A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 10 - Ten Strokes

Yāna 衍; 野那 a vehicle, wain, any means of conveyance; a term applied to Buddhism as carrying men to salvation. The two chief divisions are the 小乘 Hīnayāna and 大乘 Mahāyāna; but there are categories of one, two, three, four, and five sheng q.v., and they have further subdivisions.

乘津 The vehicle and ford to nirvana, i.e. Buddha-truth.

乘種 The vehicle-seed, or seed issuing from the Buddha-vehicle.

To borrow, lend.

借花獻佛 To borrow a flower to offer to Buddha, i.e. to serve him with another's gift.

To meet; happen on; attend to; worth, valued at.

値遇 To meet, happen on unexpectedly.

To cause, enable.

俾沙闍羅所 Bhaiṣajyarāja, the Buddha of medicine, or king of healing, v. 藥師 19.

俾禮多 preta, a hungry ghost, v. 鬼 10.

Double, double-fold, a fold; to turn from or against, to revolt.

倍離 To turn from and depart from.

A length (of anything); a law, order.

條支 The Tajiks anciently settled 'near the Sirikol lake'. Eitel.

條衣 The monk's patch-robe.

To fall, lie down; to pour; upside down, inverted, perverted; on the contrary.

倒凡 Perverted folk, the unenlightened who see things upside down.

倒合 A fallacious comparison in a syllogism.

倒懸 Hanging upside down; the condition of certain condemned souls, especially for whom the Ullambana (or Lambana, cf. 盂) festival is held in the seventh month; the phrase is used as a tr. of Ullambana, and as such seems meant for Lambana.

倒我 The conventional ego, the reverse of reality.

倒見 Cf. 顚 19. Upside-down or inverted views, seeing things as they seem, not as they are, e.g. the impermanent as permanent, misery as joy, non-ego as ego, and impurity as purity.

倒離 The fallacy of using a comparison in a syllogism which does not apply.

To put in order, mend, cultivate, observe. Translit. su, . Cf. 須; 蘇.

修伽陀 Sugata, one who has gone the right way, one of a Buddha's titles; sometimes intp. as well-come (Svāgata). Also 修伽多; 修伽度; 修揭多 (or 蘇揭多); 沙婆揭多; 莎伽 (莎伽陀).

修利 Sūrya, 蘇利耶 the sun; also name of a yakṣa, the ruler of the sun.

修善 To cultivate goodness; the goodness that is cultivated, in contrast with natural goodness.

修堅 Firmness in observing or maintaining; established conviction, e.g. of the 別教 bodhisattva that all phenomena in essence are identical.

修多羅 Sutra; from siv, to sew, to thread, to string together, intp. as 綖, i.e. 線 thread, string; strung together as a garland of flowers. Sutras or addresses attributed to the Buddha, usually introduced by 如是我聞 thus have I heard, Evam mayā śrutam It is intp. by 經 a warp, i.e. the threads on which a piece is woven; it is the sūtra-piṭaka, or first portion of the Tripiṭaka; but is sometimes applied to the whole canon. It is also intp. 契 or契經 scriptures. Also 修單羅; 修妬路; 修多闌; 修單蘭多; 素呾纜 (or 素怛纜); 蘇多羅 (or 蘇呾羅). A clasp on the seven-piece robe of the 眞宗 Shin sect.

修性 To cultivate the nature; the natural proclivities.

修性不二門 The identity of cultivation and the cultivated.

修惡 To cultivate evil; cultivated evil in contrast with evil by nature.

修懺 To undergo the discipline of penitence.

修所斷 To cut of illusion in practice, or performance.

修惑 Illusion, such as desire, hate, etc., in practice or performance, i.e. in the process of attaining enlightenment; cf. 思惑.

修生 That which is produced by cultivation, or observance.

修禪六妙門 The six mysterious gates or ways of practising meditation, consisting mostly of breathing exercises.

修羅 asura, demons who war with Indra; v. 阿修羅; it is also sura, which means a god, or deity.

修羅軍 The army of asuras, fighting on the 修羅場 asura battlefield against Indra.

修羅酒 surā, wine, spirits; but it is also intp. as asura wine, i.e. the nonexistent.

修羅道 (or 修羅趣) asura way, or destiny.

修習力 The power acquired by the practice of all (good) conduct; the power of habit.

修行 caryā, conduct; to observe and do; to end one's ways; to cultivate oneself in right practice; be religious, or pious.

修行住 A bodhisattva's stage of conduct, the third of his ten stages.

修跋拏 suvarṇa; 修越拏; 蘇伐剌 gold.

修道 To cultivate the way of religion; be religious; the way of self-cultivation. In the Hīnayāna the stage from anāgāmin to arhat; in Mahāyāna one of the bodhisattva stages.

修造局 A workshop (in a monastery).

修陀里舍那 sudarśana, intp. 善見 beautiful, given as the name of a yakṣa; cf. also 蘇.

All, every; translit. ku, ko; cf. 拘; 鳩; 究; 居; 窟; 巨.

倶不成 (倶不極成) All incomplete; a fallacy in the comparison, or example, which leaves the syllogism incomplete.

倶不遣 A fallacy in the syllogism caused by introducing an irrelevant example, one of the thirty-three fallacies.

倶倶羅 kukkuṭa is a cock, or fowl; this is intp. As the clucking of fowls: cf. 究 and 拘.

倶倶羅部 Kaukkuṭikāḥ is described as one of the eighteen schools of Hīnayāna; cf. 拘; 鳩; 窟; 居.

倶利伽羅 A kind of black dragon; also 倶力迦 (倶力迦羅); 倶哩迦 (or 倶哩劒); 古力迦; 加梨加; 迦羅迦; 律迦, etc. It is one of the symbols of 不動明王, connected with his sword.

倶吠羅 Kuvera; Kubera; the god of riches, Vaiśravaṇa, regent of the north; having three legs and eight teeth; in Japan Bishamon. Also 倶乞羅 and numerous other names; cf. 毘.

倶夜羅 Things that go with the almsbowl, e.g. spoon, chopsticks, etc.

倶摩羅 kumāra, a boy, youth; cf. 拘.

倶摩羅天 A youthful deva.

倶攞 kūla, a slope, a shore; a mound; a small dagoba in which the ashes of a layman are kept. kula, a herd, family, household.

倶攞鉢底 kulapati, the head of a family, a householder.

倶有 Existing together; all being, existing, or having.

倶有依 倶有根 Things or conditions on which one relies or from which things spring, e.g. knowledge.

倶有因 sahabhūhetu, mutual causation, the simultaneous causal interaction of a number of things, e.g. earth, water, fire, and air.

倶有法 Co-existent, co-operative things or conditions.

倶毘留波叉 Defined variously, but in indicative of Virūpākṣa, the three-eyed Śiva; the guardian ruler of the West, v. 毘.

倶毘羅 (1) kumbhīra, crocodile; also鳩鞞羅; 倶尾羅. (2) Kuvera, Kubera, the guardian king of the north, v. 毘沙門 Vaiśravaṇa, the god of wealth.

倶毘陀羅 kovidāra, 拘鞞陀羅 Bauhinia variegata; also one of the trees of paradise. M.W. Said to be the tree of the great playground (where the child Śākyamuni played).

倶生 Natural, spontaneous, inborn as opposed to acquired.

倶生惑 Natural doubt, inborn illusion, in contrast to doubt or illusion acquired, e.g. by being taught.

倶生法 Spontaneous ideas or things.

倶生神 The spirit, born at the same time as the individual, which records his deeds and reports to Yama. Another version is the two spirits who record one's good and evil. Another says it is the ālaya-vijñāna.

倶生起 Arising and born with one; spontaneous.

倶留孫 Krakkucchanda, fourth of the seven ancient buddhas, first of the buddhas of the present age. Cf. 拘.

倶盧洲 Kurudvīpa; Uttarakuru. The northern of the four continents of a world; cf. 大洲 and 鬱.

倶盧舍 krośa, the distance the lowing of an ox or the sound of a drum can be heard, circa 5 li. Cf. 拘.

倶睒彌 Kauśāmbī; 倶賞彌 (or 倶舍彌) Vatsapattana, an ancient city of central India, identified with the village of Kosam on the Jumna, 30 miles above Allahabad. These are old forms as are 拘深; 拘翼; 拘監惟, and forms with 巨 and 鳩; the newer forms being 憍賞彌 (or 憍閃彌).

倶空 Both or all empty, or unreal, i.e. both ego and things have no reality.

倶緣果 bījapūra, or bījapūraka; described as a citron. M.W. A fruit held in one of the hands of Kunti Guanyin.

倶胝 koṭī, 倶致; 拘致; a crore, 10 millions; intp. as 100,000; 1,000,000; or 10,000,000.

倶舍 kośa, 句捨 cask, box, treasury; translated 藏 store, also 鞘 sheath, scabbard; especially the 倶舍論 Abhidharma-kośa-śāstra, v. 阿, composed by Vasubandhu, tr. by Paramārtha and Xuanzang.

倶舍宗 The Abhidharma or Piṭaka School.

倶蘇摩 kusuma, a flower, flowers; v. 拘.

倶蘇摩跋低 Kusumavatī; name of a buddha-realm.

倶蘇摩摩羅 kusumamālā, a wreath, garland.

倶蘇洛 (倶蘇洛迦) kuśūla; a 'bin' skirt, worn by nuns; also 厥蘇洛迦; 祇修羅 (or 瞿修羅 or 厥修羅).

倶蘭吒 kuraṇṭa; yellow amaranth; intp. as a red flower, among men with 10 leaves, among devas 100, among buddhas 1,000; also as a material thing, i.e. something with resistance. Cf. 拘.

倶解脫 Complete release, i.e. the freedom of the arhat from moral and meditative hindrances.

倶遜婆 kusumbha; safflower, saffron.

Both; also; to unite, join, comprehend.

兼利 Mutual benefit; to benefit self and others.

兼但對帶 The first four of the five periods of Buddha's teaching are also defined by Tiantai as: (1) 兼 Combined teaching; including 圓 and 別教 doctrine, the period of the Avataṃsaka Sutra. (2) 但 Sole; i.e. 藏 or Hīnayāna only, that of the agamas. (3) 對 Comparative; all four forms of doctrines being compared. 帶 Inclusive, that of the 般若 Prajñā, when the perfect teaching was revealed as the fulfilment of the rest.

Darkness, obscurity; deep. Hades; used chiefly in the sense of 無知 ignorance, profound, secret, invisible, e.g. as opposed to 顯 open, manifest.

冥一 Entire obscurity, pristine darkness.

冥使 Lictors, or messengers of Hades.

冥利 冥益 Invisible benefit, or merit, i.e. within, spiritual.

冥初 The primitive darkness (at the beginning of existence).

冥加 The invisible aid of the spiritual powers.

冥官 The rulers in Hades.

冥府 The palace of darkness, Hades.

冥往 Going into the shades, death.

冥思 冥慮 The unfathomable thought or care of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, beyond the realization of men.

冥應 Response from the invisible.

冥熏 (or內熏) Fumigation within, inner influence.

冥界 Hades, or the three lower forms of incarnation, i.e. hell, preta, animal.

冥福 The happiness of the dead.

冥衆 The invisible powers-Brahmā, Śakra, Yama; the spirits in general.

冥諦 冥性; 自性 The Sāṅkhya doctrine of primordial profundity, beyond estimation, the original nature out of which all things arose.

冥資 Possession of or for the dead; their happiness.

冥道 冥途; 冥土 The dark way, or land of darkness, the shades, Hades, pretas, etc.

冥通 Mysterious, supernatural, omnipresent power.

冥陽會 The assembly (for offerings) of the spirits below and above, pretas, etc.

冥顯兩界 The two regions of the dead and of the living.

To permit, grant, acknowledge; used for 準 in 准提 q.v.

To peel, flay; kill.

剝皮 To flay, or peel. In one of the previous incarnations of Śākyamuni he is said to have written a certain gāthā containing the Holy Law on a piece of his own flayed skin with one of his bones split into the shape of a pen, and his blood instead of ink. 智度論 27.

To scoop out.

剜燈 To scoop out (one's body) and turn (it) into a lamp, attributed to Śākyamuni in a former incarnation.

Pointed, sharp.

剡浮 Jambūdvīpa, and Yama, v. 閻.

Origin, original.

原人論 (華嚴原人論) A treatise on the original or fundamental nature of man, by 宗密 Zongmi, the fifth patriarch of the Huayan school, explaining its doctrine, in one juan.

Elder brother.

哥大 skandha, v. 塞.

哥王 (哥利王) cf. 迦.

哥羅羅 kalala. The womb, uterus; an embryo shortly after conception.

To weep.

哭泣 To weep.

哭啼 To weep and wail.

Translit. ga; cf. 我, 誐, 伽, M003598, 疙.

哦哆也 gatayaḥ, nom. pl. of gati, intp. as going, coming.

pāṭha; pāṭhaka; read, recite, intone, chant, hymns in praise of Buddha; 唄匿 is erroneously said to transliterate the Sanskrit root vi-ne and to be the same as 婆陟 (or 婆師), but these are bhāṣa.

唄器 Instruments for keeping time during chanting.

唄士 唄師 Leader of the chanting.

唄比丘 鈴聲比丘 A famous Buddhist singer of old, ugly but with bell-like voice.

唄讚 To sing hymns of praise.

A city (or defensive) wall; a city, a walled and moat and all they contain.

Summer.

夏中 During the summer, the middle of the summer; the rainy reason spent by the monks of India in retirement.

夏坐 坐夏; 夏安居 The period of the summer retreat for meditation, known as varṣās, the rains.

夏末 夏滿; 夏竟; 夏解 The end of the summer (retreat), the 15th of the 7th month.

夏臘 法臘 The age of a monk as monk, the years of his ordination.

夏衆 The assembly of monks at the summer retreat.

夏首 The first day, or beginning, of the retreat.

Lady, wife, mother, aunt.

師娘 A nun.

Translit. da and na.

娜多 danta, tooth, tusk, fang.

娜伽 naga, mountain, hill.

娜耶 naya, conduct, course, leading.

To play, careless, idle, easy going; translit. s, ś, chiefly sa, .

娑也地提嚩多 ? satyadevatā, intp. as 本尊 the fundamental, or original, or principal honoured one.

娑伽羅 Sāgara. 娑竭羅 The ocean. The nāga king of the ocean palace north of Mt. Meru, possessed of priceless pearls; the dragon king of rain; his eight-year-old daughter instantly attained Buddhahood, v. the Lotus Sutra.

娑呵 sahā, a herb in the Himālayas imparting immortality to the finder, v. 娑婆.

娑多吉哩 ? Śatakri, name of one of the yakṣa generals.

娑多婆那 (娑多婆漢那) Sadvāhana, Śātavāhana, name of a royal patron of Nāgārjuna.

娑婆 sahā; that which bears, the earth, v. 地; intp. as bearing, enduring; the place of good and evil; a universe, or great chiliocosm, Where all are subject to transmigration and which a Buddha transforms; it is divided into three regions 三界 and Mahābrahmā Sahāmpati is its lord. Other forms: 娑婆世界; 娑界; 娑媻; 娑訶; 沙訶; 索訶.

娑訶樓陀 sahā-lokadhātu, the world.

娑婆訶 娑縛賀 svāhā, an oblation by fire, also Hail! a brahminical salutation at the end of a sacrifice.

娑底也 satya, true; satyatā, truth, a truth.

娑度 sādhu, good, virtuous, perfect, a sage, saint, tr. 善 good.

娑毘迦羅 劫毘羅 Kapila, possibly Sāṇkhya Kapila, the founder of the Sāṇkhya philosophy.

娑磨 Sama Veda, the third of the Vedas, containing the hymns.

娑羅 沙羅 śāla, sāla; the Sāl tree, 娑羅樹 Shorea robusta, the teak tree.

娑羅林 Śālavana, the grove of sāl trees near Kuśinagara, the reputed place of the Buddha's death.

娑羅王 (娑羅樹王) Śālendra-rāja, a title of a Buddha; also of Śubhavyūha, father of Guanyin.

娑羅娑 sārasa, the Indian crane.

娑羅梨弗? 'Salaribhu, an ancient kingdom or province in India. Exact position unknown.' Eitel.

娑路多羅 戍縷多 śrotra, the ear.

娑麽囉 smara, recollection, remembrance.

Grandchild; grandson; translit. sun.

孫陀利 Sundharī, wife of Sundarananda; Sundari, name of an arhat; also a courtesan who defamed the Buddha.

孫陀羅難陀 Sundarananda, or Sunanda, said to be younger brother of Śākyamuni, his wife being the above Sundarī; thus called to distinguish him from Ānanda.

Family; home; school, sect; genus.

家世國 v. 呾 Takṣaśīlā, Taxila.

家主 kulapati, the head of a family.

家狗 A domestic dog, i.e. trouble, which ever dogs oneś steps.

hiṃsā; vihiṃsā; hurt, harm, injure.

害想 害覺 The wish, or thought, to injure another.

Contain; bear; allow; bearing, face, looks; easy.

容有釋 (or 容有說) An admissible though indirect interpretation; containing that meaning.

A palace, mansion; a eunuch.

宮毘羅 kumbhīra, v. 金毘羅 a crocodile.

宮胎 The palace-womb, where those who call on Amitābha but are in doubt of him are confined for 500 years, devoid of the riches of Buddha-truth, till born into the Pure Land; idem 疑城胎宮.

A banquet; to repose; at ease.

宴坐 To sit in meditation.

宴寂 To enter into rest, to die.

宴默 Peaceful and silent.

To overcome; successfully attain to.

尅實 To discover the truth.

尅果 To obtain the fruit of endeavour; the fruit of effort, i.e. salvation.

尅終 Successful end, certainty of obtaining the fruit of one's action.

尅聖 The certainty of attaining arhatship.

尅證 The assurance of success in attaining enlightenment.

尅識 The certainty of the knowledge (by the sprits, of men's good and evil).

To extend, expand, stretch.

展轉力 Powers of extension or expansion.

High, commanding.

峨眉山 (or 峩眉山) Emei Shan or Mt. Omi in Sichuan. Two of its peaks are said to be like 峨眉 a moth's eyebrows, also pronounced O-mei; the monastery at the top is the 光相寺 where Puxian (Samantabhadra) is supreme.

To send; to differ, err; translit. ks.

差別 pariccheda. Difference, different, discrimination; opposite of 平等 on a level, equal, identical.

差利尼迦 kṣīriṇikā, sap-bearing, a tree of that kind.

差多羅 kṣetra, land, region, country.

差羅波尼 kṣārapānīya, alkaline water, caustic liquid; also said to be a kind of garment.

A host, army; a leader, preceptor, teacher, model; tr. of upādhyāya, an 'under-teacher', generally intp. as a Buddhist monk.

師子 siṃha, a lion; also 枲伽; idem獅子 Buddha, likened to the lion, the king of animals, in respect of his fearlessness.

師子乳 Lion's milk, like bodhi -enlightenment, which is able to annihilate countless ages of the karma of affliction, just as one drop of lion's milk can disintegrate an ocean of ordinary milk.

師子光 Siṃharaśmi. 'A learned opponent of the Yogācāra school who lived about A. D. 630.' Eitel.

師子吼 siṃhanāda. The lion's roar, a term designating authoritative or powerful preaching. As the lion's roar makes all animals tremble, subdues elephants, arrests birds in their light and fishes in the water, so Buddha's preaching overthrows all other religions, subdues devils, conquers heretics, and arrests the misery of life.

師子國 Siṃhala, Ceylon, the kingdom reputed to be founded by Siṃha, first an Indian merchant, later king of the country, who overcame the 'demons' of Ceylon and conquered the island.

師子座 (or 師子牀) siṃhāsana. A lion throne, or couch. A Buddha throne, or seat; wherever the Buddha sits, even the bare ground; a royal throne.

師子奮迅 The lion aroused to anger, i.e. the Buddha's power of arousing awe.

師子尊者 師子比丘 Āryasiṃha, or Siṃha-bhikṣu. The 23rd or 24th patriarch, brahman by birth; a native of Central India; laboured in Kashmir, where he died a martyr A.D. 259.

師子王 The lion king, Buddha.

師子相 Siṃdhadhvaja; 'lion-flag,' a Buddha south-east of our universe, fourth son of Mahābhijña.

師子冑 or 師子鎧 Harivarman, to whom the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra is ascribed.

師子身中蟲 Just as no animal eats a dead lion, but it is destroyed by worms produced within itself, so no outside force can destroy Buddhism, only evil monks within it can destroy it.

師子遊戲三昧 The joyous samādhi which is likened to the play of the lion with his prey. When a Buddha enters this degree of samādhi he causes the earth to tremble, and the purgatories to give up their inmates.

師子音 Siṃhaghoṣa; 'lion's voice,' a Buddha south-east of our universe, third son of Mahābhijña.

師子頬玉 Siṃhahanu. The paternal grandfather of Śākyamuni, a king of Kapilavastu, father of Śuddhodana, Śuklodana, Droṇodana, and Amṛtodana.

師孫 Disciple of a disciple.

師姑 A nun; also 尼姑.

師檀 Teacher and donor, or monk and patron.

師祖 The teacher of one's teacher.

師絃 or 師筋 A tiger's tendons as lute-strings, i.e. bodhi music silences all minor strings.

Treasury; storehouse.

庫倫 K'urun, Urga, the Lamaistic center in Mongolia, the sacred city.

庫車 Kuche, or Karashahr, v. 屈.

Court, hall, family; forehead.

庭儀 The ceremony on entering the hall for service.

āsana. A seat; throne; classifier of buildings, etc.

座主 上座; 首座; 座元 A chairman, president; the head of the monks; an abbot.

座光 光座 The halo behind the throne of an image; a halo throne.

座臘 The end of the summer retreat; the monastic end of the year.

A short cut, a diameter.

徑山 A monastery at Linan Xian, Zhejiang.

On foot; a follower, disciple; in vain; banishment.

徒弟 A disciple, neophyte, apprentice.

徒衆 The company of disciples.

Regret, repent.

悔懺法 The rules for repentance and confession.

悔過 To repent of error.

Hate, anger, rage.

恚怒 Hate and anger.

恚結 The fetter of hatred binding to transmigration.

To breathe; breath; rest, stop, settle, cease; produce, interest.

息化 To cease the transforming work (and enter nirvana as did the Buddha).

息心 To set the heart at rest; a disciple.

息忌伽彌 息忌陀伽迷 sakṛdāgāmin, he who is to be reborn only once before entering nirvana.

息慈 At rest and kind, an old translation of śramaṇa, one who has entered into the life of rest and shows loving-kindness to all.

息災 To cause calamities to cease, for which the esoteric sect uses magical formulae, especially for illness, or personal misfortune.

息苦 To put an end to suffering.

Respect, reverence.

恭御陀 Konyodha, a kingdom mentioned by Xuanzang as a stronghold of unbelievers; it is said to be in south, east Orissa, possibly Ganjam as suggested in Eitel; there is a Konnāda further south.

恭敬 Reverence, worship.

恭敬施 Worship as an offering, one of the three forms of giving.

恭畔茶 Kumbhāṇḍa, a demon, v. 鳩.

恭建那補羅 Koṅkaṇapura, 'An ancient kingdom on the West Coast of India,' including Konkan, Goa, and 'North Canara, between Lat. 14°37 N. and Lat. 18°N.' Eitel.

Grace, favour.

恩度 One who graciously saves-a term for a monk.

恩愛 Grace and love; human affection, which is one of the causes of rebirth.

恩愛獄 The prison of affection, which holds men in bondage.

恩憐 Loving-kindness and pity.

恩河 The river of grace.

恩海 The sea of grace.

恩田 The field of grace, i.e. parents, teachers, elders, monks, in return for the benefits they have conferred; one of the 三福田.

To please, pleased.

悅衆 Please all, name for the manager of affairs in a monastery, also called 知事 karmadāna.

Awaken to, apprehend, perceive, become aware; similar to 覺, hence 覺悟.

悟入 To apprehend or perceive and enter into (the idea of reality). Name of a Kashmir monk, Sugandhara.

悟刹 The kṣetra or land of perception or enlightenment.

悟忍 The patience of enlightenment, obtained by Vaidehī, wife of Bimbisāra, 'on her vision of Amitābha,' also known as Joy-perseverance, or Faith-perseverance; one of the ten stages of faith.

悟道 To awaken to the truth.

Fan; door-leaf; translit. ś, .

扇底迦 śāntika, propitiatory, producing ease or quiet; a ceremony for causing calamities to cease.

扇搋 扇搋半擇迦 (or 扇搋般荼迦) saṇḍhaka, a eunuch, sexually impotent; v. 般; 半.

To shake, rouse, restore.

振地 To shake the earth.

振鈴 To shake or ring a bell.

To clasp under the arm; to cherish; to presume on.

挾侍 脇士 The two assistants of a buddha, etc., right and left.

v. 君.

Arrest, catch.

捕喝 捕哺; 捕揭 Bukhara. The present Bokhara, 39° 47 N., 64° 25 E.

To measure (grain), calculate; control, direct; materials; glassware.

料簡 To expound, explain, comment upon; Tiantai uses the term for question and answer, catechism.

A side, beside, adjoining, near.

旁生 傍生 Rebirth as an animal. In some parts of China 旁生 means the next life.

A flag on a bent pole; to warn; translit. generally can, rarely śan, ṣan, cin, kim.

旃丹 v. 震 China.

旃廷 v. 迦 abbrev. for Kātyāyana.

旃提羅 śaṇḍha or ṣaṇḍhaka, a eunuch.

旃檀娜 (旃檀) candana, from cand, to brighten, gladden; sandal-wood, either the tree, wood, or incense-powder, from southern India; there are various kinds, e.g. 牛頭旃檀 q.v.

旃檀耳 A fungus or fruit of the sandal tree, a broth or decoction of which is said to have been given to the Buddha at his last meal, by Cunda 純陀 q.v.; v. 長河含經 3. Also written 檀耳, 檀茸, and 檀樹耳.

旃簛迦 This term as listed in Soothill is most certainly incorrect regarding the second character, obvious because of its pronunciation, as well as the presence of the term 旃簸迦 in other lexicons.

旃簸迦 campaka, also 瞻蔔 (or 瞻博 or 瞻波). A tree with yellow fragrant flowers, Michelia champaka; a kind of perfume; a kind of bread-fruit tree; a district in the upper Punjab.

旃荼羅 caṇḍāla, v. 旃陀羅 below.

旃達羅婆伽 月分 Candrabhāgā. 'The largest Pundjab stream, the Acesines of Alexander, now called Chenab.' Eitel.

旃達羅 旃達提婆 Candradeva, the moon, the moon-deva, the male ruler of the moon.

旃遮 Ciñca-Māṇavikā, or Sundarī, also 旃闍, 戰遮 name of a brahmin woman who falsely accused the Buddha of adultery with her, 興起行經下 q.v.

旃陀羅 caṇḍāla, derived from violent, and intp. as a butcher, bad man 惡人.

旃陀利 caṇḍāla, 'an outcast,' 'a man of the lowest and most despised of the mixed tribes, born from a Śūdra father and Brāhman mother.' M.W. He bore a flag and sounded a bell to warn of his presence. Converts from this class were admitted to ordination in Buddhism.

旃陀阿輸柯 Cāṇḍāśoka, Cruel Aśoka, a name given to Aśoka before his conversion.

Time, hour, period; constantly; as kāla, time in general, e.g. year, month, season, period; as samaya, it means kṣaṇa, momentary, passing; translit. ji.

時乞縛 jihvā, the tongue.

時分 Time-division of the day, variously made in Buddhist works: (1) Three periods each of day and night. (2) Eight periods of day and night, each divided into four parts. (3) Twelve periods, each under its animal, as in China. (4) Thirty hours, sixty hours, of varying definition.

時外道 (時散外道) The non-Buddhist sect which regarded Time, or Chronos, as creator of all things.

時婆時婆迦 jīvajīvaka, v. 耆.

時媚鬼 (or 精媚鬼) One of the three classes of demons; capable of changing at the 子 zi hour (midnight) into the form of a rat, boy, girl, or old, sick person.

時宗 六時往生宗 A Japanese sect, whose members by dividing day and night into six periods of worship seek immortality.

時成就 The third of the six initial statements in a sutra, i.e. 一時 'at one time' or 'once', cf. 六成就.

時毘多迦羅 jīvitākāra, name of a spirit described as a devourer of life or length of days.

時縛迦 jīvaka, one of the eight principal drugs; living, making or seeking a living, causing to live, etc.; an 'illegitimate son of king Bimbisāra by Āmradārikā', who resigned his claim to the throne to Ajātaśātru and practised medicine; a physician.

時處諸緣 The conditions or causes of time and place into which one is born.

時衆 The present company, i.e. of monks and laity; the community in general.

時衣 Garments suited to the time or occasion.

時食 Seasonable or timely food, especially roots used as food in sickness, part of the 五藥, i.e. turnip, onion, arrowroot, radish (or carrot), and a root curing poison.

likh; to write; pustaka, a writing, book; lekha, a letter, document.

書寫 To write, record; a recorder.

書記 A record.

A judge's desk; a case at law.

案達羅 Andhra, a kingdom in southern India, between the Krishnā and Godāvarī rivers, whose capital was Veṅgī; the country south-east of this was known as 大案達羅.

Fuel, firewood, brushwood.

柴頭 The one who looks after it in a monastery.

Compare, collate, compared with, similar to 較.

校量 To compare, or collate, and measure; comparative.

校飾 To adorn, ornament.

A tree whose hard, black seeds are used for beads; a pillar, post, tablet.

桓因 Indra, abbrev. for 釋提桓因.

A rule, line, pattern; reach, research, science.

格外 Extraordinary.

Chestnut; translit. l, hṛ.

栗呫毘 (栗呫婆毘) Licchavi, v. 梨.

栗馱 hṛd, hṛdaya, the heart, v. 汙.

Mulberry.

桑渴耶 v. 僧 saṅgha.

桑門 v. 沙門 śramaṇa.

mūla, a root, basis, origin; but when meaning an organ of sense, indriyam, a 'power', 'faculty of sense, sense, organ of sense'. M.W. A root, or source; that which is capable of producing or growing, as the eye is able to produce knowledge, as faith is able to bring forth good works, as human nature is able to produce good or evil karma. v. 五根 and 二十二根.

根上下智力 One of a buddha's ten powers, to know the capacities of all beings, their nature and karma.

根利 Of penetrative powers, intelligent, in contrast with 根鈍 dull powers.

根力 Organs and their powers, the five organs of sense and their five powers.

根器 Natural capacity, capacity of any organ, or being.

根境 The field of any organ, its field of operation.

根塵 The object or sensation of any organ of sense.

根性 Nature and character; the nature of the powers of any sense.

根本 Fundamental, basal, radical, original, elemental; when referring to a fundamental text, 根本經 mūlagrantha, it indicates a sutra supposed to contain the original words of the Buddha.

根本定 根本禪; 根本等至 The stages of dhyāna in the formless or immaterial realm.

根本心 Root or fundamental mind.

根本惑 根本煩惱 The fundamental illusions, passions, or afflictions-desire, hate, delusion (moha), pride, doubt, bad views (or false opinions); the first five are the 五鈍使; the last represents 五利使 q.v.

根本智 Fundamental, original, or primal wisdom, source of all truth and virtue; knowledge of fundamental principles; intuitive knowledge or wisdom, in contrast with acquired wisdom.

根本無明 無始無明 (or 元始無明) Primal ignorance, the condition before discernment and differentiation.

根本說一切有部 The Sarvāstivādins, v. 一切有.

根本識 Original or fundamental mind or intelligence, a name for the ālayavijñāna.

根敗 Decay of the powers, or senses.

根機 Motive power, fundamental ability, opportunity.

根淨 The purity of the six organs of sense.

根緣 Nature and environment; natural powers and conditioning environment.

根門 The senses as doors (through which illusion enters).

根闕 根缺 Defective in any organ of sense, e.g. blind or deaf.

根香 Putchuk, idem 木香.

To kill, exterminate; different; very.

殊勝 Rare, extraordinary, surpassing, as the 殊勝殿 and 池 surpassing palace and lake of Indra.

殊妙身 Surpassingly wonderful body, i.e. Padtmottara, the 729th Buddha of the present kalpa.

殊底迦 (殊底色迦) Jyotiṣka, 殊底穡殊底; 聚底色迦; 樹提迦 'a luminary, a heavenly body.' M.W. Name of a wealthy elder of Rājagṛha, who gave all his goods to the poor.

殊微伽 One of the four kinds of ascetics who dressed in rags and ate garbage.

殊致阿羅婆 Jyotīrasa, tr. as光味 flavor of light, said to be the proper name of Kharoṣṭha, v. 佉.

To kill, cut down, cut off.

殺三摩娑 Shaṭsamāsa, cf. 三.

殺業 The karma resulting from killing.

殺生 To take life, kill the living, or any conscious being; the taking of human life offends against the major commands, of animal life against the less stringent commands. Suicide also leads to severe penalties.

殺者 The murderer, a name for Māra.

殺賊 Kṣīṇāsrava, thief-destroyer, i.e. conqueror of the passions, an arhat.

殺鬼 To slay demons; a ghost of the slain; a murderous demon; a metaphor for impermanence.

Floating, drifting, unsettled.

浮孔 A hole in a floating log, through which a one-eyed turtle accidentally obtains a glimpse of the moon, the rarest of chances, e.g. the rareness of meeting a buddha.

浮囊 A floating bag, a swimming float, a lifebuoy.

浮圖 浮陀; 浮頭; 浮屠 Buddha; also a stūpa, v. 佛 and 塔.

浮塵 Floating dust or atoms, unstable matter, i.e. phenomena, which hide reality.

浮想 Passing thoughts, unreal fancies.

浮木 A floating log, v. 浮孔.

浮根 (浮塵根); 扶根 (扶塵根) indriya, the organs of sensation, eye, ear, etc., in contrast with 勝義根 the function or faculty of sensation.

浮雲 A drifting cloud, e.g. this life, the body, etc.

sāgara, the ocean, the sea.

海印 The ocean symbol, indicating the vastness of the meditation of the Buddha, the vision of all things.

海德 The eight virtues, or powers of the ocean, i.e. vastness, tidal regularity, throwing out of the dead, containing the seven kinds of pearls, absorption of all rivers, of all rain without increase, holding the most mighty fish, universal unvarying saltness.

海會 The assembly of the saints; also a cemetery.

海潮音 The ocean-tide voice, i.e. of the Buddha.

海珠 Ocean pearls, things hard to obtain.

海衆 Ocean assembly, i.e. a great assembly of monks, the whole body of monks.

海龍王 The Ocean-nāga, or Dragon King of the Ocean; hence the 海龍王經 sutra of this name.

Vast, great.

浩妙 Vast and mysterious.

Melt, disperse, expend, digest, dispose of.

消滅 To put an end to, cause to cease.

消災 To disperse, or put an end to calamity.

消痩服 The monk's robe as putting an end to illusion.

消釋 To solve and explain.

消除 To eradicate.

Flow; float; spread; wander.

流來 Flowed or floated down: that which has come down from the past.

流來生死 Transmigration which has come down from the state of primal ignorance.

流支 An abbreviation for Bodhiruci, v. 菩.

流毘尼 流彌尼 Lumbinī, cf. 嵐.

流水 Flowing water, name of a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.

流沙 Floating or shifting sands.

流注 Continuous flow, ceaseless.

流漿 Liquid broth of molten copper, or grains of red-hot iron, in one of the hells.

流舍那 locana. Cf. 毘. Often regarded as the body of bliss of Vairocana.

流轉 saṃsāra, transmigration, flowing and returning, flowing back again.

流轉門 The way of transmigration, as contrasted with 滅門 that of nirvāṇa.

流轉眞如 The bhūtatathatā, or absolute, in transmigratory forms.

流通 Spread abroad; permeate; flowing through, or everywhere, without effective hindrance.

Prosperous, exalted; many.

泰山 Tai Shan in Shandong, the eastern sacred mountain of China.

To bathe, wash.

浴主 知浴; 浴頭 Bath-controller.

浴佛 浴像 To wash the image of the Buddha; this is a ceremony on his birthday, 8th of the 4th month.

浴室 A bath-house.

浴鼓 The bathing-drum, announcing the time for washing in the Chan monasteries.

To well, spring up.

涌出 To spring forth.

涌泉 The springing fountain, i.e. the sutras.

湼 Black mud at the bottom of a pool; muddy; to blacken, defile; the first form is more correct, but the second is more common.

涅哩底 nirṛti, destruction, the goddess of death and corruption regent of the south-west.

涅哩底方 The south-west quarter.

涅槃 nirvāṇa, 'blown out, gone out, put out, extinguished'; 'liberated-from existence'; 'dead, deceased, defunct.' 'Liberation, eternal bliss'; '(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence.' M.W. Other forms are 涅槃那; 泥日; 泥洹; 泥畔 Originally translated 滅 to extinguish, extinction, put out (as a lamp or fire), it was also described as 解脫 release, 寂滅 tranquil extinction; 無爲 inaction, without effort, passiveness; 不生 no (re)birth; 安樂 calm joy; 滅度transmigration to 'extinction'. The meaning given to 'extinction' varies, e.g. individual extinction; cessation of rebirth; annihilation of passion; extinction of all misery and entry into bliss. While the meaning of individual extinction is not without advocates, the general acceptation is the extinction or end of all return to reincarnation with its concomitant suffering, and the entry into bliss. Nirvāṇa may be enjoyed in the present life as an attainable state, with entry into parinirvāṇa, or perfect bliss to follow. It may be (a) with a 'remainder', i.e. the cause but not all the effect (karma), of reincarnation having been destroyed; (b) without 'remainder', both cause and effect having been extinguished. The answer of the Buddha as to the continued personal existence of the Tathāgata in nirvāṇa is, in the Hīnayāna canon, relegated 'to the sphere of the indeterminates' (Keith), as one of the questions which are not essential to salvation. One argument is that flame when blown out does not perish but returns to the totality of Fire. The Nirvāṇa Sutra claims for nirvāṇa the ancient ideas of 常樂我淨 permanence, bliss, personality purity in the transcendental realm. Mahāyāna declares that Hīnayāna by denying personality in the transcendental realm denies the existence of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna final nirvāṇa is transcendental, and is also used as a term for the absolute. The place where the Buddha entered his earthly nirvāṇa is given as Kuśinagara, cf. 拘.

涅槃佛 The nirvāṇa-form of Buddha; also 涅槃像 the 'sleeping Buddha', i.e. the Buddha entering nirvāṇa.

涅槃僧 nivāsana, an inner garment, cf. 泥.

涅槃八味 The eight rasa, i.e. flavours, or characteristics of nirvāṇa-permanence, peace, no growing old, no death, purity, transcendence, unperturbedness, joy.

涅槃分 The part, or lot, of nirvāṇa.

涅槃印 (涅槃寂靜印) The seal or teaching of nirvāṇa, one of the three proof that a sutra was uttered by the Buddha, i.e. its teaching of impermanence, non-ego, nirvāṇa; also the witness within to the attainment of nirvāṇa.

涅槃城 The nirvāṇa city, the abode of the saints.

涅槃堂 The nirvāṇa hall, or dying place of a monk in a monastery.

涅槃宗 The School based on the 大般涅槃經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sutra, first tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 423. Under the 陳 Chen dynasty this Nirvāṇa school became merged in the Tiantai sect.

涅槃宮 The nirvāṇa palace of the saints.

涅槃山 The steadfast mountain of nirvāṇa in contrast with the changing stream of mortality.

涅槃忌 涅槃會The Nirvāṇa assembly, 2nd moon 15th day, on the anniversary of the Buddha's death.

涅槃月日 The date of the Buddha's death, variously stated as 2nd moon 15th or 8th day; 8th moon 8th; 3rd moon 15th; and 9th moon 8th.

涅槃樂 Nirvāṇa-joy or bliss.

涅槃洲 Nirvāṇa-island, i.e. in the stream of mortality, from which stream the Buddha saves men with his eight-oar boat of truth, v. 八聖道.

涅槃界 nirvāṇa-dhātu; the realm of nirvāṇa, or bliss, where all virtues are stored and whence all good comes; one of the 三無爲法.

涅槃疊那 ? nidhāpana, nirdahana, cremation.

涅槃相 The 8th sign of the Buddha, his entry into nirvāṇa, i.e. his death, after delivering 'in one day and night' the 大般涅槃經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra.

涅槃經 Nirvāṇa Sūtra. There are two versions, one the Hīnayāna, the other the Mahāyāna, both of which are translated into Chinese, in several versions, and there are numerous treatises on them. Hīnayāna: 佛般泥洹經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra, tr. by Po Fazu A.D. 290-306 of the Western Chin dynasty, B.N. 552. 大般涅槃經 tr. by Faxian, B.N. 118. 般泥洹經 translator unknown. These are different translations of the same work. In the Āgamas 阿含there is also a Hīnayāna Nirvāṇa Sūtra. Mahāyāna: 佛說方等般泥洹經 Caturdāraka-samādhi Sūtra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa of the Western Chin A.D. 265-316, B. N. 116. 大般泥洹經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra, tr. by Faxian, together with Buddhabhadra of the Eastern Chin, A.D. 317-420, B. N. 120, being a similar and incomplete translation of B. N. 113, 114. 四童子三昧經 Caturdāraka-samādhi Sūtra, tr. by Jñānagupta of the Sui dynasty, A. D. 589-618, B.N. 121. The above three differ, though they are the first part of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra of the Mahāyāna. The complete translation is 大般涅槃經 tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 423, B.N. 113; v. a partial translation of fasc. 12 and 39 by Beal, in his Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, pp. 160-188. It is sometimes called 北本 or Northern Book, when compared with its revision, the Southern Book, i.e. 南方大般涅槃經 Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra, produced in Jianye, the modem Nanjing, by two Chinese monks, Huiyan and Huiguan, and a literary man, Xie Lingyun. B.N. 114. 大般涅槃經後分 The latter part of the Mahaparinirvāṇa Sūtra tr. by Jñānabhadra together with Huining and others of the Tang dynasty, B.N. 115, a continuation of the last chapter of B.N. 113 and 114.

涅槃縛 The fetter of nirvāṇa, i.e. the desire for it, which hinders entry upon the bodhisattva life of saving others; it is the fetter of Hīnayāna, resulting in imperfect nirvāṇa.

涅槃聖 Nickname of 道生 Daosheng, pupil of Kumārajīva, tr. part of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra, asserted the eternity of Buddha, for which he was much abused, hence the nickname.

涅槃色 Nirvāṇa-colour, i.e. black, representing the north.

涅槃門 The gate or door into nirvāṇa; also the northern gate of a cemetery.

涅槃際 The region of nirvāṇa in contrast with that of mortality.

涅槃風 The nirvāṇa-wind which wafts the believer into bodhi.

涅槃食 Nirvāṇa food; the passions are faggots, wisdom is fire, the two prepare nirvāṇa as food.

涅迦羅 niṣkala, without parts; seedless; indivisible; or perhaps niṣkāla, but a short time to live, intp. as 暫時 a shot time, temporary.

To steam; advance; all.

烝砂作飯 Like cooking sand for food.

Burning, fierce; virtuous, heroic.

烈士池 Tyāgihrada, Jīvakahrada, the lake of the renouncer, or of the hero, near to the Mrgadāva.

Smoke; also tobacco, opium.

烟蓋 Smoke (of incense) like a canopy.

The crow; black, not; ah! alas! translit. chiefly uu; cf. 優; 盂; 鬱; 鄥; 塢.

烏仗那 udyāna, a park or garden; the park (of Aśoka); an 'ancient kingdom in the north-west of India, the country along the Śubhavastu; the Suastene of the Greeks, noted for its forests, flowers, and fruits'. Eitel. Also 烏杖那; 烏場; 烏萇; 烏孫; 烏儞也曩; 烏耆延那said to be the present Yūsufzai.

烏倶婆誐 Ugra-bhaga, formidable or fierce lord, one of the eight servants of 不動明王 q.v.

烏剌尸 Urāśi, or Uraśā; anciently in Kashmir 'the region south-west of Serinagur, Lat. 33° 23 N., Long. 74° 47 E.' Eitel. The Hazāra district.

烏地多 'The king of an unknown country in Northern India who patronized Xuanzang (A.D. 640).' Eitel.

烏摩 Unmada, 優摩陀 a demon or god of craziness or intoxication.

烏摩妃 Umā, 'flax,' 'wife of Rudra and Śiva' (M.W.), intp. as wife of Śiva, and as a symbol of 貧 covetousness, desire, Umā being described as trampling Śiva under her left foot.

烏枕南 udāna, breathing upwards a solemn utterance, or song of joy, intp. as unsolicited or voluntary statements, i.e. by the Buddha, in contrast with replies to questions; it is a section of Buddhist literature.

烏沙斯 Uṣas. The dawn, but intp. as the planet Venus.

烏波 upādāna, laying hold of, grasp; hence material, things; it transliterates bhāva and is intp. as 有 to have, be, exist, things, the resultant or karma of all previous and the cause of all future lives. v. 取 and 優.

烏波斯迦 優波夷 (or 優賜迦) upāsikā, female disciples who remain at home.

烏波提 upādhi; a condition; peculiar, limited, special; the upādhi-nirvana is the 苦or wretched condition of heretics.

烏波毱多 Upagupta, also 鄔 and優, a śūdra by birth, who became the fourth patriarch.

烏波第鑠 鄔烏提波; 優烏提舍 upadeśa, a section of Buddhist literature, general treatises; a synonym for the Abhidharma-piṭaka, and for the Tantras of the Yogācāra school.

烏波索迦 (or 烏波婆迦); 優婆塞; 優波婆迦 upāsaka, lay male disciples who remain at home and observe the moral commandments.

烏波陀耶 有波弟 耶夜; 和尚 (or 和闍 or 和闇) upādhyāya, originally a subsidiary teacher of the vedāṅgas; later, through Central Asia, it became a term for a teacher of Buddhism, in distinction from 律師disciplinists and 禪師 intuitionalists, but as heshang it attained universal application to all masters.

烏波難陀 Upananda (or 塢波難陀), a disciple of Śākyamuni; also one of the eight naga-kings in the Garbhadhātu.

烏波髻使者 烏婆計設尼 Upakeśinī, one of the messengers of Mañjuśrī.

烏洛迦旃檀 uraga(sāra)-candana, serpent-sandal, a kind of sandal wood, used as a febrifuge.

烏洛迦 烏羅伽 uraga, going on the belly, a serpent.

烏瑟膩沙 (烏瑟) uṣṇīṣa, a turban, diadem, distinguishing mark; intp. as 佛頂 the crown of the Buddha's head; and 肉髻 fleshy tuft or coif, one of the thirty-two lakṣaṇāni of a Buddha, generally represented as a protuberance on the frontal crown. Also M046663瑟膩沙; 烏失尼沙; 鬱瑟膩沙 (or 嗢瑟膩沙).

烏耆 Agni, or Akni, an ancient kingdom north of Lop Nor, identified with Karashahr. Also 阿耆尼; M067729夷.

烏芻瑟摩 ? Ucchuṣma. One of the 明王ming wang; he presides over the cesspool and is described both as 'unclean' and as 'fire-head'; he is credited with purifying the unclean. Also 烏芻沙摩; 烏芻澁摩; 烏樞瑟摩 (or 烏樞瑟沙摩); 烏素沙摩.

烏荼 Uḍa, Uḍradeśa, Oḍra, Oḍivisa; an ancient country of eastern India with a busy port called 折利呾羅 Charitrapura (Xuanzang), probably the province of Orissa.

烏落 ulak; ulag; a Uigur term meaning horse, indicating relays of post-horses.

烏菴 om or aum; cf. 唵.

烏逋沙他 Upavasaṭha (Pali, Uposatha). A fast-day, originally in preparation for the brahminical soma sacrifice; in Buddhism there are six fast-days in the month.

烏鐸迦漢荼 ? Uṭabhāṇḍa, or Uḍakhāṇḍa, an ancient city of Gandhāra, on the northern bank of the Indus, identified with Ohind; Eitel gives it as 'the modern Attok'.

烏闍衍那 Ujjayinī, Ujjain, Oujein, 優禪那 the Greek Ozēnē, in Avanti (Mālava), one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, and the first meridian of their geographers, from which they calculate longitude; the modern Ujjain is about a mile south of the ancient city. M.W.

烏陀愆那 Udayana, a king of Vatsa, or Kauśāmbī, 'contemporary of Śākyamuni,' of whom he is said to have had the first statue made.

A bull, stallion; outstanding, special, alone.

特勝 Special, extraordinary.

特尊 The outstanding honoured one.

特欹拏伽陀 dakṣiṇāgāthā, a song offering, or expression of gratitude by a monk for food or gifts.

A wolf; fierce.

狼跡山 Wolf track hill, another name for 鷄足山q.v.

mani. A pearl; a bead; synonym for buddha-truth.

珠利耶 Culya, Caula, Cola. 'An ancient kingdom in the north-east corner of the present Madras presidency, described A.D. 640 as a scarcely cultivated country with semi-savage and anti-Buddhistic inhabitants.' Eitel.

A class, rank, band; translit. pan.

班禪喇嘛 班禪頞爾德尼The Tibetan Panchen-lama.

Keep, detain; hand down.

留拏 ruṇṇa-paṇḍakas, castrated males.

留難 The difficulty of one's good deeds being hindered by evil spirits.

A path between fields, or boundary; to trespass; translit. ban, van, par, pra. v. 般, 班, etc.

畔喋婆 ? vātyā. A great calamitous wind 畔彈南.

畔睇 vandana, v. 和.

To rear, feed, domesticate; restrain: cattle.

畜生 tiryagyoni, 底栗車; 傍生 'Born of or as an animal, ' rebirth as an animal; animals in general; especially domestic animals.

畜生因 The cause, or karma, of rebirth as an animal.

畜生界 The animal kingdom.

畜生道 畜生趣 The way, destiny, or gati of rebirth as animals, cf. 六道; 六趣.

Sickness, an attack of illness: haste, speedy: angry.

疾書 Hasty writing; a hurried note; write speedily, or at once.

Illness, disease; to hurt.

病子 Just as a mother loves the sick child most, so Buddha loves the most wicked sinner. Nirvana Sutra 30.

A bowl; abundant; translit. ang.

盎哦囉迦 Aṅgāraka, the planet Mars.

盎窶利魔羅 aṅgulimālīya; 指鬘 A wreath, or chaplet, of fingerbones; a Śivaitic sect which practised assassination as a religious act.

To close the eyes, to sleep.

眠藏 A monastic sleeping-room.

True, real; verisimilitude, e.g. a portrait.

眞丹 震旦; 神丹 An ancient Indian term for China; v. 支那.

眞乘 The true vehicle, i.e. the true teaching or doctrine.

眞人 One who embodies the Truth, an arhat; a Buddha.

眞俗 Truth and convention; the true view and the ordinary; reality and appearance. 眞 is 空, and 俗 is 假.

眞佛 The real Buddha, i.e. the saṃbhogakāya, or reward body, in contrast to the nirmāṇakāya, or manifested body. Also the dharmakāya 法身 q.v.

眞佛子 A true Buddha son, i.e. one who has attained the first stage of bodhisattvahood according to the 別教 definition, i.e. the unreality of the ego and phenomena.

眞化 The teaching of the 眞宗 True (or Shin) sect.

眞化二身 The 眞 is the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya and the 化 the nirmāṇakāya; v. 三身.

眞因 The true cause; reality as cause.

眞境 The region of truth or reality.

眞妄 True and false, real and unreal. (1) That which has its rise in Buddha-truth, meditation, and wisdom is true; that which arises from the influences of unenlightenment is untrue. (2) The essential bhūtatathatā as the real, phenomena as the unreal.

眞妄二心 The true and false minds i.e. (1) The true bhūtatathatā mind, defined as the ninth or amalavijñāna. (2) The false or illusion mind as represented by the eight vijñānas, 八識.

眞如 bhūtatathatā, 部多多他多. The眞 is intp. as 眞實 the real, 如 as 如常 thus always or eternally so; i.e. reality as contrasted with 虛妄 unreality, or appearance, and 不變不改 unchanging or immutable as contrasted with form and phenomena. It resembles the ocean in contrast with the waves. It is the eternal, impersonal, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. bhūta is substance, that which exists; tathatā is suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. The word is fundamental to Mahāyāna philosophy, implying the absolute, the ultimate source and character of all phenomena, it is the All. It is also called 自性淸淨心 self-existent pure Mind; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 法身 dharmakāya; 如來藏 tathāgata-garbha, or Buddha-treasury; 實相 reality; 法界 Dharma-realm; 法性Dharma-nature; 圓成實性 The complete and perfect real nature, or reality. There are categories of 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 12 in number: (1) The undifferentiated whole. (2) There are several antithetical classes, e.g. the unconditioned and the conditioned; the 空 void, static, abstract, noumenal, and the 不 空 not-void, dynamic, phenomenal; pure, and affected (or infected); undefiled (or innocent), i.e. that of Buddhas, defiled, that of all beings; in bonds and free; inexpressible, and expressible in words. (3) 無相 Formless; 無生 uncreated; 無性 without nature, i.e. without characteristics or qualities, absolute in itself. Also, as relative, i.e. good, bad, and indeterminate. (7, 10, 12) The 7 are given in the 唯識論 8; the 10 are in two classes, one of the 別教 cf. 唯識論 8; the other of the 圓教, cf. 菩提心義 4; the 12 are given in the Nirvana Sutra.

眞如一實 bhūtatathatā the only reality, the one bhūtatathatā reality.

眞如三昧 The meditation in which all phenomena are eliminated and the bhūtatathatā or absolute is realized.

眞如內熏 The internal perfuming or influence of the bhūtatathatā, or Buddha-spirituality.

眞如實相 The essential characteristic or mark (lakṣaṇa) of the bhūtatathatā i.e. reality. 眞如 is bhūtatathatā from the point of view of the void, attributeless absolute; 實相 is bhūtatathatā from the point of view of phenomena.

眞如海 The ocean of the bhūtatathatā, limitless.

眞如法身 The absolute as dharmakāya, or spiritual body, all embracing.

眞如緣起 The absolute in its causative or relative condition; the bhūtatathatā influenced by environment, or pure and impure conditions, produces all things, v. 緣起.

眞如隨緣 The conditioned bhūtatathatā, i.e. as becoming; it accords with the 無明染緣 unconscious and tainting environment to produce all phenomena.

眞妙 The mysterious reality; reality in its profundity.

眞子 A son of the True One, i.e. the Tathāgata; a Buddha-son, one who embodies Buddha's teaching.

眞宗 The true sect or teaching, a term applied by each sect to its own teaching; the teaching which makes clear the truth of the bhūtatathatā. The True Sect, or Shin Sect of Japan, founded by Shinran in A. D. 1224, known also as the Hongwanji sect; celibacy of priests is not required; Amida is the especial object of trust, and his Pure Land of hope.

眞實 tattva. Truth, reality; true, real.

眞實明 The Truth-wisdom, or Buddha-illumination, i.e. prajñā.

眞實智 tattvajñāna, knowledge of absolute truth.

眞實際 The region of reality, the bhūtatathatā.

眞寂 The true Buddha-nirvana as contrasted with that of the Hīnayāna.

眞常 True and eternal; the eternal reality of Buddha-truth.

眞影 A reflection of the true, i.e. a portrait, photograph, image, etc.

眞性 The true nature; the fundamental nature of each individual, i.e. the Buddha-nature.

眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya; v. 三身.

眞我 (1) The real or nirvana ego, the transcendental ego, as contrasted with the illusory or temporal ego. (2) The ego as considered real by non-Buddhists.

眞文 The writings of Truth, those giving the words of the Buddha or bodhisattvas.

眞明 True knowledge or enlightenment (in regard to reality in contrast with appearance).

眞智 Wisdom or knowledge of ultimate truth, or the absolute, also called 無智 knowledge of the no-thing, i.e. of the immaterial or absolute; also 聖智 sage wisdom, or wisdom of the sage.

眞普賢 A true P'u-hsien or Samantabhadra, a living incarnation of him.

眞法 The real or absolute dharma without attributes, in contrast to phenomena which are regarded as momentary constructs.

眞法界The region of reality apart from the temporal and unreal.

眞淨 The true and pure teaching of the Mahāyāna, in contrast to the Hīnayāna.

眞無漏智 The true knowledge of the Mahāyāna in its concept of mental reality, in contrast with Hīnayāna concepts of material reality.

眞理 Truth, the true principle, the principle of truth; the absolute apart from phenomena.

眞發明性 The spirit of true enlightenment, i.e. the discipline of the mind for the development of the fundamental spiritual or Buddha-nature.

眞空 (1) The absolute void, complete vacuity, said to be the nirvana of the Hīnayāna. (2) The essence of the bhūtatathatā, as the 空眞如 of the 起信論, 唯識, and 華嚴. (3) The void or immaterial as reality, as essential or substantial, the 非 空 之 空 not-void void, the ultimate reality, the highest Mahāyāna concept of true voidness, or of ultimate reality.

眞空妙有 The true void is the mysteriously existing; truly void, or immaterial, yet transcendentally existing.

眞色 The mystic or subtle form of the bhūtatathatā, or absolute, the form of the void, or immaterial, dharmakāya.

眞解脫 Release from all the hindrances of passion and attainment of the Buddha's nirvana, which is not a permanent state of absence from the needs of the living, but is spiritual, omniscient, and liberating.

眞見道 The realization of reality in the absolute as whole and undivided, one of the 見道位.

眞覺 The true and complete enlightenment, i.e. the perfect nirvana of the Buddha; the perception of ultimate truth.

眞言 True words, words of Truth, the words of the Tathāgata, Buddha-truth. The term is used for mantra, and dhāraṇī, indicating magical formulae, spells, charms, esoteric words. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas have each an esoteric sound represented by a Sanskrit letter, the primary Vairocana letter, the alpha of all sounds being 'a' 阿, which is also styled 眞言救世者 the True World that saves the world.

眞言乘 The True Word, or Mantra Vehicle, called also the supernatural vehicle, because of immediate attainment of the Buddha-land through tantric methods.

眞言宗 The True-word or Shingon sect, founded on the mystical teaching 'of all Buddhas,' the 'very words ' of the Buddhas; the especial authority being Vairocana; cf. the 大日 sutra, 金剛頂經; 蘇悉地經, etc. The founding of the esoteric sect is attributed to Vairocana, through the imaginary Bodhisattva Vajrasattva, then through Nāgārjuna to Vajramati and to Amoghavajra, circa A.D. 733; the latter became the effective propagator of the Yogācāra school in China; he is counted as the sixth patriarch of the school and the second in China. The three esoteric duties of body, mouth, and mind are to hold the symbol in the hand, recite the dhāraṇīs, and ponder over the word 'a' 阿 as the principle of the ungenerated, i.e. the eternal.

眞言智 The mantra wisdom, which surpasses all other wisdom.

眞言祕密 The mystic nature of the mantras and dhāraṇīs; the esoteric things of Shingon.

眞說 True speech or teaching; the words of the Buddha.

眞詮 Commentaries or treatises on reality.

眞語 True words, especially as expressing the truth of the bhūtatathatā; the words of the Tathāgata as true and consistent.

眞諦 The asseverations or categories of reality, in contrast with 俗諦 ordinary categories; they are those of the sage, or man of insight, in contrast with those of the common man, who knows only appearance and not reality.

眞諦三藏 Paramārtha 波羅末陀, also called ? Guṇarata 拘那羅陀 or Kulanātha, from Ujjain in western India, who came to China A.D. 546, and is famous as translator or editor, e.g. of the 起信論.

眞證 Real evidence, proof, or assurance, or realization of truth. The knowledge, concept, or idea which corresponds to reality.

眞識 Buddha-wisdom; the original unadulterated, or innocent mind in all, which is independent of birth and death; cf. 楞伽經 and 起信論. Real knowledge free from illusion, the sixth vijñāna.

眞身 The true body, corpus of truth, dharmakāya, Buddha as absolute.

眞道 The Truth; the true way; reality.

眞金 Pure gold.

眞金像 An image of pure gold; the body of the Buddha.

眞金山 A mountain of pure gold, i.e. Buddha's body.

眞門 The gateway of truth, or reality; the Truth; the school of perfect truth, in contrast with partial truth adapted to the condition of the disciple.

眞際 The region of reality, ultimate truth, idem 眞實際.

A carpenter's square, a rule; translit. ku, cf. 姑, 拘, 鳩.

矩奢揭羅補羅 Kuśāgrapura, v. 吉祥 and cf. 拘尸那.

矩拉婆 Kurava or Uttarakuru, v. 鬱 the northern of the four great continents.

矩矩吒 kukkuṭa, a cock, fowl.

矩矩吒翳說羅 Kukkuṭeśvara, Korea.

To break, disrupt, destroy, cause schism; solve, disprove, refute, negate.

破僧 To disrupt a monk's meditation or preaching, also to disrupt the harmony of the community of monks 破和合僧.

破和合僧 sanghabheda, disrupt the harmony of the community of monks, to cause schism e.g. by heretical opinions.

破地獄 To break open the gates of hell, by chants and incantations, for the release of a departed spirit.

破執 To refute (false) tenets, e.g. the belief in the reality of the ego and things.

破壞 To destroy.

破壞善 Destroyer of good, a name for Māra.

破夏 To neglect the summer retreat.

破戒 To break the commandments.

破有 To refute the belief in the reality of things; to break the power of transmigration as does the Buddha.

破正 That which denies the truth, e.g. heresy.

破正命 An incorrect or wrong form of livelihood.

破法 To break the (Buddha-) law e.g. by the adoption of heresy.

破相宗 The sects established by Yungming 永明, Ching-ying 淨影, and Hui-yuan 慧遠, which held the unreality of all things.

破立 also called 遮照 Refuting and establishing; by refuting to probe, or to establish, i.e. in refuting the particular to prove the universal, and vice versa.

破薩堤 upasanti, tranquility, calm.

破顯 (破邪顯正) To break, or disprove the false and make manifest the right.

破門 To break a door, leave a sect.

破闇滿願 To destroy darkness or ignorance and fulfill the Buddha-vow. i.e. that of Amitābha.

破顏微笑 To break into a smile, the mark of Kāśyapa's enlightenment when Buddha announced on Vulture Peak that he had a teaching which was propagated from mind to mind, a speech taken as authoritative by the Institutional School.

破魔 To overcome the māras, exorcise demons.

破齋 To break the monastic rule of the regulation food, or time for meals, for which the punishment is hell, or to become a hungry ghost like the kind with throats small as needles and distended bellies, or to become an animal.

To invoke, either to bless or curse.

祝聖 To invoke blessings on the emperor's birthday.

Grandfather; ancestor; patriarch; founder; origin. See 二十八祖.

祖師 A first teacher, or leader, founder of a school or sect; it has particular reference to Bodhidharma.

The spring ancestral sacrifice; the spring; ancestral temple, tablet, etc.

祠堂 An ancestral temple or hall.

祠堂銀 An endowment for masses to be said for the departed, also 長生銀; 無盡財.

To revere, venerate; only; translit. j in 祇園精舍; 祇樹給孤獨園 The vihāra and garden Jetavana, bought by Anāthapiṇḍaka from prince Jeta and given to Śākyamuni.

Inscrutable spiritual powers, or power; a spirit; a deva, god, or divinity; the human spirit; divine, spiritual, supernatural.

神人 Gods, or spirits, and men.

神仙 神僊 The genī, immortals, ṛṣi, of whom the five kinds are 天, 神, 人, 地, and 鬼仙, i.e. deva, spirit, human, earth (or cave), and preta immortals.

神供 Offerings placed before the gods or spirits.

神光 deva-light, the light of the gods.

神力 v. 神通.

神咒 ṛddhi-mantra, or dhāraṇī; divine or magic incantations.

神坐 deva or spirit thrones.

神域 The realm of spirit, of reality, surpassing thought, supra-natural.

神女 A devī, a female spirit; a sorceress.

神妙 Mysterious, mystic, occult, recondite, marvellous.

神我 puruṣa, or ātman. The soul, the spiritual ego, or permanent person, which by non-Buddhists was said to migrate on the death of the body. puruṣa is also the Supreme Soul, or Spirit, which produces all forms of existence.

神明 The spirits of heaven and earth, the gods; also the intelligent or spiritual nature.

神智 Spiritual wisdom, divine wisdom which comprehends all things, material and immaterial.

神根 The vital spirit as the basis of bodily life.

神識 The intelligent spirit, also called 靈魂 the soul; incomprehensible or divine wisdom.

神變 Supernatural influences causing the changes in natural events; miracles; miraculous transformations, e.g. the transforming powers of a Buddha, both in regard to himself and others; also his miraculous acts, e.g. unharmed by poisonous snakes, unburnt by dragon fire, etc. Tantra, or Yogācāra.

神足 (神足通) deva-foot ubiquity. ṛddhipādaṛddhi-sākṣātkriyā. Also 神境智通; 如意通 Supernatural power to appear at will in any place, to fly or go without hindrance, to have absolute freedom; cf. 大教.

神足月 The first, fifth, and ninth months, when the devas go on circuit throughout the earth.

神通 (神通力) Ubiquitous supernatural power, especially of a Buddha, his ten powers including power to shake the earth, to issue light from his pores, extend his tongue to the Brahma-heavens effulgent with light, cause divine flowers, etc., to rain from the sky, be omnipresent, and other powers. Supernatural powers of eye, ear, body, mind, etc.

神通月 idem 神足月.

神通乘 The supernatural or magic vehicle i.e. the esoteric sect of 眞言 Shingon.

神道 The spirit world of devas, asuras, and pretas. Psychology, or the doctrines concerning the soul. The teaching of Buddha. Shinto, the Way of the Gods, a Japanese national religion.

神闇 The darkened mind without faith.

The Ch'in state and dynasty 255-205 B. C.

大泰 Syria, the Eastern Roman Empire.

泰廣王 Ch'in-kuang, the first of the ten kings of Hades.

To feed a horse; translit. ma.

秣免羅 Mathurā, v. 摩.

秣若瞿沙 Manojñaghoṣa, an ancient bhikṣu.

秣底補羅 Matipura, an 'ancient kingdom (and city) the kings of which in A.D. 600 belonged to the Śūdra caste, the home of many famous priests. The present Rohilcund (Rohilkhand) between the Ganges and Rāmagaṅgā.'

秣羅娑 Malasa. 'A mountain valley in the upper Pundjab.'

秣羅矩吒 Malakūṭa. 'An ancient kingdom of Southern India, the coast of Malabar, about A.D. 600 a noted haunt of the Nirgrantha sect.' Eitel.

Secret, occult, esoteric; opposite of 顯.

祕印 Esoteric signs, or seals.

祕奥 Secret, mysterious.

祕宗 密教 The esoteric Mantra or Yogācāra sect, developed especially in眞言Shingon, with Vairocana 大日如來 as the chief object of worship, and the maṇḍalas of the Garbhadhātu and Vajra- dhātu.

祕密 Secret, occult, esoteric, mysterious, profound.

祕密乘 (祕密上乘) The esoteric (superior) vehicle, i.e. the above sect.

祕密主 Vajrasattva, cf. 金剛薩埵, who is king of Yakṣas and guardian of the secret of Buddhas.

祕密咒 The mantras, or incantations of the above sect.

祕密號 Its dhāraṇīs.

祕密壇 Its altars.

祕密宗 The (above) esoteric sect.

祕密戒 Its commandments.

祕教 (祕密教) Its teaching; the sect itself; one of the four modes of teaching defined by the Tiantai; a name for the 圓教.

祕密瑜伽 The yoga rules of the esoteric sect; also a name for the sect.

祕經 (祕密經) Its sutras.

祕密結集 The collection of mantras, dhāraṇīs, etc., and of the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu literature, attributed to Ānanda, or Vajrasattva, or both.

祕藏 (祕密藏) The treasury of the profound wisdom. or mysteries, variously interpreted.

祕決 or 祕訣 Secret, magical incantations.

祕法 The mysteries of the esoteric sect.

祕要 The essence, the profoundly important.

Together, idem 並.

竝起 To arise together.

A satchel, book-box; translit. g.

笈多 Upagupta, v. 優婆毱多.

笈房鉢底 憍梵波堤 Gavāṃpati, a monk with the feet and cud-chewing characteristic of an ox, because he had spilled some grains from an ear of corn he plucked in a former life.

Flour, meal, powder.

粉骨碎身 Bones ground to powder and body in fragments.

Paper.

紙葉 Palm-leaves.

紙衣 紙冠, 紙錢 Paper clothing, hats, money, etc., burnt as offerings to the dead.

One-coloured, unadulterated, pure, sincere.

純一 Pure, unmixed, solely, simply, entirely.

純眞 Sincere, true; name of a man who asked the Buddha questions which are replied to in a sutra.

純陀 Cunda, who is believed to have supplied Śākyamuni with his last meal; it is said to have been of 旃檀耳 q.v. but there are other accounts including a stew of flesh food; also 准純, 淳純, 周那.

Cord; to extort, express; the cord or noose of Guanyin by which she binds the good; the cord of the vajra-king by which he binds the evil; translit. sa.

索哆 v. 薩 sattva.

索訶 阿 v. 娑 sahā, the world.

索語 索話 Express, expression (in words); forced statements, a demand or request(e.g. for information).

Original colour or state; plain, white; heretofore, usual; translit. su.

素具 Already prepared.

素嚩哩拏 蘇伐羅; 修跋拏 Suvarṇa; v. 金 gold.

素意 素懷 Ordinary thoughts, or hopes; the common purposes of the mind.

素怛纜 v. 修 sutra.

素法身 Possessing the fundamental dharmakāya nature though still in sin, i.e. the beings in the three lowest orders of transmigration.

素絹 Plain silk lustring, thin silk.

素豪 The ūrṇā, or white curl between the Buddha's eyebrows.

素食 素饌 Vegetarian food.

Offer: pay, give; receive, take; translit. na; cf. 衲.

納具 To accept all the commandments, or rules.

納加梨 v. 衲.

納受 納得 To receive, accept.

納帽 A cap made of bits of given material.

納幕 納莫; 納謨 v. 南無 Namaḥ.

納戒 To receive or accept the commandments.

納播 A stole worn during teaching.

納縛僧伽藍 Navasaṅghārāma. 'An ancient monastery near Baktra, famous for three relics of Śākyamuni (a tooth, basin, and staff).' Eitel.

納縛提媻矩羅 Navadevakula. 'An ancient city, a few miles south-east of Kanyākūbdja, on the eastern bank of the Ganges. The present Nobatgang.' Eitel.

納縛波 Na-fu-po, Hsuanzang's name for a city on the ancient site of I-hsun 伊循, capital of Shan-shan 鄯善 in the Former Han dynasty, afterwards known as Nob or Lop (in Marco Polo). It corresponds to the modern Charkhlik.

納蛇於筒 To put a snake into a tube i.e. meditation able to confine unruly thoughts.

納衣 Garments made of castaway rags, the patch-robe of a monk.

納骨 To bury bones, or a skeleton.

Broken; deficient, lacking; a vacancy, a post.

缺漏 A breach and leakage, a breach of the discipline.

See under Eleven Strokes.

A wing, fin; translit. ke.

翅夷羅 Feather robes.

翅由邏 枳翅羅; 吉翅攞 keyūra, an armlet, necklace.

翅舍欽婆羅 keśakambala, a hair garment or covering; name of one of the ten heretical Indian schools.

Old, 60 years of age, experienced; translit. ji, g.

耆婆 耆域; 時縛迦 Jīva, Jīvaka. Son of Bimbisāra by the concubine Āmrapālī. On his birth he is said to have seized the acupuncture needle and bag. He became famed for his medical skill.

耆婆天 Jīva, the deva of long life.

耆婆鳥 idem 命命鳥, also 耆婆耆婆 (耆婆耆婆迦); 闍婆耆婆 (闍婆耆婆迦) A bird of the partridge family; there is a fable about such a bird having two heads, called 迦嘍嗏 garuḍa, and 憂波迦嘍嗏 upagaruḍa; one ate a delicious flower while the other was asleep; when the latter awoke, it was so annoyed at not sharing it that it ate a poisonous flower and the bird died; thus there is a Jekyll and Hyde in every one.

耆那 Jina, victor, he who overcomes, a title of every Buddha; also the name of various persons; the Jaina religion, the Jains.

耆闍 gṛdhra, a vulture, also an abbrev. for 耆闍崛; 伊沙堀; 揭梨 馱羅鳩胝; 姞栗陀羅矩叱 Gṛdhrakūṭa; a mountain near Rājagṛha said to be shaped like a vulture's head, or to be famous for its vultures and its caverns inhabited by ascetics, where Piśuna(Māra), in the shape of a vulture, hindered the meditations of Ānanda. It has numerous other names.

恥 Shame; ashamed.

耻小慕大 Ashamed of the small (Hīnayāna) and in love with the great (Mahāyāna).

Fat, lard; soapstone; wealth; translit. ci, cai; see 支.

脂那 China; intp. as the country of culture, with a people clothed and capped; also as a frontier (of India), a place of banishment.

脂帝浮圖 caitya, a stupa, a mausoleum, a place or object of worship.

The ribs, flanks, sides; forceful, to coerce.

脇侍 脅侍; 挾侍; 脇士 脅士 Bodhisattvas, or other images on either side of a Buddha.

脇尊 v. 波 Pārśva. 脅.

The breast.

胸字 The svastika on Buddha's breast, one of the thirty-two marks.

胸行 Creatures that crawl on their bellies, like snakes.

śak. Able to, can; capability, power.

能人 An able man, i.e. Buddha as the all-powerful man able to transform the world.

能仁 Mighty in lovingkindness, an incorrect interpretation of Śākyamuni, but probably indicating his character.

能依 Dependent on, that which relies on something else, e.g. vegetation on land; 所依 is that on which it relies.

能信 Can believe, or can be believed, contrasted with 所信 that which is believed.

能大師 能行者 The sixth patriarch 慧能 Hui-neng of the Ch'an (Zen) School.

能所 These two terms indicate active and passive ideas, e.g. ability to transform, or transformable and the object that is transformed.

能持 Ability to maintain, e.g. to keep the commandments.

能斷金剛經 Vajracchedikā Sutra, the 'Diamond Sutra', translated by Xuanzang, an extract from the Prajñāpāramitā Sutra.

能施太子 Prince 'Giver', a former incarnation of Śākyamuni, when he obtained the magic dragon, pearl and by its power relieved the needs of all the poor.

能立 A proposition in logic that can be established, or postulated.

能緣 The conditioning power in contrast with the conditioned, e.g. the power of seeing and hearing in contrast with that which is seen and heard.

Stink, stinking; smell.

臭口鬼 (or臭毛鬼) Demons with stinking breath, or hair.

A sort, a kind: translit. par, pra, pan, pa, etc.

般利伐羅句迦 Parivrājaka, or Wanderer. 'A Śivaitic sect, worshippers of Mahēs`vara, who wear clothes of the colour of red soil and leave a little hair about the crown of the head, shaving off the rest.' Eitel. Also 波利呾羅拘迦; 簸利婆闍迦.

般刺蜜帝 Pramiti, Paramiti, a monk from Central India, tr. the Śūrangama Sutra 首楞嚴經 A.D. 705.

般泥洹 parinirvāṇa; v.般涅槃.

般涅槃 (般涅槃那) parinirvāṇa; 'quite extinguished, quite brought to an end; the final extinction of the individual.' M. W. The death of the Buddha. Nirvana may be attained in this life, parinirvāṇa after it; for the meaning of 'extinction' v. 涅槃. It may also correspond to the suppression of all mental activity. It is also the second of the three grades of nirvana, parinirvāṇa, and mahānirvāṇa, which are later developments and have association with the ideas of Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, and Mahāyāna, or the small, middle, and great vehicles; also with the three grades of bodhi which these three vehicles represent; and the three classes of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas. Other forms are:般利涅槃那; 波利涅槃那; 般尼洹.

般羅颯迷 parasmaipada. 'The transitive or active verb and its terminations.' M. W.

般舟 pratyutpanna, present; multiplied.

般舟三昧 (般舟) pratyutpannasamādhi, the samadhi in which the Buddhas of the ten directions are seen as clearly as the stars at night. Also called 常行道 or 常行三昧 the prolonged samadhi, because of the length of time required, either seven or ninety days. Its sutra is the般舟三昧經.

般茶迦 [Note: The middle character is erroneous; it should be 荼. Same with the next entry.] paṇḍaka. The general name for eunuchs. The five classes with various degrees of sexual impotence: (1) 扇搋 ṣaṇḍha (ṣaṇḍha paṇḍaka); by birth impotent. (2) 留拏 rugṇa or ruṇḍa paṇḍaka; 'maimed, ' i.e. emasculated males. (3) 砂梨沙掌拏 īrṣyā (īrṣyā paṇḍaka); those whose sexual desires are only aroused by jealousy. (4) 半擇迦 paṇḍaka are eunuchs in general, but in this category are described as hermaphrodites. (5) 博叉 pakṣa (pakṣa pāṇḍaka); impotent during one-half of the month. A newer classification distinguishes those with incomplete from those with complete organs; the incomplete being (1) ṣaṇḍha, or jātipaṇḍaka as above; and (2) emasculated males; the complete are the others; the fifth being stimulated when bathing or evacuating. Other forms: 般吒; 半托; 半擇迦 tr. 黃門.

般茶[荼]慮伽法 The Pāṇḍaka and Lohitaka rule is that derived from the conduct of these two disciples in the Vinaya, and is against quarrelling and fighting.

般若 prajñā, 'to know, understand'; 'Wisdom. ' M. W. Intp. 慧 wisdom; 智慧 understanding, or wisdom; 明 clear, intelligent, the sixth pāramitā. The Prajñā-pāramitā Sutra describes it as supreme, highest, incomparable, unequalled, unsurpassed. It is spoken of as the principal means, by its enlightenment, of attaining to nirvana, through its revelation of the unreality of all things. Other forms 般羅若; 般諄若; 鉢若; 鉢剌若; 鉢羅枳孃; 鉢腎禳; 波若, 波賴若; 波羅孃; 班若.

般若 (般賴若) Prajñā is also the name of a monk from Kabul, A.D. 810, styled 三藏法師; tr. four works and author of an alphabet.

般若佛母 Wisdom, or salvation through wisdom (prajñā-pāramitā), is the mother or source of all Buddhas. 智度論 34.

般若多羅 Prajñātāra. The 27th patriarch, native of eastern India, who laboured in southern India and consumed himself 'by the fire of transformation,' A.D. 457, teacher of Bodhidharma.

般若心經 The sutra of the heart of prajñā; there have been several translations, under various titles, the generally accepted version being by Kumārajīva, which gives the essence of the Wisdom Sutras. There are many treatises on the心經.

般若時 The prajñā period, the fourth of the (Tiantai) five periods of the Buddha's teaching.

般若毱多 Prajñāgupta. A Hīnayāna monk of southern India, who wrote against the Mahāyāna.

般若波羅蜜 (般若波羅蜜多) prajñā-pāramitā, The acme of wisdom, enabling one to reach the other shore, i.e. wisdom for salvation; the highest of the six paramitas, the virtue of wisdom as the notes a knowledge of the illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error, ignorance, prejudice, and heresy. For the sutra of this name see below.

般若湯 The soup of wisdom, a name for wine.

般若經 The wisdom sutras, especially the 大般若波羅密多經 tr. by Hsuanzang in 600 juan. A compendium of five wisdom sutras is 摩訶般若; 金剛般若; 天王問般若; 光讚般若 and 仁王般若; cf. the last. Another compendium contains eight books.

般若船 The boat of wisdom, the means of attaining nirvana.

般若菩薩 Prajñā-bodhisattva; wisdom as a female bodhisattva in the garbhadhātu group; also known as 智慧金剛.

般若鋒 The spear of wisdom (which is able to cut off illusion and evil.).

般若頭 The monk in charge of the prajñā sutras.

般遮 pañca, five; also 半者.

般遮子旬 pāñcika. Described as the gods of music, i.e. the gandharvas, also as 般遮旬 pañcābhijñāna, the five supernatural powers.

般遮于瑟 pañca-vārṣika; pañca-pariṣad; mokṣa-mahāpariṣad, the great quinquennial assembly instituted by Aśoka for the confession of sins, the inculcation of morality and discipline, and the distribution of charty; also 般遮婆瑟; 般遮跋瑟迦; 般遮越師; 般遮婆栗迦史; 般遮跋利沙; 般闍于瑟.

般那 prāṇa, exhalation, breathing out, cf. 阿那.

般那摩 padma, lotus, cf. 鉢.

Tea; tea-leaves; translit. ja, jha.

茶湯 Tea and hot water, used as offerings to the spirits. 茶毘 v. 荼.

茶矩磨 Fragrant flowers, i.e. 鬱金 from Western or Central Asia for scenting wine, and for calling down the spirits.

茶闍他 jadata, coldness, apathy, stupidity.

Thorns.

荆溪 Ching-ch'i throne-stream, name of the ninth Tiantai patriarch 湛然 Chan-jan.

Hay, straw; translit. kṣ.

芻摩 蒭摩; 須摩 (須摩迦) kṣaumā, kṣaumaka, flax, linen, linen garment.

Wild, waste; wilds; empty; famine; reckless; to nullify; an angry appearance.

荒野 荒郊 A wilderness, uncultivated.

荒空 Empty, deserted.

To undertake; translit. ta, da. Tathāgata, v. 多.

荅攝蒲密卜羅牒瑟吒諦 daśabhūmi-prastiṣṭhite, 'Thou who art established in the ten stages. ' — said to the Tathāgatas in invocations.

荅秣蘇伐那 tāmasavana, 闇林 the dark forest. 'A monastery situated at the junction of the Vipāśā and Śatadru, 50 li south-east of Tchīnapati. It is probably identical with the so-called Djālandhara monastery in which the IV Synod under Kanichka held its sessions. ' Eitel.

Grass, herbs, plants; rough; female (of animals, birds, etc. ).

草創 Newly or roughly built, unfinished.

草堂 The building in the 草堂寺 monastery at Ch'ang-an where Kumarājīva translated.

草座 Mats or cushions to sit on.

草庵 A thatched hut as a monastery or retreat.

草木 Herbs and trees— equally recipients of rain, as all humanity is of the Buddha's truth.

草木成佛 Even inanimate things, e.g. grass and tree, are Buddha, all being of the 一如 q.v., a T'ien-tai and Chen-yen (Shingon) doctrine.

草環 (or 草芽環) A grass finder-ring used by the esoteric sect.

草鞋 Straw shoes.

草飯 A coarse or rough meal.

Decay, fade, decline; frayed, i.e. mourning clothes.

衰相 The (five) indications of approaching death, v. 五衰.

衰患 The calamities of decadence, famine, epidemics, etc.

To patch, line, pad; a monk's garment, supposed to be made of rags.

衲伽梨 The saṅghātī, or coat of patches varying from 9 to 25.

衲子 A monk, especially a peripatetic monk.

衲衣 (or 納衣) A monk's robe.

衲袈裟 A monk's robe of seven pieces and upwards.

衲衆 Monks who wear these robes.

To remember, to record; to record as foretelling, prophesy.

記別 記莂; 授別 To record and differentiate, the Buddha's foretelling of the future of his disciples to Buddhahood, and to their respective Buddha-kalpas Buddha-realms, titles, etc.; see the 記別經 and 和伽羅那 Vyākaraṇa, predictions, one of the twelve divisions of the Canon.

記室 書記 Secretary's office, secretary, writer.

記心 Memory.

記論 Vyākaraṇa, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar, cf. 毘伽羅論.

To finish, end, stop, to reach (an end); until; entirely; translit. k.

訖利多 kṛta, kṛtya, v. 吉; a slave, serf, bought or hired worker.

訖利多王 King Kṛta of Kashmir, whose descendants were opposed to Buddhism; they were dethroned by Kaniṣka, who restored Buddhism; but later the royal line regained the throne and drove out the Buddhist monks.

訖里瑟拏 kṛṣna, black, dark. dark blue; Krishna, the hero-god of India, 'with Buddhists he is chief of the black demons, who are enemies of Buddha and the white demons.' M. W.

To teach.

教訓 訓誨 To teach, instruct.

Abuse, slander; translit. san, śan.

訕底 v. 扇 Śāntika.

訓若 Sañjana, 'entirely vanquishing' name of the founder of one of the ten heretical sects. Also, one of the six Tīrthyas, former teacher of Maudgālayayana and Śāriputra; also, a king of yakṣas; cf. 珊.

豺狼 A wolf.

豺狼地獄 one of the sixteen hells, where sinners are devoured by wolves.

Tribute; best.

貢高 Elevated, proud.

vasu; artha. Wealth, riches.

財主 A wealthy man, rich.

財供養 財施 Offerings or gifts of material goods.

財慳 Meanness, stinginess.

財欲 The desire for wealth, one of the five wrong desires.

財神 Kuvera, v. 倶 Vaiśravaṇa, v. 毘the god of wealth.

財色 Wealth and beauty (i.e. woman).

To rise, raise, start, begin; uprising; tr. utpada.

起信 The uprise or awakening of faith.

起信論 Śraddhotpada Śāstra; it is one of the earliest remaining Mahāyāna texts and is attributed to Aśvaghoṣa; cf. 馬鳴; two tr. have been made, one by Paramārtha in A. D. 554, another by Śikṣānanda, circa 700; the first text is more generally accepted, as Chih-i, the founder of Tiantai, was Paramārtha's amanuensis, and 法藏 Fazang (643-712) made the standard commentary on it, the 起信論義記, though he had assisted Śikṣānanda in his translation. It gives the fundamental principles of Mahāyāna, and was tr. into English by Teitaro Suzuki (1900), also by T. Richard. There are several commentaries and treatises on it.

起信二門 Two characteristics of mind in the śāstra, as eternal and phenomenal.

起尸鬼 To resurrect a corpse by demoniacal influence and cause it to kill another person; v. 毘 vetāla; 起死人 is similar, i.e. to raise the newly dead to slay an enemy.

起止處 A latrine, cesspool.

起滅 Rise and extinction, birth and death, beginning and end.

起盡 Beginning and end, similar to the last.

起者 One who begins, or starts; one who thinks he creates his own welfare or otherwise.

起行 To start out (for the life to come).

起請 To call on the gods or the Buddhas ( as witness to the truth of one's statement).

Traces, footsteps; external evidences or indications.

迹化 Teaching or lessons derived from external events, i.e. of the Buddha's life and work, shown in the first fourteen sections of the Lotus Sutra; the second fourteen sections of that work are called 本化 his direct teaching. The lessons from the external indications are called 迹化十妙 the ten marvellous indications, cf. 十妙.

To pursue, follow after; to follow the dead with thoughts and services.

追修 To follow the departed with observances.

追福 To pursue the departed with rites for their happiness. 追薦 and 追善 have similar meaning; also 追嚴 for a sovereign.

māyā; delude, deceive, confuse, mislead; delusion, illusion, etc.

迷事 Delusive phenomena, or affairs, deluded in regard to phenomena, cf. 迷理 infra.

迷人咒 Incantations to delude or confuse others.

迷倒 Deluded, confused, to delude and upset.

迷妄 Deluded and misled; deluding and false.

迷子 The deluded son who held a gold coin in his hand while starving in poverty; such is the man with Buddha-nature who fails to use it. v. 金剛三昧經.

迷岸 The shore of delusion.

迷底履 v. 彌 Maitreya.

迷心 A deluded mind.

迷惑 Deluded and confused, deceived in regard to reality.

迷悟 Illusion and enlightenment.

迷悟一如 the two are aspects of the one reality, as water and ice are the same substance, 迷悟不二 and fundamentally are the same.

迷悟因果 In the four axioms, that of 'accumulation' is caused by illusion, with suffering as effect; that of 'the way' is caused by enlightenment, with extinction (of suffering) as effect.

迷沒 Deluded and sunk (in the passions).

迷津 The ford of delusion, i.e. mortality.

迷理 Deluded in regard to the fundamental principle, i.e. ignorant of reality; cf. 迷事.

迷生 All deluded beings.

迷界 Any world of illusion.

迷盧 v. 蘇迷盧 Sumeru.

迷隸耶 (or 迷麗耶) maireya, a kind of intoxicating drink.

迷黎麻羅 (and other forms) Confused sight; blurred.

vāma. To go against, contrary, adverse, reverse, rebellious, oppose, resist.

逆修 豫修 To observe in contrary order; to observe before death the Buddhist rites in preparation for it.

逆化 (The ability of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas) to convert the heterodox or opponents.

逆喩 Argument by illustration from effect to cause, e.g. the source of the ocean is the river, of the river the streams, of these the ponds.

逆流 To go against the current, i.e. the stream of transmigration, and enter the path of Nirvana, also called 預流, the srota-āpanna, or śrāvaka first stage.

逆緣 Resisting accessory cause; as goodness is the 順 or accordant cause so evil is the resisting cause of the Buddha way.

逆觀 The inverse method in meditation.

逆謗 To resist and abuse.

逆路伽耶陀 Vāma-lokāyata; the Lokāyata were materialistic and 'worldly' followers of the Cārvāka school; the Vāma-lokāyata were opposed to the conventions of the world. An earlier intp. of Lokāyata is, Ill response to questions, the sophistical method of Chuang Tzu being mentioned as comparison. Vāma-lokāyata is also described as Evil questioning, which is the above method reversed.

逆順 The adversatives, resisting and complying, opposing and according with, reverse or direct, backward or forward.

To escort, send, give as a present.

送亡 To escort or take the departed to the grave.

送葬 To escort for burial.

To flee, escape.

逃禪 To escape in or from meditation or thought.

退 Retire, withdraw, backslide, recede, yield.

退大 To backslide from Mahāyāna (and revert to Hīnayāna).

退屈 To yield or recede, as is possible to a Bodhisattva facing the hardships of further progress.

退座 To withdraw from one's seat.

退沒 To be reborn in a lower stage of existence.

退轉 To withdraw and turn back, i.e. from any position attained.

surā; maireya; madya. Wine, alcoholic liquor; forbidden to monks and nuns by the fifth commandment.

sūci; a needle.

針孔 A needle's eye: it is as difficult to be reborn as a man as it is to thread a needle on earth by throwing the thread at it from the sky.

針口鬼 Needle-mouth ghosts, with mouths so small that they cannot satisfy their hunger or thirst.

針毛鬼 Ghosts with needle hair, distressing to themselves and others.

針芥 Needle and mustard seed; the appearance of Buddha is as rare as hitting the point of a needle on earth by a mustard seed thrown from the sky.

針鋒 A needle's point, similar to the last.

Flash; get out of the way.

閃多 A demon; one of Yama's names.

閃電光 Lightning-flashing, therefore awe-inspiring.

To ascend: rise, raise.

陞座 To ascend the platform to expound the sutras.

ārāma, pleasaunce, garden, grove; a monastery, hall, court.

院主 The abbot of a monastery.

Get rid of.

除一切惡 To get rid of all evil.

除散 Get rid of and scatter away.

除斷 Get rid of completely, cut off.

除災 Get rid of calamity.

除疑 Eliminate doubt.

除蓋障 To dispose of hindrances.

除覺支 To get rid of mental effort and produce mental and physical buoyancy.

除饉 He (or she) who puts away want (by receiving alms), an intp. of bhikṣu and bhikṣuṇī.

aśva, a horse; a stallion; one of the seven treasures of a sovereign.

馬勝 馬師 Aśvajit. Horse-breaker or Horse-master. The name of several persons, including one of the first five disciples.

馬鳴 阿濕縛窶抄Aśvaghoṣa, the famous writer, whose patron was the Indo-Scythian king Kaniṣka q. v., was a Brahmin converted to Buddhism; he finally settled at Benares, and became the twelfth patriarch. His name is attached to ten works (v. Hōbōgirin 192, 201, 726, 727, 846, 1643, 1666, 1667, 1669, 1687). The two which have exerted great influence on Buddhism are 佛所行讚經 Buddhacarita-kāvya Sutra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A. D. 414-421, tr. into English by Beal, S.B.E.; and 大乘起信論 Mahāyāna śraddhotpāda-śāstra, tr. by Paramārtha, A.D.554, and by Śikṣānanda, A. D. 695-700, tr. into English by Teitaro Suzuki 1900, and also by T. Richard, v. 起. He gave to Buddhism the philosophical basis for its Mahāyāna development. There are at least six others who bear this name. Other forms: 馬鳴; 阿濕縛窶抄馬鳴比丘; 馬鳴大士; 馬鳴菩薩, etc.

馬曷麻諦 Mahāmati, 大慧, the bodhisattva addressed in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra; v. 摩訶摩底.

馬祀 aśvamedha, the horse sacrifice, either as an annual oblation to Heaven, or for specific purposes.

馬祖 Ma Tsu, founder of the Southern Peak school of the Ch'an or Intuitional sect in Kiangsi, known as 江西道一.

馬耳山 Aśvakarṇa, v. 頞, one of the seven concentric rings around Meru.

馬苑 The horse park, i.e. 自馬寺 the White Horse Monastery at Loyang in the Later Han dynasty, where, according to tradition, the first missionaries dwelt.

馬陰藏 A retractable penis, e.g. that of the horse, one of the thirty-two signs of a Buddha.

馬頭 Horse-head.

馬頭羅刹 The horse-head rākṣasa in Hades.

馬頭觀音 馬頭大士; 馬頭明王 Hayagrīva, the horse-neck or horse-head Guanyin, in awe-inspiring attitude towards evil spirits.

馬麥 Horse-grain, Buddha's food when he spent three months with the Brahmin ruler Agnidatta with 500 monks, one of his ten sufferings.

Bone: bones, relics.

骨人 Skeleton.

骨佛 A bone-buddha, a corpse.

骨塔 A dagoba for the ashes of the dead.

骨目 The bones and eyes, the essentials.

骨身 The bones of the body, the śarīra or remains after cremation.

骨鏁天 The bone-chain deva 商羯羅 Śaṅkara, i.e. Śiva.

High, lofty, eminent.

高士 Eminent scholar; old tr. for Bodhisattva.

高世耶 憍奢耶; 憍尸; kauseya, thin silk, lustring; wild silk-worms.

高僧 Eminent monks.

高昌 高車Karakhojo, the ancient town of Kao-ch'ang, which lay 30 li east of Turfan in Turkestan, formerly an important Buddhist centre, whence came scriptures and monks to China.

高祖 A founder of a sect or school.

高薩羅 v. 憍 Kośala.

高足 Superior pupils or disciples.

高麗 Korea.

高麗藏 The Korea canon of Buddhism, one of the three collections which still exists in the 海印寺 in 639 cases, 1521 部 and 6589 卷.

preta 薜荔多, departed, dead; a disembodied spirit, dead person, ghost; a demon, evil being; especially a 餓鬼 hungry ghost. They are of many kinds. The Fan-i ming i classifies them as poor, medium, and rich; each again thrice subdivided: (1) (a) with mouths like burning torches; (b) throats no bigger than needles; (c) vile breath, disgusting to themselves; (2) (a) needle-haired, self-piercing; (b) hair sharp and stinking; (c) having great wens on whose pus they must feed. (3) (a) living on the remains of sacrifices; (b) on leavings in general; (c) powerful ones, yakṣas, rākṣasas, piśācas, etc. All belong to the realm of Yama, whence they are sent everywhere, consequently are ubiquitous in every house, lane, market, mound, stream, tree, etc.

鬼子母 Hāritī, 訶梨帝 intp. as pleased, or pleasing. A 'woman who having vowed to devour all the babies at Rādjagriha was reborn as a rākshasī, and gave birth to 500 children, one of which she was to devour every day. Converted by Śākyamuni she entered a convent. Her image is to be seen in all nunneries'. Eitel. Another account is that she is the mother of 500 demons, and that from being an evil goddess or spirit she was converted to become a protectress of Buddhism.

鬼子母神 A rākṣasī who devours men.

鬼城 The demon-city, that of the gandharva s.

鬼界 (鬼法界) The region or realm of demons; one of the ten regions.

鬼火 Spirit lights, ignis fatūs.

鬼病 Sickness caused by demons, or ghosts.

鬼神 Ghosts and spirits, a general term which includes the spirits of the dead, together with demons and the eight classes of spirits, such as devas, etc. 鬼 is intp. as 威 causing fear, 神 as 能 potent, powerful.

鬼神食時 The time when they feed, i.e. night.

鬼見 Demon views, i.e. heterodox teaching.

鬼道 鬼趣 The way or destiny of yakṣas, rākṣasas, and hungry ghosts; 鬼道 also means in league with demons, or following devilish ways.

鬼錄 The iron record, containing the sins of men, in Yama's office in Hades.

鬼門 The north-east corner of a house, or of a city-gate enceinte, through which the spirits can come and go.

鬼魅 Imps or demons who cause sickness, especially malaria in certain regions.

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