘怛迦 intp. as pondering, investigating; the state of the mind in the early stage of dhyāna meditation.

毘那夜加 vināyaka, a hinderer, the elephant god, Ganeśa; a demon with a man's body and elephant's head, which places obstacles in the way.

毘那怛迦 毘泥吒迦 vinataka, bowed, stooping, is used with the same meaning as 毘那夜加, and also [Vinataka] for the sixth of the seven concentric circles around Mt. Meru; any mountain resembling an elephant. Also 毘那耶加; 頻那也迦; 毘那耶怛迦; 吠那怛迦. For 毘那耶 v. 毘柰耶.

毘闍那 vijñāna, 毘若南 'consciousness or intellect', knowledge, perception, understanding, v. 識.

毘陀 The Vedas; also 皮陀; 圍陀; 韋陀.

毘陀羅 vetāla, an incantation for raising a corpse to kill another person.

毘離耶犀那 Viryasena, an instructor of Xuanzang at the Bhadravihāra, v. 跋.

毘頭利 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli, one of the seven precious things. [ Vaiḍūrya] A mountain near Vārāṇasī. Also 毘璢璃 or 吠璢璃; 鞞稠利夜.

毘首羯磨 (毘首) Viśvakarman, all-doer, or maker, the Indian Vulcan, architect of the universe and patron of artisans; intp. as minister of Indra, and his director of works. Also 毘守羯磨; 毘濕縛羯磨.

Ford, ferry, place of crossing a stream.

津梁 A bridge or ferry across a stream; i. e. religion.

津送 To escort to the ferry, either the living to deliverance or more generally the dead; to bid goodbye (to a guest).

An islet; a continent.

洲渚 An island, i. e. cut off, separated a synonym for nirvāṇa.

To wash, cleanse.

洗淨 Cleansing, especially after stool.

To leak, diminish.

洩瑟知林 Yaṣṭivana, forest of the bamboo staff which took root when thrown away by the Brahman who did not believe the Buddha was 16 feet in height; but he more he measured the taller grew the Buddha, hence his chagrin. Name of a forest near Rājagṛha.

jīva, jīvaka; alive, living, lively, revive, movable.

活國 ? Ghūr, or Ghori, name of an ancient country in Turkestan, which Eitel gives as Lat. 35°41N., Long. 68°59E., mentioned in Xuanzang's Records of Western Countries, 12.

活佛 A living Buddha, i. e. a reincarnation Buddha e. g. Hutuktu, Dalai Lama, etc.

活兒子 A name for the bodhi-tree.

活命 Life, living; to revive.

洴舍 Bimbisāra, v. 頻.

A hole, cave; to see through, know.

洞山 Cave hill or monastery in Yün-chou, modern Jui-chou, Kiangsi, noted for its T'ang teacher悟本 Wu-pen.

洞家 洞上; 洞下 refer to the 曹洞 school of 慧能 Huineng.

Luoyang 洛陽, the ancient capital of China.

洛叉 or 洛沙 lakṣa, a lakh, 100,000. The series of higher numbers is as follows:
度洛叉 a million,
兆倶胝 10 millions,
京末陀 100 millions,
秭阿多 1,000 millions,
垓大秭阿廋多 10,000 millions,
壤那廋多 100,000 millions,
溝大壤那廋多 1 billion,
澗鉢羅廋多 10 billions,
正大澗鉢羅廋多 100 billions,
戴矜羯羅; 甄迦羅 1,000 billions,
大戴矜羯羅; 大甄迦羅 10,000 billions,
頻婆羅 (or 頻跋羅) 100,000 billions,
大頻婆羅 (or 大頻跋羅) 1 trillion,
阿閦婆 (or 阿芻婆) 10 trillions,
大阿閦婆 (or 大阿芻婆) 100 trillions,
毘婆訶1,000 trillions,
大毘婆訶 10,000 trillions,
嗢蹭伽 100,000 trillions,
大嗢蹭伽 1 quadrillion,
婆喝那 10 quadrillions,
大婆喝那 100 quadrillions,
地致婆 1,000 quadrillions,
大地致婆 10,000 quadrillions,
醯都 100,000 quadrillions,
大醯都 1 quintillion,
羯縛 10 quintillions,
大羯縛 100 quintillions,
印達羅 1,000 quintillions,
大印達羅 10,000 quintillions,
三磨鉢躭 100,000 quintillions,
大三磨鉢躭 1 sextillion,
揭底 10 sextillions,
大揭底 100 sextillions,
枯筏羅闍 1,000 sextillions,
大枯筏羅闍 10,000 sextillions,
姥達羅 100,000 sextillions,
大姥達羅 1 septillion,
跋藍 10 septillions,
大跋藍 100 septillions,
珊若 1,000 septillions,
大珊若 10,000 septillions,
毘歩多 100,000 septillions,
大毘歩多 1 octillion,
跋羅攙 10 octillions,
大跋羅攙 100 octillions,
阿僧企耶 asaṃkhyeya, innumerable.

Charcoal, coal.

炭頭 The fire-tender in a monastery.

Precious; rare.

珍域 The precious region, or Pure Land of a Buddha.

珍寶 A pearl; jewel; precious thing.

珍重 To esteem and treat as precious.

White jade shell; translit. k, khr.

珂但尼 佉陀 (or 佉闍尼) khādanīya, food that can be masticated, or eaten.

珂咄羅 Kotlan, 'an ancient kingdom west of the Tsung-ling, south of the Karakal lake, in Lat. 39°N., Long. 72°E.' Eitel.

珂月 The jade-like or pearly moon.

珂貝 Jade (or white quartz) and shells (cowries), used as money in ancient times.

珂雪 Snow-white as jade (or white quartz).

玻璃 sphaṭika. Rock crystal, one of the seven precious things. Also 頗梨 or 頗黎; 塞頗致迦, etc.

Coral; translit. for san, saṃ.

珊尼羅闍 Sanirājā, a river of Udyāna.

珊明 pravāḍa, or prabāla, coral, one of the seven treasures.

珊若 sañjñā, 'a particularly high number,' M. W. 1,000 septillions, a 大珊若 is 10,000 septillions.

珊若婆 A wasting disease.

珊闍邪毘羅胝 (or 珊闍夜毘羅胝) Sañjaya-vairāṭi, a king of yakṣas; also the teacher of Maudgalyāyana and Śāriputra before their conversion.

What? any; very, extreme.

甚深 The profundity (of Buddha-truth).

dhātu. 馱都 Whatever is differentiated; a boundary, limit, region; that which is contained or limited, e. g. the nature of a thing; provenance; a species, class, variety; the underlying principle; the root or underlying principles of a discourse.

界內 Within the region, limited, within the confines of the 三界, i. e. the three regions of desire, form, and formlessness, and not reaching out to the infinite.

界內事教 Tiantai's term for the Tripiṭaka school, i. e. Hīnayāna, which deals rather with immediate practice, confining itself to the five skandhas, twelve stages, and eighteen regions, and having but imperfect ideas of 空 the illimitable.

界內理教 Tiantai's 通教, which is considered to be an advance in doctrine on the 界內事教, partially dealing with the 空 and advancing beyond the merely relative. Cf. 界外.

界內教 The two schools of 界內事教 and 界內理教.

界內惑 Illusion of the two schools of 界內事教 and 界內理教; illusion of, or in, the above three realms which gives rise to rebirths.

界分 Any region or division, especially the regions of desire, form, and formlessness.

界外 The pure realms, or illimitable 'spiritual' regions of the Buddhas outside the three limitations of desire, form, and formlessness.

界外事教 Tiantai's term for the 別教, which concerned itself with the practice of the bodhisattva life, a life not limited to three regions of reincarnation, but which had not attained to its fundamental principles.

界外理教 Tiantai's 圓教 the school of the complete Buddha-teaching, i. e. that of Tiantai, which concerns itself with the śūnya doctrines of the infinite, beyond the realms of reincarnation, and the development of the bodhisattva in those realms.

界外教 The two schools of 界外事教 and 界外理教.

界如 The 十界 and 十如 q. v.

界繫 The karma which binds to the finite, i. e. to any one of the three regions.

界趣 The three regions (desire, form, and formlessness) and the six paths (gati), i. e. the spheres of transmigration.

Itch, the itch, scabby.

疥癩野干 A scabby dog, or jackal.


皆空 All is empty and void.

idem 歸.

皈依 To turn to and rely on the triratna.

Bowl, basin, tub.

盆會 The All-Souls anniversary, v. 盂.

Look into minutely, inspect, examine; arouse; spare, save; an inspectorate, hence a province.

省行堂 another name for 延壽堂.

Look, see; watch over.

看方便 To fix the mind or attention, a Chan (Zen) term.

看病 To nurse the sick; also to attend a patient medically.

Eyebrow, the eyebrows.

眉間白毫相 ūrṇā. The curl of white hairs, between the eyebrows of the Buddha, one of the thirty-two signs of Buddhahood.

眉間光 The ray of light which issued from the 眉間白毫相 lighting up all worlds, v. Lotus Sutra.

lakṣana 攞乞尖拏. Also, nimitta. A 'distinctive mark, sign', 'indication, characteristic', 'designation'. M. W. External appearance; the appearance of things; form; a phenomenon 有爲法 in the sense of appearance; mutual; to regard. The four forms taken by every phenomenon are 生住異滅 rise, stay, change, cease, i. e. birth, life, old age, death. The Huayan school has a sixfold division of form, namely, whole and parts, together and separate, integrate and disintegrate. A Buddha or Cakravartī is recognized by his thirty-two lakṣana , i. e. his thirty-two characteristic physiological marks.

相性 Form and nature; phenomenon and noumenon.

相似 Alike, like, similar, identical.

相似佛 Approximation or identity of the individual and Buddha, a doctrine of Tiantai; the stage of 十信.

相似卽 (相似卽佛) One of the six of the 相似佛 identities, similarity in form.

相似覺 The approximate enlightenment which in the stages of 十住, 十行and 十廻向 approximates to perfect enlightenment by the subjection of all illusion; the second of the four degrees of bodhi in the Awakening of Faith 起信論.

相入 Mutual entry; the blending of things, e. g. the common light from many lamps.

相分 An idea, a mental eject; a form.

相卽 Phenomenal identity, e. g. the wave is water and water the wave.

相名五法 v. 五法.

相違因 Mutually opposing causes; one of the 十因.

相大 The greatness of the potentialities, or attributes of the Tathāgata; v. the Awakening of Faith 起信論.

相好 lakṣana-vyañjana; the thirty-two 相 or marks and the eighty 好 or signs on the physical body of Buddha. The marks a Buddha's saṃbhogakāya number 84,000. 相 is intp. as larger signs, 好 as smaller; but as they are also intp. as marks that please, 好 may be a euphemism for 號.

相宗 idem 法相宗.

相對 Opposite, opposed; in comparison.

相待 The doctrine of mutual dependence or relativity of all things for their existence, e. g. the triangle depends on its three lines, the eye on things having colour and form, long on short.

相想倶絶宗 One of the ten schools, as classified by Hsien-shou of Huayan, which sought to eliminate phenomena and thought about them, in favour of intuition.

相應 Response, correspond, tally, agreement, yukta, or yoga, interpreted by 契合 union of the tallies, one agreeing or uniting with the other.

相應因 Corresponding, or mutual causation, e. g. mind, or mental conditions causing mentation, and vice versa.

相應宗 Yoga, the sect of mutual response between the man and his object of worship, resulting in correspondence in body, mouth, and mind, i. e. deed, word, and thought; it is a term for the Shingon or 眞言 school.

相應法 The correspondence of mind with mental data dependent on five correspondences common to both, i. e. the senses, reasoning, process, time, and object.

相應阿笈摩 The Saṃyuktāgamas, or 'miscellaneous' āgamas; v. 阿.

相應縛 The bond (of illusion) which hinders the response of mind to the higher data.

相智 Knowledge derived from phenomena.

相承 Mutually receiving, handing on and receiving, mutually connected.

相無生 Unreal in phenomena, e. g. turtle-hair or rabbit's horns; the unreality of phenomena, one of the 三無生.

相空 The unreality of form; the doctrine that phenomena have no reality in themselves, in contrast with that of Hīnayāna which only held that the ego had no reality.

相縛 To be bound by externals, by the six guṇas, or objects of sensation. Cf. 相應縛.

相續 santati. Continuity, especially of cause and effect.

相續假 Illusory ideas continuously succeed one another producing other illusory ideas, one of the three hypotheses of the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra.

相續常 Nodal or successive continuity in contrast with 不斷常 uninterrupted continuity.

相續心 A continuous mind, unceasing thought.

相續相 Continuity of memory, or sensation, in regard to agreeables or disagreeables, remaining through other succeeding sensations, cf. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

相續識 Continuity-consciousness which never loses any past karma or fails to mature it.

相輪 The sign or form of wheels, also 輪相, i. e. the nine wheels or circles at the top of a pagoda.

To pity; boast; attend to; vigorous.

矜哀 To pity.

矜羯羅 金伽羅 Kiṃkara, a servant, slave; the seventh of the eight messengers of 不重明王.

Gravel, sand.

以砂施佛 The legend of Aśoka when a child giving a handful of gravel as alms to the Buddha in a previous incarnation, hence his rebirth as a king.

Xian, commonly but incorrectly written 祅 a Western Asian name for Heaven, or the 天神 God of Heaven, adopted by the Zoroastrians and borrowed later by the Manicheans; also intp. as Maheśvara.

祆寺 A Manichean monastery.

祆教 (or 末尼教) The Manichean religion.

yācñā. Pray; prayer is spoken of as absent from Hīnayāna, and only known in Mahāyāna, especially in the esoteric sect.

祈禱 祈念; 祈請 To pray, beg, implore, invite.

祈雨 To pray for rain.

祈願 To vow.

The Earth-Spirit; repose; vast; translit. j, g.

祇哆槃那 (or 祇哆槃林); 祇園 (祇園精舍); 祇樹園; 祇樹給孤獨園; 祇樹花林窟; 祇桓林 (or 祇洹林); 祇陀林 (or 祇陀園); also 逝 or 誓多, etc. Jetavana, a park near Śrāvastī, said to have been obtained from Prince Jeta by the elder Anāthapiṇḍika, in which monasterial buildings were erected, the favourite resort of Śākyamuni. Two hundred years later it is said to have been destroyed by fire, rebuilt smaller 500 years after, and again a century later burnt down; thirteen years afterwards it was rebuilt on the earlier scale but a century later entirely destroyed. This is the account given in 法苑珠林 39.

祇多蜜 Gītamitra, tr. 謌友 'friend of song', who in the fourth century tr. some twenty-five works into Chinese.

祇夜 geya, singing; geyam, a song; preceding prose repeated inverse; odes in honour of the saints; cf. 伽陀 gāthā.

祇支 v. 僧祇支.

祇陀 Jetṛ; Jetā; victor, a prince of Śrāvastī, son of king Prasenajit, and previous owner of the Jetavana.

A monkey; begin; the 巳 hour, 9-11 a. m.

禺中 the middle of the 巳 hour, 10 a. m. Tiantai called the fourth period of Buddha's teaching the 禺中.

A class, lesson, examination.

科文 A set portion of a book, a lesson.

科儀 The rule of the lesson.

穿 To bore, pierce; to thread; to don, put on. To bore a well and gradually discover water, likened to the gradual discovery of the Buddha-nature.

穿耳僧 Pierced-ear monks, many of the Indian monks wore ear-rings; Bodhidharma was called 穿耳客 the ear-pierced guest.

Rush out; protrude; rude; suddenly.

突婆 dhūpa, incense, frankincense, fragrant gum; intp. as 茅香 lemon-grass, perhaps Andropogen nardus.

突吉羅 突膝吉栗多 (or 突悉吉栗多); 突瑟 ? 理多 duṣkṛta (Pali dukkaṭa), wrong-doing, evil action, misdeed, sin; external sins of body and mouth, i. e. deed and word. Cf. 吉羅.

突迦 Durgā, Bhīmā, or Marīci, 'the wife of Maheśvara, to whom human flesh was offered once a year in autumn.' Eitel.

突路拏 Droṇa, a Brahman who is said to have divided the cremation remains of the Buddha to prevent strife for them among contending princes.

To record; regulate; a year, a period (of twelve years).

紀綱寮 The office of the director of duties.

Tassels; the Uigur tribe; a knot.

紇利陀耶 紇利倶; 紇哩陀耶 (or紇哩乃耶or 紇哩娜耶); 訖利駄耶; 釳陀陀; 汗栗駄; 肝栗大 hṛdaya, the heart, the mind; some forms are applied to the physical heart, others somewhat indiscriminately to the Tathāgata-heart, or the true, natural, innocent heart.

紇哩 or 紇利 (紇利倶); 纈利 hrīḥ is a germ-word of Amitābha and Guanyin.

紇差怛羅 kṣetra, a land, country, especially a Buddha-realm, cf. 刹.

紇露悉泥 Hrosminkan or Semenghān, an ancient kingdom near Khulm and Kunduz. 'Lat. 35゜40 N., Long. 68゜ 22 E. ' Eitel.

aruṇa, rakta; red.

紅教 紅衣派 The red sect, i. e. the Zva-dmar, or Shamar, the older Lamaistic sect of Tibet, who wear red clothes and hats.

紅蓮花 padma, the red lotus.

紅蓮地獄 The red lotus hell, the seventh of the eight cold hells, where the flesh of the sufferers bursts open like red lotuses.

Bind, restrain; agree, covenant; about.

約機 To avail oneself of opportunity, or suitable conditions.

約教 約部 According to their doctrine or according to their school.

約法 According to the doctrine, or method.

Fine, handsome, beautiful, admirable. madhura, sweet, pleasant.

美音 Beautiful sound, a king of the Gandharvas (乾闥婆), Indra's musicians. Also, the name of a son of Sudhīra and Sumitra converted by Ānanda.

美音天女 (美音); 妙音天 Sarasvatī, 薩囉薩筏底 the Muse of India, goddess of speech and learning, hence called 大辯才天, goddess of rhetoric; she is the female energy or wife of Brahmā, and also goddess of the river Sarasvatī.

To endure, bear.

耐怨害忍 The patience which endures enmity and injury.

耐秣陀 Narmadā, the modern Nerbudda river.

An interrogative particle; translit. for jha, ya.

耶旬 耶維 cf 荼毘 jhāpita, cremation.

耶婆 yava, barely; a barleycorn, the 2,688,000th part of yojana; also a measure in general of varying weight and length.

耶婆提 Yavana, Yavadvīpa, i. e. Java.

耶婆盧吉帝 Avalokiteśvara cf. 觀音.

耶舍 Yaśas, or 耶舍陀 Yaśojā. There were two persons of this name: (1) a disciple of Ānanda; (2) another who is said to have 'played an important part in connection with the second synod'.

耶輸陀羅 (耶輸陀); 耶輸多羅. 耶戍達羅 Yaśodharā; the wife of Śākyamuni, mother of Rāhula, who became a nun five years after her husband's enlightenment. She is to become the Buddha Raśmi-śata-sahasra-paripūrṇa-dhvaja; v. Lotus Sutra. Her name was also Gopā, 瞿波; 劬毘那 is perhaps Gopī.

M029375 v. 僧.

Back, behind; turn the back on, go contrary on the back.

背念 To turn one's back to; carry on the transmigration life and abide quietly in the nirvāṇa-mind.

背捨 To turn the back on and leave the (the world).

背正 To turn the back on Buddha-truth.

背鱠經屛 To mince fish on the back of an image, and paste up the scriptures as a screen from the wind— a man without conscience.

How? Why? Hun; Turk; random; hemp; long-lived; pepper, etc.; translit. go, hu.

胡亂 Disorderly, without order.

胡嚧遮那 gorocanā, 'a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow.' M. W.

胡子 Hun, or Turk, a term applied to the people west and north of China; a nickname for Bodhidharma.

胡種族 Of West Asian race, a term applied to the Buddha, as the sūtras were also styled 胡經 Hun classics and 老胡 Old Hun was also a nickname for the Buddha.

老胡 Old Hun was also a nickname for the Buddha.

胡蘇多 A charm, or incantation against evil vapours, etc.

胡跪 The Hun way of kneeling, right knee on the ground, left knee up.

胡道人 Monks from Central Asia or India.

胡實健 Hujikan, 'an ancient kingdom south-west of Balkh... in Lat. 35°20′N., Long. 65°E.' Eitel.

Placenta, womb; bladder.

胞胎 Womb, uterine, v. 胎生.

garbha, the womb, uterus.

胎內五位 The five periods of the child in the uterus.

胎外五位 The five periods of the child after birth, i. e. infancy, childhood, youth, middle age, old age.

胎卵濕化 The four yoni or modes of birth— womb-born, egg-born, spawn-born, and born by transformation (e. g. moths, certain deities, etc. ).

胎大日 Vairocana in the Garbhadhātu.

胎獄 胎宮 The womb prison, the womb regarded as a prison; see胎生.

胎生 Uterine birth, womb-born. Before the differentiation of the sexes birth is supposed to have been by transformation. The term is also applied to beings enclosed in unopened lotuses in paradise, who have not had faith in Amitābha but trusted to their own strength to attain salvation; there they remain for proportionate periods, happy, but without the presence of the Buddha, or Bodhisattvas, or the sacred host, and do not hear their teaching. The condition is known as 胎宮, the womb-palace.

胎藏界 Garbhadhātu, or Garbhakośa-(dhātu), the womb treasury, the universal source from which all things are produced; the matrix; the embryo; likened to a womb in which all of a child is conceived— its body, mind, etc. It is container and content; it covers and nourishes; and is the source of all supply. It represents the 理性 fundamental nature, both material elements and pure bodhi, or wisdom in essence or purity; 理 being the garbhadhātu as fundamental wisdom, and 智 acquired wisdom or knowledge, the vajradhātu. It also represents the human heart in its innocence or pristine purity, which is considered as the source of all Buddha-pity and moral knowledge. And it indicates that from the central being in the maṇḍala, viz. the Sun as symbol of Vairocana, there issue all the other manifestations of wisdom and power, Buddhas, bodhisattvas, demons, etc. It is 本覺 original intellect, or the static intellectuality, in contrast with 始覺 intellection, the initial or dynamic intellectuality represented in the vajradhātu; hence it is the 因 cause and vajradhātu the 果 effect; though as both are a unity, the reverse may be the rule, the effect being also the cause; it is also likened to 利他 enriching others, as vajradhātu is to 自利 enriching self. Kōbō Daishi, founder of the Yoga or Shingon 眞言 School in Japan, adopted the representation of the ideas in maṇḍalas, or diagrams, as the best way of revealing the mystic doctrine to the ignorant. The garbhadhātu is the womb or treasury of all things, the universe; the 理 fundamental principle, the source; its symbols are a triangle on its base, and an open lotus as representing the sun and Vairocana. In Japan this maṇḍala is placed on the east, typifying the rising sun as source, or 理. The vajradhātu is placed west and represents 智 wisdom or knowledge as derived from 理 the underlying principle, but the two are essential one to the other, neither existing apart. The material and spiritual; wisdom-source and intelligence; essence and substance; and similar complementary ideas are thus portrayed; the garbhadhātu may be generally considered as the static and the vajradhātu as the dynamic categories, which are nevertheless a unity. The garbhadhātu is divided into 三部 three sections representing samādhi or quiescence, wisdom-store, and pity-store, or thought, knowledge, pity; one is called the Buddha-section, the others the Vajra and Lotus sections respectively; the three also typify vimokṣa, prajñā, and dharmakāya, or freedom, understanding, and spirituality. There are three heads of these sections, i. e. Vairocana, Vajrapāṇi, and Avalokiteśvara; each has a mother or source, e. g. Vairocana from Buddha's-eye; and each has a 明王 or emanation of protection against evil; also a śakti or female energy; a germ-letter, etc. The diagram of five Buddhas contains also four bodhisattvas, making nine in all, and there are altogether thirteen 大院 or great courts of various types of ideas, of varying numbers, generally spoken of as 414. Cf. 金剛界; 大日; 兩部.

胎金 The Garbhadhātu and the Vajradhātu.

Thatch; mat; mourning.

苫婆羅 擔歩羅 jambhala, jambhīra, the citron tree, Blyxa octandra.

苫末羅 camara, name of several plants, āmra, betel-nut, etc.; the resort of 'golden-winged birds'.


茅蓋頭 A handful of thatch to cover one's head, a hut, or simple monastery.

If; as, like; the said; translit. j or sounds.

若那 (or 若南); 惹那那 jñāna, tr. by 智knowledge, understanding, intellectual judgments, as compared with 慧 wisdom, moral judgments; prajñā is supposed to cover both meanings.

若提子 Jñātīputra, v. 尼 Nirgranthajñāti.


茂泥 文尼; 牟尼 muni, a solitary, a recluse, e. g. Śākyamuni, the recluse of the Śākya family; genī; intp. as one who seeks solitude, and one who is able to be kind.

茂羅三部盧 Mūlasthānapura, the modern Multan.

茂遮 moca, the plantain tree, musa sapientum, associated with the idea of liberation from the passions.


苾芻 煏芻; 比丘 q. v. bhikṣu, a beggar, religious mendicant; a Buddhist monk.

苾芻尼 bhikṣuṇī, a nun.

苾芻律儀 The 250 rules for monks.

A park, imperial park, a collection: v. Jetavana 祇.

苑公四教 v. 四教.

duḥkha, 豆佉 bitterness; unhappiness, suffering, pain, distress, misery; difficulty. There are lists of two, three, four, five, eight, and ten categories; the two are internal, i. e. physical and mental, and external, i. e. attacks from without. The four are birth, growing old, illness, and death. The eight are these four along with the pain of parting from the loved, of meeting with the hated, of failure in one's aims, and that caused by the five skandhas; cf. 四諦.

苦厄 The obstruction caused by pain, or suffering.

苦因 The cause of pain.

苦域 The region of misery, i. e. every realm of reincarnation.

苦性 The nature of misery; a sorrowful spirit.

苦惱 Misery and trouble; distress.

苦智 The knowledge or understanding of the axiom of suffering.

苦本 The root of misery, i. e. desire.

苦果 The physical and mental suffering resulting from evil conduct (chiefly in previous existences).

苦業 The karma of suffering.

苦河 Misery deep as a river.

苦津 The deep ford or flood of misery which must be crossed in order to reach enlightenment.

苦海 The ocean of misery, its limitlessness.

苦法智 The knowledge of the law of suffering and the way of release, one of the 八智. 苦法智忍 q. v.

苦空 Misery and unreality, pain and emptiness.

苦網 The net of suffering.

苦縛 The bond of suffering.

苦苦 duḥkha-duḥkhatā. The pain or painfulness of pain; pain produced by misery or pain; suffering arising from external circumstances, e. g. famine, storm, sickness, torture, etc.

苦蘊 The bundle of suffering, i. e. the body as composed of the five skandhas.

苦行 duṣkara-caryā, undergoing difficulties, hardships, or sufferings; also tapas, burning, torment; hence asceticism, religious austerity, mortification.

苦行林 木瓜林 Uruvilvā-kāśyapa, the forest near Gayā where Śākyamuni underwent rigorous ascetic discipline; v. 優.

苦言 Bitter words, words of rebuke.

苦諦 (苦聖諦) duḥkaha-ārya-satyam. The first of the four dogmas, that of suffering; v. 苦集.

苦輪 The wheel of suffering, i. e. reincarnation.

苦道 The path of suffering; from illusion arises karma, from karma suffering, from suffering illusion, in a vicious circle.

苦際 The limit of suffering, i. e. entrance to nirvāṇa.

苦陰 The body with its five skandhas 五陰 enmeshed in suffering.

苦集 samudaya, arising, coming together, collection, multitude. The second of the four axioms, that of 'accumulation', that misery is intensified by craving or desire and the passions, which are the cause of reincarnation.

苦集滅道 The four axioms or truths: i. e. duḥkha, pain; samudaya, as above; nirodha, the extinguishing of pain and reincarnation; mārga, the way to such extinction; cf. 四諦.

苦類智 The wisdom which releases from suffering in all worlds.

苦類忍 (苦類智忍) One of the eight forms of endurance arising out of 苦類智, v. 八忍.

苦餘 Remains of suffering awaiting the Hīnayāna disciple who escapes suffering in this world, but still meets it in succeeding worlds.

Overflow, inundate; abundant; ample; superfluous; fertile; used in 摩訶衍 Mahāyāna.

衍門 The ample door, school, or way, the Mahāyāna.

Important, essential, necessary, strategic; want, need; about to; intercept; coerce; agree, etc.

要妙 The essential and mystic nature (of Buddha-truth).

要文 The important text or texts.

要旨 The important meaning or aim.

要津 The ford, or road.

要行 The essential mode of action, or conduct.

要言 Important, or essential words.

要門 Essential or strategic way.

To reckon, count (on); scheme; add to, annex; translit. ke; cf. 髻, 鷄.

計名字相 The stage of giving names (to seeming things, etc. ), v. 六麤. Cf. Awakening of Faith 起信論.

計度 tarka; vitarka, conjecture, reckon, calculate, differentiate.

計我實有宗 The sect that reckons on, or advocates, the reality of personality.

計捨羅 計薩羅 (or 鷄薩羅) kesara, hair, filament, intp. as stamens and pistils.

計着 To maintain determinedly, bigotedly, on the basis of illusory thinking.

計都 計部; 鷄都 or 兜 ketu, any bright appearance, comet, ensign, eminent, discernment, etc.; the name of two constellations to the left and right of Aquila.

Chaste, lucky.

貞實 Pure and true.

To bear on the back; turn the back on; Iose.

負門 Positions that have been withdrawn from in argument; defeated.

To go to, or into.

赴火外道 Ascetics who burn themselves alive.

赴請 To go in response to an invitation; go to invite.

赴機 To go or to preach according to the need or opportunity.

An army; military; martial; translit. kuṇ, cf. 君.

軍持 Kuṇḍi, Guanyin with the vase, also 軍M040652 (or 鍕M040652); 運M063616; 君持; 君遲; also 君稚迦 (or 捃稚迦) for Kuṇḍikā, idem. 君持 and 君遲 are also used for kuḍikā, an ascetic's water-bottle.

君荼 kuṇḍa, firepot, brazier, or fire-hole used by the esoterics in fire-worship.

君荼利 君遲 kuṇḍalin, ring-shaped, intp. as a vase, bottle.

君荼利明王 Amṛta, v. 阿, one of the five ming wang, the ambrosia king, also known as a 夜叉 yakṣa in his fierce form of queller of demons.

君那 kuṇḍa, a flower, perhaps jasmine, oleander, or Boswellia thurifera.

A rut, rule; axle.

軌持 A rule and its observance, intp. as to know the rule or doctrine and hold it without confusion with other rules or doctrines.

軌範 Rule, mode.

軌範師 A teacher of rules, discipline, morals; an ācārya.

軌儀 Rule, form.

v. 廻.

Narrate, publish, narration.

述嚕怛羅 戍縷多 śrotra, the ear.

Translit. ka, ; cf. 伽; 各; 嘎; 揭; 柯; 箇; 紺; 羯.

迦利 Kali, strife, striver; ill-born; also 迦梨; 迦棃; 迦藍浮; 迦羅富; 迦陵伽王; 哥利 (or 歌利); 羯利 Kalirāja, Kalingarāja, a king of Magadha noted for his violence; it is said that in a former incarnation he cut off the ears, nose, and hands of the Buddha, who bore it all unmoved; cf. Nirvāṇa sūtra, 31.

迦利沙 (迦利沙那) karṣa, karṣana; dragging, pulling, ploughing; a weight, intp. as half a Chinese ounce.

迦利沙波拏 kārṣāpaṇa, tr. as 400 candareens, but the weights vary; also 迦利沙般拏 (or 迦利沙婆拏or 迦利沙鉢拏); 羯迦利鉢那 (or 羯迦利鉢拏); 罽利沙盤.

迦吒富單那 Kaṭapūtana, 羯迦布怛那 pretas, or demons, of remarkably evil odour.

迦奢 kāśa, a species of grass, used for mats, thatch, etc.; personified as one of Yama's attendants. M. W. Eitel says a broom made of it and used by Śākyamuni 'is still an object of worship'.

迦奢布羅 Kāśapura, a city which Eitel locates between Lucknow and Oudh.

迦尸 Kāśī 迦私, a place said to be so called because its bamboos were good for arrows, north of Kosala; but it is also given by M. W. as Benares.

迦尼迦 kanaka, or kanika; a tree or plant, probably a kind of sandal-wood.

迦布德迦 kapotaka, 迦逋唐 a dove, pigeon.

迦布德迦伽藍 鴿園 Kapotaka-saṃghārāma, a monastery of the Sarvāstivādaḥ school, so called because the Buddha in a previous incarnation is said to have changed himself into a pigeon and to have thrown himself into the fire in order to provide food for a hunter who was prevented from catching game because of Buddha's preaching. When the hunter learned of Buddha's power, he repented and attained enlightenment.

迦師 ? kṛsara, 'rice and peas boiled together'; 'grain and sesamum.' M. W. It is intp. as a wheat porridge.

迦摩 kāma, desire, love, wish. A hungry spirit.

迦摩浪迦 Kāmalaṅkā, an ancient country 'probably part of the present Chittagong opposite the mouth of the Ganges'. Eitel.

迦摩羅 (or 迦末羅) kāmalā, jaundice.

迦摩縷波 Kāmarūpa, now Kamrup; 'an ancient kingdom formed by the western portion of Assam.' Eitel.

迦摩駄都 Kāmadhātu; the realm of desire, of sensuous gratification; this world and the six devalokas; any world in which the elements of desire have not been suppressed.

迦旃 (迦旃延子) Kātyāyana; Mahākātyāyana; Mahākātyāyanīputra; one of the ten noted disciples of Śākyamuni. The foundation work of the Abhidharma philosophy; viz. the Abhidharma-jñāna-prasthāna-śāstra, has been attributed to him, but it is by an author of the same name 300 to 500 years later. Other forms are 迦多桁那; 迦多桁尼子(or 迦多演尼子); 迦底耶夜那; 迦氈延 (尼子). There are others of the same name; e. g. the seventh of the ten non-Buddhist philosophers, perhaps Kakuda Kātyāyana, associated with mathematics, but spoken of as 'a violent adversary of Śākyamuni.' M. W.

迦曇波 (or 迦曇婆) kadamba, a tree or plant with fragrant lowers; the Nauclea cadamba; the mustard plant.

迦柘 kāca, glass, crystal; tr. as a precious stone.

迦梨沙舍尼 karṣanīya; to be drawn, attracted, conciliated; intp. as forgiveness.

迦梨迦 (or 迦羅迦) Kālīyaka, a nāga inhabiting the Yamunā (Jumna), slain by Kṛṣṇa; intp. as a black dragon. Also Kālikā, a garment of diverse colours.

迦樓羅 garuḍa; 'a mythical bird, the chief of the feathered race, the enemy of the serpent race, the vehicle of Vishṇu.' M. W. Tr. as golden-winged, with an expanse of 3,360,000 li, carrying the ruyi pearl or talisman on its neck; among other accounts one says it dwells in great trees and feeds on snakes or dragons. Also 迦婁羅; 迦留羅; 迦嘍荼; 伽樓羅; 揭路荼; 誐嚕拏 (or 蘗嚕拏). The association of the garuḍa, like the phoenix, with fire makes it also a symbol of flame 迦樓羅炎.

迦樓那 迦盧拏 karuṇā, pitying, pity.

迦比羅 (or 迦毘羅) Kapila, author of the Sāṅkhya philosophy, v. 却; also Kapilavastu, v. 却.

迦毘摩羅 Kapimala, of Patna, second century. A. D. converted by Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴; he himself is said to have converted Nāgārjuna; he was the thirteenth Patriarch.

迦毘羅 Kapila; tawny, brown, red; intp. as red head, or yellow head; name of the founder of the Sāṅkhya philosophy; also 迦毘梨; 迦比羅; 劫毘羅; cf. 僧劫 and 數. Kapilavastu, v. 劫; also written in a dozen varieties, e. g. 迦毘羅婆 (or 迦毘比, 迦毘比婆); 迦毘羅皤窣都; 迦維 (or 迦維羅閲, 迦維羅越).

迦波釐 kāpālikas, followers of Śiva who wore skulls.

迦濕彌羅 Kāśmīra, Kashmir, formerly known in Chinese as 罽賓 Jibin ('the Kophen of the Greeks, the modern Kabul', Kubhā); under Kaniṣka the seat of the final synod for determining the Canon. Other forms are 迦葉彌羅; 羯濕弭羅.

迦留陀夷 Kālodāyin, also called 烏陀夷 Udayin or Black Udayin, but there are other interpretations; said to have been schoolmaster to Śākyamuni when young and one of the early disciples; also to have been murdered.

迦畢試 Kapiśā, an ancient kingdom, south of the Hindu Kush, said to be 4, 000 li around, with a capital of the same name 10 li in circumference; formerly a summer resort of Kaniṣka.

迦絺那 kaṭhina, 迦提; 羯絺那 hard, inflexible, unyielding; a robe of merit.

迦絺那月 Kārttika-māsa, the month in October-November, intp. as the month after the summer retreat, when monks received the 'kaṭhina ' robe of merit; the date of the month is variously given, but it follows the summer retreat; also 迦提月; 迦栗底迦月 (or 羯栗底迦月); 迦利邸迦月; 迦哩底迦麽洗 (or 迦剌底迦麽洗).

迦羅 kalā, 哥羅; 歌羅; a minute part, an atom; the hundredth part lengthwise of a human hair; also a sixteenth part of anything. Also kāla (and 迦攞), a definite time, a division of time; the time of work, study, etc., as opposed to leisure time. kāla, among other meanings, also means black, for which 迦羅迦 kālaka is sometimes used, e.g. the black nāga.

迦羅毘囉 karavīra, a fragrant oleander; tr. as 羊躑躅 a plant whose leaves on pressure exude juice.

迦羅毘迦 Probably an incorrect form of Kapilavastu, v. 迦毘羅國.

迦沙曳 (or 迦沙野 or 迦沙異 or 迦羅沙曳 or 迦羅沙野 or 迦羅沙異) kaṣāya, a monk's dyed robe, in contrast with white lay garb.

迦羅臂拏迦 Kālapināka, a 'city of Magadha, 20 li south-east of Kulika, south of the present city of Behar'. Eitel.

迦羅越 kulapati, the head of a clan, or family.

迦羅迦吒 The crab in the zodiac.

迦羅邏 karāla, 'having projecting teeth, formidable,' 'epithet of the Rākshasas, of Śiva, of Kāla, of Vishṇu,' etc. M.W.

迦羅鎭頭 kālaka and tinduka, the first a poisonous fruit, the second non-poisonous, similar in appearance; a simile for bad and good monks.

迦羅鳩馱 Krakucchanda, v. 拘留孫; also Kakuda-Kātyāyana, v. 迦旃.

迦耶 kāya, the body; an assemblage; cf. trikāya.

迦膩色伽 (迦膩伽) Kaniṣka, king of 月支 the Yuezhi, i.e. of Tukhāra and the Indo-Scythians, ruler of Gandhāra in northern Punjab, who conquered northern India and as far as Bactria. He became a patron of Buddhism, the greatest after Aśoka. His date is vaiously given; Keith says 'probably at the close of the first century A.D. ' It is also put at A.D. 125-165. He convoked 'the third (or fourth) synod' in Kashmir, of 500 leading monks, under the presidency of 世友Vasumitra, when the canon was revised and settled; this he is said to have had engraved on brass and placed in a stūpa .

迦葉 (迦葉波) kāśyapa, 迦攝 (迦攝波) inter alia 'a class of divine beings similar to or equal to prajāpati'; the father 'of gods, demons, men, fish, reptiles, and all animals'; also 'a constellation'. M.W. It is intp. as 'drinking light', i.e. swallowing sun and moon, but without apparent justification. (1) One of the seven or ten ancient Indian sages. (2) Name of a tribe or race. (3) Kāśyapa Buddha, the third of the five buddhas of the present kalpa, the sixth of the seven ancient buddhas. (4) Mahākāśyapa, a brahman of Magadha, who became one of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni, and after his death became leader of the disciples, 'convoked and directed the first synod, whence his title Ārya Sthavira (上坐, lit. chairman) is derived.' Eitel. He is accounted the chief of the ascetics before the enlightenment; the first compiler of the canon and the first patriarch. (5) There were five Kāśyapas, disciples of the Buddha, Mahā-Kāśyapa, Uruvilā-Kāśyapa, Gayā-Kāśyapa, Nadī-Kāśyapa, and Daśabala-Kāśyapa; the second, third, and fourth are said to have been brothers. (6) A bodhisattva, whose name heads a chapter in the Nirvana Sutra. (7) 迦葉摩騰 Kāśyapa-Mātaṅga, the monk who with Gobharana, or Dharmarakṣa, i.e. Zhu Falan 竺法蘭, according to Buddhist statements, brought images and scriptures to China with the commissioners sent by Mingdi, arriving in Luoyang A.D. 67.

迦葉遺 Kāśyapīya, a school formed on the division of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ into five schools a century after the Nirvana. Keith gives the southern order, in the second century after the Nirvana, as Theravāda (Sthavira), Mahīśāsaka, Sarvāstivādin, Kāśyapīya. Other forms: 迦葉毘; 迦葉維; 迦葉波; 迦葉臂耶; 柯尸悲與.

迦蘭陀 ? karaṇḍa, ? karaṇḍaka. A bird which flies in flocks and has a pleasant note; also, a squirrel which awakened Bimbisāra to warn him against a snake. (2) The karaṇḍa-venuvana, a garden belonging to an elder called Karaṇḍa, used by a Nirgrantha sect, then presented by King Bimbisāra to Śākyamuni. Other forms: 迦蘭夷; 迦蘭馱; 迦蘭多迦; 迦藍陀; 伽鄰; 羯蘭鐸迦 (or 羯蘭馱迦).

迦迦 kāka, kākāla; a crow, also 迦迦迦; 迦迦羅.

迦迦羅蟲 is said to be kākāla, a black insect or worm.

迦迦婁多 kākaruta. A crow's caw.

迦迦婆迦頻闍邏 Perhaps kapiñjala, a francolin, partridge, or pheasant.

迦迦那 gagana, the firmament, space.

迦遮末尼 (or 迦柘末尼) kācamani, crystal, quartz.

迦遮鄰地? kācalindikāka, or kācilindi, also 迦遮粦底迦 (or 迦眞粦底迦); 迦旃粦提 (or 迦旃粦陀); 迦止栗那; 迦鄰提 (or 迦鄰陀). A sea bird, from whose feathers robes are made.

迦邏迦 kāra (or kāraka), one who does, or causes; an agent.

迦逋唐 v. 迦布.

迦那伽牟尼 Kanakamuni, v. 拘那牟尼.

迦那提婆 Kāṇadeva, a disciple of Nāgārjuna and fifteenth patriarch, a native of South India, of the Vaiśya caste; said to have only one eye, hence Kāṇa his name; known also as Deva Bodhisattva.

迦陵頻伽 (迦陵伽) kalaviṅka. A bird described as having a melodious voice, found in the valleys of the Himalayas. M.W. says 'a sparrow'. It may be the kalandaka, or kokila, the cuckoo. It 'sings in the shell' before hatching out. Other forms are 迦陵頻伽鳥, 迦蘭伽 (or 迦蘭頻伽 or 迦毘伽 or迦毘頻伽); 迦毘伽 (or 迦毘伽羅); 迦尾羅; 羯羅尾羅; 羯毘伽羅 (or 鶡鵯伽羅), etc.

迦頻闍羅 (or 迦賓闍羅); 鷓鴣 kapiñjala, a francolin, partridge, or pheasant.

迦頻闍羅王 Kapiṅjalarāja, a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni as a pheasant.

Elegant, refined, translit. y and u.

郁伽 yoga, cf. 瑜伽.

郁伽支羅 Ukkacela, is a place unknown.

郁多羅僧伽 (郁多) uttarāsaṅga, the cassock, the seven-patch robe; for this and uttarakuru cf. 鬱.

郁迦 Ugra, an elder of Śrāvastī, whose name is given to a sutra.

Heavy, weighty, grave, serious; to lay stress upon, regard respectfully; again, double, repeated.

重如 v. 如如 the double ru.

重山 The heavy mountain (of delusion).

重火 To pay respect to the god of fire.

重空 The double space, i.e. the space beyond space, the void beyond the void.

重重 Repeated, again and again, manifold, e.g. 重重帝網 The multi-meshed net of Indra.

重關 The grave barriers (to meditation and enlightenment).

重閣講堂 The double-storeyed hall at Vaiśālī where the Buddha stayed.

重障 Serious hindrances (to enlightenment), e.g. delusion, sin, retribution (or the results of one's previous lives).

重頌 祇夜 geya, repetition in verse of a prose section.

Limit, boundary, to fix.

限分 limited, e.g. limited culpability by reason of accident, unintentional error.

Descend, send down; degrade; subdue; submit.

降世 To descend to earth from above, as recorded of the Buddha.

降三世 To subdue the three worlds, as conqueror of them, e.g. 降三世明王 Trailokya-vijaya-rāja, rāja subduing the three realms above, here, below, one of the five great 明王 q.v.; the one controlling the east; subduer of the three realms of desire, resentment, and stupidity; also of these three passions in past, present, future. There are other similar rājas.

降伏 abhicāraka, exorciser; magic; subjugator (of demons).

降焰魔尊 Yamāntaka, cf. 焰 the fierce mahārāja with six legs who controls the demons of the West.

降生 To descend into the world, as the Buddha is said to have done from the Tuṣita heaven.

降神 The descent of Buddha's spirit into Māyā's womb; also to bring down spirits as does a spiritualistic medium.

降胎 The descent into Māyā's womb.

降臨 To descend, draw near from above, condescend, e.g. the Buddha, the spirits, etc.

降誕 The anniversary of the descent, i.e. the Buddha's birthday, not the conception.

降魔 To overcome demons, e.g. as the Buddha did at his enlightenment.

降龍 To subdue nāgas, e.g. 降龍鉢 to compel a nāga to enter an almsbowl as did the Buddha; 降龍伏虎 to subdue nāgas and subjugate tigers.


面目 Face and eyes, face, looks.

面門 Forehead, or mouth, or the line across the upper lip.

面授 Personal or face-to-face instruction.

面壁 To sit in meditation with the face to a wall, as did Bodhidharma for nine years, without uttering a word.

Skins, hides, pelts; strip, cut off.

革蔥 茗葱 latārka, 'green onions' (M.W.), tr. as 蒜 garlic.

A thong; translit. for vi, ve, vai sounds.

韋將軍 (韋天將軍) One of the generals under the southern mahārāja guardian in a temple.

韋堤希 (韋堤); 毘堤希 (or 吠堤希); 吠題呬弗多羅 Vaidehī, wife of Bimbisāra, and mother of Ajātaśatru; also called Śrībhadra.

韋紐天 韋糅; 違紐; 毘紐; 毘瑟紐; 韋搜紐; 韋廋紐; 毘瑟怒 (or 毘瑟笯) Viṣṇu, all-pervading, encompassing; 'the preserver' in the trimūrti, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva, creator, preserver, destroyer; the Vaiṣṇavas (Vishnuites) are devoted to him as the Śaivas are to Śiva. His wife is Lakṣmī, or Śrī. The Chinese describe him as born out of water at the beginning of a world-kalpa with 1,000 heads and 2,000 hands; from his navel springs a lotus, from which is evolved Brahmā.

韋陀 圍陀; 毘陀; 皮陀; 吠陀 (or 吠馱); 薜陀; 鞞陀 veda; knowledge, tr. 明智, or 明分 clear knowledge or discernment. The four Vedas are the Ṛg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sāma Veda, and Athara Veda; they were never translated into Chinese, being accounted heretical.

韋陀輸 (or 韋馱輸) Vītāśoka, Vigatāśoka, younger brother of king Āśoka.

韋陀羅 vetāla, v. 毘陀羅.

韋馱天 (韋馱) Weiduo, the guardian facing the main hall of a temple; the origin of Weiduo is uncertain.

Sound, note, that which is heard.

音教 Vocal teaching, Buddha's preaching.

音木 Sounding block, or board for keeping time or rhythm.

音樂 Music, a musical accompaniment to a service.

音義 Sound and meaning, i.e. a pronouncing dictionary.

音聲 Sound, note, preaching.

音聲佛事 Buddha's work in saving by his preaching.

音響忍 Sound and echo perseverance, the patience which realizes that all is as unreal as sound and echo.

vāyu. Wind, air; rumour, repute; custom; temper, lust.

風三昧 風奮三昧 A samādhi in which the whole body is conceived of as scattered.

風燈 (or風中燈 or 風前燈 or風燭 or 風中燭 or 風前燭) 'As a lamp (or candle) in the wind', such is the evanescence of the world and man.

風刀 The wind knife, i.e. the approach of death and its agonies.

風大 Wind or air as one of the four elements.

風天 The wind deva.

風界 The realm of wind, or air, with motion as its principle one of the 四大 q.v.

風災 The calamity of destruction by wind at the end of the third period of destruction of a world.

風色 Wind colour, i.e. nonexistent, like a rabbit's horns, tortoise-hair, or scent of salt.

風輪 The wheel, or circle, of wind below the circle of water and metal on which the earth rests; the circle of wind rests on space.

風際 (風輪際) The region of the wind-circle.

To fly.

飛仙 (飛行仙) Flying genī.

飛化 Flying and changing.

飛行 Flying anywhere (at will).

飛行夜叉 Flying yakṣas, or demons.

飛帝 (飛行皇帝) Flying ruler, synonym for a sovereign.

飛錫 Flying staff, synonym for a travelling monk.

āhāra, 阿賀羅 food; to eat, feed. The rules are numerous, and seem to have changed; originally flesh food was not improper and vegetarianism was a later development; the early three rules in regard to 'clean' foods are that 'I shall not have seen the creature killed, nor heard it killed for me, nor have any doubt that it was killed for me'. The five 'unclean' foods are the above three, with creatures that have died a natural death; and creatures that have been killed by other creatures. The nine classes add to the five, creatures not killed for me; raw flesh, or creatures mauled by other creatures; things not seasonable or at the right time; things previously killed. The Laṅkavātāra Sutra and certain other sutras forbid all killed food.

食前 Before food, i.e. before the principal meal at noon; but 食後 after food, especially after breakfast till noon.

食堂 (or 齋堂) The dining-hall of a monastery.

食時 The time of eating the principal meal, i.e. noon; nothing might be eaten by members of the Order after noon.

食欲 The lust for food, one of the four cravings.

食物五果 The five kinds of edible fruits and grains: those with stones (or pips), rinds, shells, seeds (e.g. grains), pods.

食?M032255 To eat some kind of poisonous herb.

食蜜 To eat honey, i.e. to absorb the Buddha's teaching.

食頃 The time of a meal, i.e. but a short time.


首圖馱那 輸頭檀 (or 閱頭檀) Śuddhodana, intp. 'pure food', king of Kapilavastu, husband of Mahāmāyā, and father of Śākyamuni.

首座 The chief seat, president, chief.

首悔 Voluntary confession and repentance.

首楞嚴 首楞伽摩 śūraṃgama, intp. 健相 heroic, resolute; the virtue or power which enables a buddha to overcome every obstacle, obtained in the 首楞嚴定 or 三昧 śūraṃgamadhyāna or samādhi; 首楞嚴經 is the sutra on the subject, whose full title commences 大佛頂, etc.

首盧迦 (首盧 or首盧柯); 輸盧迦 (or 室盧迦 or輸盧迦波 or室盧迦波); 室路迦 śloka, a stanza of thirty-two syllables, either in four lines of eight each, or two of sixteen.

首羅 (or 周羅 or首羅髮 or周羅髮) Cūlaka, Cūḍa; one of the eight yakṣas, or demons.

首訶旣那 (or 首阿旣那) Śubhakṛtsna, the ninth brahmaloka, i.e. the third region of the third dhyāna of form.

首陀 (首陀羅); 戍陀羅 (or 戍達羅 or 戍捺羅) śūdra, the fourth of the four castes, peasants.

首陀婆 (or 私陀婆 or首陀娑婆 or 私陀娑婆) Śuddhāvāsa, the five pure abodes, or heavens.

首題 Heading or title (of a sutra).

gandha. Fragrance; incense; the sense of smell, i.e. one of the ṣaḍāyātana, six senses. Incense is one of the 使 Buddha's messengers to stimulate faith and devotion.

香丸 Incense balls.

香嚴 (香光莊嚴) The one whose mind meditates on Buddha becomes interpenetrated and glorified by Buddha-fragrance (and light). There are several deva-sons and others called Xiangyan.

香入 The sense of smell and its organ, the nose.

香刹 An incense kṣetra, i.e. a monastery.

香廚 The fragrant kitchen, i.e. a monastery kitchen.

香塵 The atom or element of smell, one of the six guṇas.

香室 gandhakuṭī; house of incense, i.e. where Buddha dwells, a temple.

香山 Gandhamādana. Incense mountain, one of the ten fabulous mountains known to Chinese Buddhism, located in the region of the Anavatapta lake in Tibet; also placed in the Kunlun range. Among its great trees dwell the Kinnaras, Indra's musicians.

香染 Incense-coloured, yellowish-grey, the colour of a monk's robe; also 香色; 香衣 (香複衣).

香樓 The fragrant pyre on which the body of Buddha was consumed.

香欲 The desire for fragrance, the lust of the nasal organ, one of the five desires.

香殿 The incense hall, especially the large hall of the triratna.

香水 Liquid scent, or perfume.

香水錢 Money given to monks.

香海 (香水海) The scented ocean surrounding Sumeru.

香湯 A fragrant liquid made of thirty-two ingredients, used by the secret sects in washing the body at the time of initiation.

香火Incense and candles (or lamps).

香炷 Thread incense (in coils); a lamp or candle giving a fragrant odour; incense and candles.

香爐 A censer.

香王 Gandharāja, a bodhisattva in whose image the finger tips are shown as dripping ambrosia. There is also a 香王 Guanyin.

香界 Incense region, a temple.

香神 香音神 The gods of fragrance (and music), i.e. the Gandharvas who live on Gandhamādana; the musicians of Indra, with Dhṛtarāṣṭra as their ruler.

香積 Xiangji, the Buddha of Fragrance-land 香國, described in the 維摩經. The inhabitants live on the odour of incense, which surpasses that of all other lands; cf. 香象; also the kitchen and food of a monastery.

香(竹/象) Incense made in coils and burnt to measure the time; also 香盤; 香印.

香華 Incense and flowers, offerings to Buddha.

香象 Gandhahastī. Fragrant elephant; one of the sixteen honoured ones of the Bhadra-kalpa; also a bodhisattva in the north who lives on the 香聚山 or 香醉山 with Buddha 香積; cf. 香集.

香象之文 A narrative in the Abhidharma-kośa; also a title for the Buddhist canon.

香象大師 The third patriarch of the Huayan school, Fazang 法藏.

香集 The name of the western Buddha-land in which Ākāśa Bodhisattva lives, described in the 虛空藏菩薩經 Ākāśagarbha Sutra; cf. 香象.

香風山 The abode of the Bodhisattva of fragrance and light.

香食 Fragrance for food; fragrant food.

香龍腦 Scented dragon's brains, camphor; v. 羯布羅.

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