A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 8 - Eight Strokes

Milk, which in its five forms illustrates the Tiantai 五時教 five periods of the Buddha's teaching.

乳味 The flavour of fresh milk, to which the Buddha's teaching in the 華嚴經 Huayan jing is compared.

乳木 Resinous wood (for homa, or fire sacrifice).

乳水眼 The eye able to distinguish milk from water; as the goose drinks the milk and rejects the water, so the student should distinguish orthodox from heterodox teaching.

乳經 Tiantai compares the Avataṃsavka-sūtra 華嚴經 to milk, from which come all its other products.

乳香 kunduruka, boswellia thurifera, both the plant and its resin.

artha 日迦他 (迦 being an error for 遏); affair, concern, matter; action, practice; phenomena; to serve. It is 'practice' or the thing, affair, matter, in contrast with 理 theory, or the underlying principle.

事度 Salvation by observing the five commandments, the ten good deeds, etc.

事教 Teaching dealing with phenomena. The characterization by Tiantai of the Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching as 界内事教 within the three realms of desire, form, and formlessness; and the 別教 'different teaching' as 界外事教 outside or superior to those realms; the one dealt with the activities of time and sense, the other transcended these but was still involved in the transient; the 別教 was initial Mahāyāna incompletely developed.

事法界 The phenomenal world, phenomenal existence. v. 四法界.

事法身 The Buddha-nature in practice, cf. 理法身, which is the Buddha-nature in principle, or essence, or the truth itself.

事火 Phenomenal fire, v. 性火 fire as an element; also, fire-worship.

事理 Practice and theory; phenomenon and noumenon, activity and principle, or the absolute; phenomena ever change, the underlying principle, being absolute, neither changes nor acts, it is the 眞如 q. v. also v. 理. For 事理法界 (事理無礙法界) v. 四法界.

事理三千 The three thousand phenomenal activities and three thousand principles, a term of the Tiantai School.

事理五法 v. 五法.

事相 Phenomenon, affair, practice. The practices of the esoterics are called 事理部 as contrasted with their open teaching called 教相部.

事理禪師 A mystic, or monk in meditation, yet busy with affairs: an epithet of reproach.

事論 Discussion of phenomena in contrast with 理論.

事造 Phenomenal activities. According to Tiantai there are 3,000 underlying factors or principles 理具 giving rise to the 3,000 phenomenal activities.

事迹 Traces of the deeds or life of an individual; biography.

事障 Phenomenal hindrances to entry into nirvāṇa, such as desire, etc.; 理障 are noumenal hindrances, such as false doctrine, etc.

Haste, urgency.

亟縛屣 Leather sandals.

Second, inferior; used in translit. as 阿 'a', e. g. 亞畧 Ārya.

Offer up; enjoy.

享堂 The hall of offerings, an ancestral hall.

Attend; wait on; attendant.

侍者 An attendant, e. g. as Ānanda was to the Buddha; assistants in general, e. g. the incense-assistant in a temple.

使 To send; cause; a messenger; a pursuer, molester, lictor, disturber, troubler, intp. as 煩惱 kleśa, affliction, distress, worldly cares, vexations, and as consequent reincarnation. There are categories of 10, 16, 98, 112, and 128 such troublers, e. g. desire, hate, stupor, pride, doubt, erroneous views, etc., leading to painful results in future rebirths, for they are karma-messengers executing its purpose. Also 金剛童子 q. v.

pūjā; to offer (in worship), to honour; also to supply; evidence.

供佛 To offer to Buddha.

供具 供物 Offerings, i. e. flowers, unguents; water, incense, food, light.

供天 天供 The devas who serve Indra.

供奉 To offer; the monk who serves at the great altar.

供帳 The Tang dynasty register, or census of monks and nuns, supplied to the government every three years.

供帳雲 The cloud of Bodhisattvas who serve the Tathāgata.

供養 To make offerings of whatever nourishes, e. g. food, goods, incense, lamps, scriptures, the doctrine, etc., any offering for body or mind.

āgama; āgam-; āgata. Come, the coming, future.

來世 Future world, or rebirth.

來應 To come in response to an invitation; to answer prayer (by a miracle).

來果 The fruit or condition of the next rebirth, regarded as the result of the present.

來生 Future rebirth; the future life.

來迎 The coming of Buddhas to meet the dying believer and bid welcome to the Pure Land; the three special welcomers are Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta.

To depend, rely on; dependent, conditioned; accord with.

依他 Dependent on or trusting to someone or something else; trusting on another, not on self or 'works.'

依他性 (依他起性) Not having an independent nature, not a nature of its own, but constituted of elements.

依他自性 One of the 三性 dependent on constructive elements and without a nature of its own.

依他心 The mind in a dependent state, that of the Buddha in incarnation.

依他十喩 The unreality of dependent or conditioned things, e. g. the body, or self, illustrated in ten comparisons: foam, bubble, flame, plantain, illusion, dream, shadow, echo, cloud, lightning; v. 維摩詰經 2.

依圓 Dependent and perfect, i. e. the dependent or conditioned nature, and the perfect nature of the unconditioned bhūtatathatā.

依地 The ground on which one relies; the body, on which sight, hearing, etc., depend; the degree of samādhi attained; cf. 依身.

依報 v. 依正.

依怙 To rely on, depend on.

依果 idem 依報 v. 依正.

依止 To depend and rest upon.

依止甚深 The profundity on which all things depend, i. e. the bhūtatathatā; also the Buddha.

依止師, 依止阿闍梨 The ācārya, or master of a junior monk.

依正 The two forms of karma resulting from one's past; 正報 being the resultant person, 依報 being the dependent condition or environment, e. g. country, family, possessions, etc.

依法不依人 To rely upon the dharma, or truth itself, and not upon (the false interpretations of) men.

依版 禪版 A board to lean against when in meditation.

依言眞如 The bhūtatathatā in its expressible form, as distinguished from it as 離言 inexpressible.

依身 The body on which one depends, or on which its parts depend, cf. 依他.

依通 The magical powers which depend upon drugs, spells, etc., v. 五通.

Two, a couple, both; an ounce, or tael.

兩卷經 The Two Fascicle Sutra, i. e. the 佛說無量壽經.

兩垢 (兩垢如如) The contaminated and uncontaminated bhūtatathatā, or Buddha-nature, v. 止觀 2 and 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

兩權 The two temporary vehicles, śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha, as contrasted with the 實 complete Bodhisattva doctrine of Mahāyāna.

兩河 The 'two rivers', Nairañjanā, v. 尼, where Buddha attained enlightenment, and Hiraṇyavatī, see 尸, where he entered Nirvāṇa.

兩翅 The two wings of 定 and 慧 meditation and wisdom.

兩肩神 The two recording spirits, one at each shoulder, v. 同名 and 同坐神.

兩界 v. 兩部.

兩舌 Double tongue. One of the ten forms of evil conduct 十惡業.

兩財 The two talents, or rewards from previous incarnations, 内 inner, i. e. bodily or personal conditions, and 外 external, i. e. wealth or poverty, etc.

兩足尊 The most honoured among men and devas (lit. among two-footed beings), a title of the Buddha. The two feet are compared to the commandments and meditation, blessing and wisdom, relative and absolute teaching (i. e. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna), meditation and action.

兩部 兩界 Two sections, or classes.

兩部曼荼羅 maṇḍala of the two sections, i. e. dual powers of the two Japanese groups symbolizing the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu v. 金剛界 and 胎藏界.

兩鼠 The two rats (or black and white mice), night and day.

Canon, rule; allusion; to take charge of; mortgage.

典客 (or典賓); 知客 The one who takes charge of visitors in a monastery.

典座 The verger who indicates the order of sitting, etc.

典攬 Summary of the essentials of a sutra, or canonical book.

辭典 A dictionary, phrase-book.

All; complete; to present; implements; translit. gh.

具史羅 (or 瞿史羅) or 劬師羅 Ghoṣira, a wealthy householder of Kauśāmbī, who gave Śākyamuni the Ghoṣiravana park and vihāra.

具壽 ? āyuṣmant. Having long life, a term by which monk, a pupil or a youth may be addressed.

具戒 idem 具足戒.

具戒方便 The 'expedient' method of giving the whole rules by stages.

具戒地 The second of the bodhisattva ten stages in which all the rules are kept.

具支灌頂 One of the three abhiṣeka or baptisms of the 大日經. A ceremonial sprinkling of the head of a monarch at his investiture with water from the seas and rivers (in his domain). It is a mode also employed in the investiture of certain high officials of Buddhism.

具縛 Completely bound, all men are in bondage to illusion.

具說 To discuss completely, state fully.

具譚 Gautama, v. 瞿.

具足 All, complete.

具足戒 The complete rules or commandments— 250 for the monk, 500 (actually 348) for the nun.

具足德本願 The forty-fourth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that all universally should acquire his virtue.

A box, receptacle; to enfold: a letter.

凾蓋相應 Agreeing like a box and lid.

Cut, carve, engrave; oppress; a quarter of an hour, instant.

刻藏 To engrave the canon.

Arrive, reach, to.

到彼岸 pāramitā, cf. 波; to reach the other shore, i. e. nirvāṇa.

到頭 At the end, when the end is reached.

Restrain, govern; regulations; mourning.

制多 制底 (or 質底); 制體 caitya, a tumulus, mausoleum, monastery, temple, spire, flagstaff on a pagoda, sacred place or thing, idem 支提 (or 支帝), cf. 刹.

制多山部 Jetavanīyāḥ, a Hīnayāna sect.

制底畔睇 (or 畔彈那) caitya-vandana, to pay reverence to, or worship a stūpa, image, etc.

制怛羅 Caitra, the spring month in which the full moon is in this constellation, i. e. Virgo or 角; M. W. gives it as March-April, in China it is the first month of spring from the 16th of the first moon to the 15th of the second. Also idem 制多 caitya.

制戒, 制教 The restraints, or rules i. e. of the Vinaya.

制門 The way or method of discipline, contrasted with the 化門, i. e. of teaching, both methods used by the Buddha, hence called 化制二門.

cha; translit. kṣ.

刹土 乞叉; 乞漉 kṣetra, land, fields, country, place; also a universe consisting of three thousand large chiliocosms; also, a spire, or flagstaff on a pagoda, a monastery but this interprets caitya, cf. 制. Other forms are 刹多羅 (or 制多羅 or 差多羅); 紇差怛羅.

刹塵 Lands, countless as the dust.

刹利 (刹帝利); 刹怛利耶 kṣatriya. The second, or warrior and ruling caste; Chinese render it as 田主 landowners and 王種 royal caste; the caste from which the Buddha came forth and therefore from which all Buddhas (如來) spring.

刹摩 kṣema, a residence, dwelling, abode, land, property; idem 刹 and 刹竿.

刹海 Land and sea. The flagpole of a monastery, surmounted by a gilt ball or pearl, symbolical of Buddhism; inferentially a monastery with its land. Also 刹柱, 金刹 (or 表刹).

刹那 kṣaṇa. An indefinite space of time, a moment, an instant; the shortest measure of time, as kalpa is the longest; it is defined as 一念 a thought; but according to another definition 60 kṣaṇa equal one finger-snap, 90 a thought 念, 4,500 a minute; there are other definitions. In each kṣaṇa 900 persons are born and die.

刹那三世 The moments past, present, future.

刹那無常 Not a moment is permanent, but passes through the stages of birth, stay, change, death.

刹那生滅 All things are in continuous flow, born and destroyed every instant.

To cut cloth for clothes; beginning, first.

初夜 The first of the three divisions of the night.

初位 The initial stage on the road to enlightenment.

初住 The first of the ten stages, or resting-places, of the bodhisattva. 住 is the resting-place or stage for a particular course of development; 地 is the position or rank attained by the spiritual characteristics achieved in this place.

初僧祗 The first of the three asaṃkhyeya or incalculable kalpas.

初刹那識 The initial kṣaṇa, initial consciousness, i. e. the eighth or ālaya-vijñāna, from which arises consciousness.

初地 The first of the 十地 ten bodhisattva stages to perfect enlightenment and nirvāṇa.

初心 The initial resolve or mind of the novice.

初日分 The first of the three divisions of the day, beginning, middle, end 初中後.

初更 The first watch of the night.

初時教 A term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, the first of the three periods of the Buddha's teaching, in which he overcame the ideas of heterodox teachers that the ego is real, and preached the four noble truths and the five skandhas, etc.

初果 The initial fruit, or achievement, the stage of srota-āpanna, illusion being discarded and the stream of enlightenment entered.

初果向 The aiming at the stage of srota-āpanna. The other stages of Hīnayāna are sakṛdāgāmin, anāgāmin, and arhat.

初歡喜地 The first of the ten stages toward Buddhahood, that of joy.

初發心 The initial determination to seek enlightenment; about which the 晉 Jin dynasty Huayan jing says: 初發心時便成正覺 at this very moment the novice enters into the status of perfect enlightenment; but other schools dispute the point.

初禪天 The first of the four dhyāna heavens, corresponding to the first stage of dhyāna meditation.

初禪梵天 devas in the realms of form, who have purged themselves from all sexuality.

初禪定 The first dhyāna, the first degree of dhyāna-meditation, which produces rebirth in the first dhyāna heaven.

初能變 The initiator of change, or mutation, i. e. the ālaya-vijñāna, so called because the other vijñānas are derived from it.

Lofty, tall erect.

卓錫 Tall or erect staves, i. e. their place, a monastery.

Low, inferior; translit. p, pi, v, vy, m.

卑慢 (下慢) The pride of regarding self as little inferior to those who far surpass one; one of the 七慢.

卑先匿 Prasenajit, v. 波.

卑帝利 pitṛ, a kind of hungry demon.

卑鉢羅 pippala, the bodhidruma, v. 菩.

卑摩羅叉 Vimalākṣa, the pure-eyed, described as of Kabul, expositor of the 十誦律, teacher of Kumārajīva at Karashahr; came to China A. D. 406, tr. two works.

卑栗蹉 蔑戻車 mlecchas, border people, hence outside the borders of Buddhism, non-Buddhist.

A father's younger brother; translit. śi, śu.

叔叔羅 (叔叔摩羅) śiśumāra, a crocodile.

叔迦 (or M003764迦) (叔婆) śuka, a parrot.

叔離 Śukla, or Śukra, white, silvery; the waxing half of the moon, or month; one of the asterisms, 'the twenty-fourth of the astronomical Yogas, ' M. W.; associated with Venus.

upādāna. To grasp, hold on to, held by, be attached to, love; used as indicating both 愛 love or desire and 煩惱 the vexing passions and illusions. It is one of the twelve nidānas 十二因緣 or 十二支 the grasping at or holding on to self-existence and things.

取次語 Easy, facile, loose talk or explanations.

取相 The state of holding to the illusions of life as realities.

取相懺 To hold repentance before the mind until the sign of Buddha's presence annihilates the sin.

取與 The producing seed is called 取果, that which it gives, or produces, is called 與果.

取著 To grasp, hold on to, or be held by any thing or idea.

取蘊 The skandhas which give rise to grasping or desire, which in turn produces the skandhas. 見取 v. 見.

To receive, be, bear; intp. of vedana, 'perception,' 'knowledge obtained by the senses, feeling, sensation.' M. W. It is defined as mental reaction to the object, but in general it means receptivity, or sensation; the two forms of sensation of physical and mental objects are indicated. It is one of the five skandhas; as one of the twelve nidānas it indicates the incipient stage of sensation in the embryo.

取具 To receive the entire commandments, as does a fully ordained monk or nun.

取想行識 The four immaterial skandhas— vedanā, saṃjñā, saṃskāra, vijñāna, i. e. feeling, ideation, reaction, consciousness.

取戒 To receive, or accept, the commandments, or rules; a disciple; the beginner receives the first five, the monk, nun, and the earnest laity proceed to the reception of eight, the fully ordained accepts the ten. The term is also applied by the esoteric sects to the reception of their rules on admission.

取持 To receive and retain, or hold on to, or keep (the Buddha's teaching).

取業 Duties of the receiver of the rules; also to receive the results or karma of one's deeds.

取歳 To receive, or add, a year to his monastic age, on the conclusion of the summer's retreat.

受用 Received for use.

受用身 The saṃbhogakāya 報身 v. 三身 trikāya, i. e. the functioning glorious body, 自受用 for a Buddha's own use, or bliss; 他受用 for the spiritual benefit of others.

受用土 The realm of the saṃbhogakāya.

受者 A recipient (e. g. of the rules). The illusory view that the ego will receive reward or punishment in a future life, one of the sixteen false views.

受蘊 vedanā, sensation, one of the five skandhas.

受記 受決; 受別 To receive from a Buddha predestination (to become a Buddha); the prophecy of a bodhisattva's future Buddhahood.

受隨 To receive the rules and follow them out 受體隨行.

To gape; translit. kha.

Translit. tha.

咄嚕瑟劍 turuṣka, olibanum, incense; also the name of an Indo-Scythian or Turkish race.

Call; breathe out.

呼呼The raurava or fourth hot hell.

呼圖克圖 (or 胡土克圖) Hutuktu, a chief Lama of Mongolian Buddhism, who is repeatedly reincarnated.

呼摩 護摩 homa, an oblation by fire.

呬摩怛羅 Himatala 雪山下. 'An ancient kingdom ruled in A. D. 43 by a descendant of the Śākya family. Probably the region south of Kundoot and Issar north of Hindukush near the principal source of the Oxus.' Eitel. 西域記 3.

he, ko. Breathe out, yawn, scold; ha, laughter; used for 訶 and 阿.

呵也怛那 āyatana, an organ of sense, v. 六入.

呵利陀 (or 阿利陀) (or 呵梨陀) Hāritī, the demon-mother; also Harita, Haridrā, tawny, yellow, turmeric.

呵吒迦 (or 訶吒迦) hāṭaka; gold, thorn-apple.

呵婆婆 Hahava, or Ababa, the fourth of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can only utter this sound..

呵羅羅 Aṭaṭa the third of the eight cold hells, in which the sufferers can only utter this sound.

呵責犍度 The eleventh of the twenty rules for monks, dealing with rebuke and punishment of a wrongdoer.

da. Call; stutter; translit. ta.

呾你也他 (or 呾儞也他) tadyathā, i. e. 所謂, as or what is said or meant, it means, i. e., etc.

呾刹那 tatkṣaṇa, 'the 2250th part of an hour.' Eitel.

呾喇健 Talekān, 'an ancient kingdom on the frontiers of Persia,' its modem town is Talikhan.

呾叉始羅 竺刹尸羅 Takṣaśīlā, 'ancient kingdom and city, the Taxila of the Greeks, the region near Hoosum Abdaul in Lat. 35°48 N., Long. 72° 44 E.' Eitel.

呾摩栗底 (or 躭摩栗底); 多摩梨帝 Tāmralipti (or tī), the modem Tamluk near the mouth of the Hooghly, formerly 'the principal emporium for the trade with Ceylon and China'. Eitel.

呾羅斯 Talas, or Taras; '(1) an ancient city in Turkestan 150 li west of Ming bulak (according to Xuanzang). (2) A river which rises on the mountains west of Lake Issikoul and flows into a large lake to the north-west.' Eitel.

呾蜜 Termed, or Tirmez, or Tirmidh. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the Oxus in Lat. 37° 5 N., Long. 67 ° 6 E.' Eitel.

rasa. Taste, flavour; the sense of taste. One of the six sensations.

味塵 Taste-dust, one of the six 'particles' which form the material or medium of sensation.

味欲 味著 The taste-desire, hankering after the pleasures of food, etc.; the bond of such desire.

味道 Taste, flavour; the taste of Buddha-truth or tasting the doctrine.

dhāraṇī 陀羅尼; mantra; an incantation, spell, oath, curse; also a vow with penalties for failure. Mystical, or magical, formulae employed in Yoga. In Lamaism they consist of sets of Tibetan words connected with Sanskrit syllables. In a wider sense dhāraṇī is a treatise with mystical meaning, or explaining it.

咒咀 咒殺; 咒起死鬼 (or 咒起屍鬼) An incantation for raising the vetāla 畏陀羅 or corpse-demons to cause the death of another person.

咒心 The heart of a spell, or vow.

咒藏 One of the four piṭakas, the thesaurus of dhāraṇīs.

咒術 Sorcery, the sorcerer's arts.

咒願 Vows, prayers, or formulas uttered in behalf of donors, or of the dead; especially at the All Souls Day's offerings to the seven generations of ancestors. Every word and deed of a bodhisattva should be a dhāraṇī.

jīvita . Life, vital, length of life, fate, decree.

命光 The light of a life, i. e. soon gone.

命命鳥 耆婆耆婆迦 jīvajīvaka; jīvaṃjīva, a bird with two heads, a sweet songster; 生生鳥 or 共命鳥 is the same bird.

命寳 The precious possession of life.

命根 A root, or basis for life, or reincarnation, the nexus of Hīnayāna between two life-periods, accepted by Mahāyāna as nominal but not real.

命梵 Life and honour, i. e. perils to life and perils to noble character.

命濁 One of the 五濁, turbidity or decay of the vital principle, reducing the length of life.

命終 Life's end; nearing the end.

命者 The living being; the one possessing life; life.

命藤 The rope of life (gnawed by the two rats, i. e. night and day).

命道沙門 A śramaṇa who makes the commandments, meditation, and knowledge his very life, as Ānanda did.

命難 Life's hardships; the distress of living.

Around, on every side, complete.

周利槃陀加 (or 周梨槃陀加) Kṣudrapanthaka; little (or mean) path. Twin brothers were born on the road, one called Śuddhipanthaka, Purity-path, the other born soon after and called as above, intp. 小路 small road, and 繼道 successor by the road. The elder was clever, the younger stupid, not even remembering his name, but became one of the earliest disciples of Buddha, and finally an arhat. The records are uncertain and confusing. Also 周利般兎; 周稚般他迦, 周利槃特 (周利槃特迦); 朱茶半託迦; 周陀.

周忌 周關 The first anniversary of a death, when 周忌齋 anniversary masses are said.

周祥 The anniversary of Buddha's birthday.

周羅 (周羅髮); 首羅 cūḍā; a topknot left on the head of an ordinand when he receives the commandments; the locks are later taken off by his teacher as a sign of his complete devotion.

周遍 Universal, everywhere, on every side.

周遍法界 The universal dharmadhātu; the universe as an expression of the dharmakāya; the universe; cf. 法界.

周那 Cundā, said to be the same as 純陀.

周陀 ?Kṣudra, said to be the same as 周利 supra.

Harmony, peace; to blend, mix; with, unite with; respond, rhyme.

和順 Harmonious and compliant.

和會 To blend, unite.

和伽羅 (和伽羅那); 和伽那; 和羅那 vyākaraṇa, grammar, analysis, change of form; intp. as 授記 prediction, i. e. by the Buddha of the future felicity and realm of a disciple, hence Kauṇḍinya is known as Vyākaraṇa-Kauṇḍinya.

和南 婆南; 伴談 (or 伴題); 畔睇; 畔彈南; 槃淡; 槃那寐; 盤荼味; 煩淡 vandana. Obeisance, prostration, bowing the head, reverencing, worshipping.

和合 To blend, unite, be of one mind, harmonize.

和僧 (和合僧); 和衆 (和合衆) A saṃgha 僧伽, a monastery.

和僧海 A monastery where all are of one mind as the sea is of one taste.

和尚 A general term for a monk. It is said to be derived from Khotan in the form of 和闍 or 和社 (or 烏社) which might be a translit. of vandya (Tibetan and Khotani ban-de), 'reverend.' Later it took the form of 和尚 or 和上. The 律宗 use 和上, others generally 和尚. The Sanskrit term used in its interpretation is 鳥波陀耶 upādhyāya, a 'sub-teacher' of the Vedas, inferior to an ācārya; this is intp. as 力生 strong in producing (knowledge), or in begetting strength in his disciples; also by 知有罪知無罪 a discerner of sin from not-sin, or the sinful from the not-sinful. It has been used as a synonym for 法師 a teacher of doctrine, in distinction from 律師 a teacher of the vinaya, also from 禪師 a teacher of the Intuitive school.

和夷羅 vajra.

和夷羅洹閱叉 跋闍羅波膩 Vajrapāṇi, the 金剛手 Bodhisattva holding the sceptre or thunderbolt, or 金剛神 one of the names of Indra, as a demon king and protector of Buddhism.

和闐 Khotan, Kustana, cf. 于.

和須吉 Vāsuki, lord of nāgas, name of a 'dragon-king', with nine heads, hydra-headed; also 和修吉.

和須蜜 (和須蜜多) Vasumitra. A distinction is made (probably in error) between Vasumitra, noted as a libertine and for his beauty, and Vasumitra 筏蘇蜜呾羅 q. v., a converted profligate who became president of the synod under Kaniṣka.

和香丸 A pill compounded of many kinds of incense typifying that in the one Buddha-truth lies all truth.

Drop, droop, let down, pass down; regard.

垂示 垂語 To make an announcement.

垂迹 Traces, vestiges; manifestations or incarnations of Buddhas and bodhisattvas in their work of saving the living.

Night; translit ya.

夜他跋 yathāvat, suitably, exactly, solid, really.

夜叉 乞叉; 藥叉; 閱叉 yakṣa, (1) demons in the earth, or in the air, or in the lower heavens; they are malignant, and violent, and devourers (of human flesh). (2) The 八大將, the eight attendants of Kuvera, or Vaiśravaṇa, the god of wealth; those on earth bestow wealth, those in the empyrean houses and carriages, those in the lower heavens guard the moat and gates of the heavenly city. There is another set of sixteen. The names of all are given in 陀羅尼集經 3. See also 羅 for rakṣa and 吉 for kṛtya. yakṣa-kṛtya are credited with the powers of both yakṣa and kṛtya.

夜摩 Yama, 'originally the Aryan god of the dead, living in a heaven above the world, the regent of the South; but Brahminism transferred his abode to hell. Both views have been retained by Buddhism.' Eitel. Yama in Indian mythology is ruler over the dead and judge in the hells, is 'grim in aspect, green in colour, clothed in red, riding on a buffalo, and holding a club in one hand and noose in the other': he has two four-eyed watch-dogs. M. W. The usual form is 閻摩 q. v.

夜摩天 Yamadeva; the third devaloka, which is also called 須夜摩 or 蘇夜摩, intp. as 時分 or 善時分 the place where the times, or seasons, are always good.

夜摩盧迦 Yamaloka, the realm of Yama, the third devaloka.

夜殊 Yajurveda, 'the sacrificial Veda' of the Brahmans; the liturgy associated with Brahminical sacrificial services.

To receive respectfully; honoured by, have the honour to, be favoured by, serve, offer.

奉事 To carry out orders.

奉加, 奉納 To make offerings.

奉行 To obey and do (the Buddha's teaching).

Remedy, alternative, how ? what ? a yellow plum.

奈利 idem 泥梨 niraya, hell.

奈河 The inevitable river in purgatory to be crossed by all.

奈河橋 The bridge in one of the hells, from which certain sinners always fall.

奈取羅訶羅 Rudhirāhāra, name of a yakṣa.

āścarya, adbhuta; wonderful, rare, extraordinary; odd.

奇妙 Beautiful, or wonderful beyond compare.

奇特 Wonderful, rare, special, the three incomparable kinds of 神通奇特 power to convert all beings, 慧心奇特 Buddha-wisdom, and 攝受奇特Buddha-power to attract and save all beings.

奇異 Extraordinary, uncommon, rare.

To run; translit. pun and p.

奔攘舍羅 puṇyaśālā, almshouse or asylum for sick and poor.

奔荼 (奔荼利迦) puṇḍarīka, the white lotus, v. 分 or 芬; also the last of the eight great cold hells, v. 地獄.

奔那伐戰那 Puṇḍra-vardhana, an ancient kingdom and city in Bengal.

奔那伽 puṣpanāga, the flowering dragon-tree under which Maitreya is said to have attained enlightenment.

To throw down, depute; really; crooked; the end.

委順 To die, said of a monk.

Jealous, envious.

妬不男 irṣyāpaṇḍaka. Impotent except when aroused by jealousy, one of the five classes of 'eunuchs'.

Paternal aunt, husband's sister, a nun; to tolerate; however; leave.

姑尸草, 矩奢 kuśa grass, grass of good omen for divination.

姑臧 Ku-tsang, formerly a city in Liangchow, Kansu, and an important centre for communication with Tibet.

Beginning, first, initial; thereupon.

始士 An initiator; a Bodhisattva who stimulates beings to enlightenment.

始教 According to Tiantai, the preliminary teaching of the Mahāyāna, made by the Avataṃsaka (Kegon) School; also called 相始教; it discussed the nature of all phenomena as in the 唯識論, 空始教; and held to the immateriality of all things, but did not teach that all beings have the Buddha-nature.

始終 Beginning and end, first and last.

始行人 A beginner.

始覺 The initial functioning of mind or intelligence as a process of 'becoming', arising from 本覺 which is Mind or Intelligence, self-contained, unsullied, and considered as universal, the source of all enlightenment. The 'initial intelligence' or enlightenment arises from the inner influence 薰 of the Mind and from external teaching. In the 'original intelligence' are the four values adopted and made transcendent by the Nirvāṇa-sūtra, viz. 常, 樂, 我, 淨 Perpetuity, joy, personality, and purity; these are acquired through the 始覺 process of enlightenment. Cf. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

Eldest, first; Mencius; rude.

孟八郞 The eight violent fellows, a general term for plotters, ruffians, and those who write books opposed to the truth.

孟婆神 The Meng family dame, said to have been born under the Han dynasty, and to have become a Buddhist; later deified as the bestower of 孟婆湯 the drug of forgetfulness, or oblivion of the past, on the spirits of the dead.

Orphan, solitary.

孤山 An isolated hill; a monastery in Kiangsu and name of one of its monks.

孤地獄 (孤獨地獄) Lokāntarika, solitary hells situated in space, or the wilds, etc.

孤園 (孤獨園); 給園; 祗洹; 逝多林 Jetavana, the seven-story abode and park presented to Śākyamuni by Anāthapiṇḍaka, who bought it from the prince Jeta. It was a favourite resort of the Buddha, and 'most of the sūtras (authentic and suppositious) date from this spot'. Eitel.

孤獨園 is also a term for an orphanage, asylum, etc.

孤落迦 A fruit syrup.

孤調 Self-arranging, the Hīnayāna method of salvation by individual effort.

Official, public.

官難 In danger from the law; official oppression.

To fix, settle. samādhi. 'Composing the mind'; 'intent contemplation'; 'perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation.' M. W. Abstract meditation, the mind fixed in one direction, or field. (1) 散定 scattered or general meditation (in the world of desire). (2) 禪定 abstract meditation (in the realms of form and beyond form). It is also one of the five attributes of the dharmakāya 法身, i. e. an internal state of imperturbability or tranquility, exempt from all external sensations, 超受陰; cf. 三摩提.

定侶 Fellow-meditators; fellow-monks.

定光 (1) Dīpaṃkara 提洹羯; 然燈佛, to whom Śākyamuni offered five lotuses when the latter was 儒童 Rutong Bodhisattva, and was thereupon designated as a coming Buddha. He is called the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni. He appears whenever a Buddha preaches the Lotus Sutra. (2) Crystal, or some other bright stone.

定判 To determine, adjudge, settle.

定力 samādhibala. The power of abstract or ecstatic meditation, ability to overcome all disturbing thoughts, the fourth of the five bāla 五力; described also as 攝心 powers of mind-control.

定聚 One of the 三聚 q. v.

定命 Determined period of life; fate.

定妃 The female figures representing meditation in the maṇḍalas; male is wisdom, female is meditation.

定學 Learning through meditation, one of the three forms of learning 三學.

定心 定意 A mind fixed in meditation.

定心三昧 A fixed mind samādhi, i. e. fixed on the Pure Land and its glories.

定忍 Patience and perseverance in meditation.

定性 Fixed nature; settled mind. A classification of 'five kinds of nature' 五種性 is made by the 法相宗, the first two being the 定性二乘, i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, whose mind is fixed on arhatship, and not on Buddhahood. The 定性喜樂地 is the second dhyāna heaven of form, in which the occupants abide in surpassing meditation or trance, which produces mental joy.

定慧 Meditation and wisdom, two of the six pāramitās; likened to the two hands, the left meditation, the right wisdom.

定散 A settled, or a wandering mind; the mind organized by meditation, or disorganized by distraction. The first is characteristic of the saint and sage, the second of the common untutored man. The fixed heart may or may not belong to the realm of transmigration; the distracted heart has the distinctions of good, bad, or indifferent.

定散二善 Both a definite subject for meditation and an undefined field are considered as valuable.

定智 Meditation and wisdom.

定根 samādhīndriya. Meditation as the root of all virtue, being the fourth of the five indriya 五根.

定業 Fixed karma, rebirth determined by the good or bad actions of the past. Also, the work of meditation with its result.

定業亦能轉 Even the determined fate can be changed (by the power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas).

定水 Calm waters; quieting the waters of the heart (and so beholding the Buddha, as the moon is reflected in still water).

定相 Fixity, determined, determination, settled, unchanging, nirvāṇa. The appearance of meditation.

定覺支 The enlightenment of meditation, the sixth of the sapta bodhyaṅga 七菩提分 q. v.

定身 The dharmakāya of meditation, one of the 五分法身 five forms of the Buddha-dharmakāya.

Ancestors, ancestral; clan; class, category. kind; school, sect; siddhānta, summary, main doctrine, syllogism, proposition, conclusion, realization. Sects are of two kinds: (1) those founded on principles having historic continuity, as the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, the thirteen sects of China, and the fourteen sects of Japan: (2) those arising from an individual interpretation of the general teaching of Buddhism, as the sub-sects founded by Yongming 永明 (d. 975), 法相宗, 法性宗, 破相宗, or those based on a peculiar interpretation of one of the recognized sects, as the Jōdo-shinshū 淨土眞宗 found by Shinran-shōnin. There are also divisions of five, six, and ten, which have reference to specific doctrinal differences. Cf. 宗派.

宗乘 The vehicle of a sect, i. e. its essential tenets.

宗元 The basic principles of a sect; its origin or cause of existence.

宗儀 The rules or ritual of a sect.

宗依 That on which a sect depends, v. 宗法.

宗匠 The master workman of a sect who founded its doctrines.

宗因喩 Proposition, reason, example, the three parts of a syllogism.

宗學 The study or teaching of a sect.

宗客巴 Sumatikīrti (Tib. Tsoṅ-kha-pa), the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow Sect (黃帽教); according to the 西藏新志 b. A. D. 1417 at Hsining, Kansu. His sect was founded on strict discipline, as opposed to the lax practices of the Red sect, which permitted marriage of monks, sorcery, etc. He is considered to be an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; others say of Amitābha.

宗密 Zongmi, one of the five patriarchs of the Huayan (Avataṃsaka) sect, d. 841.

宗旨 The main thesis, or ideas, e. g. of a text.

宗極 Ultimate or fundamental principles.

宗法, 宗體 The thesis of a syllogism consisting of two terms, each of which has five different names: 自性 subject; 差別 its differentiation; 有法 that which acts; 法 the action; 所別 that which is differentiated; 能別 that which differentiates; 前陳 first statement; 後陳 following statement; 宗依 that on which the syllogism depends, both for subject and predicate.

宗派 Sects (of Buddhism). In India, according to Chinese accounts, the two schools of Hīnayāna became divided into twenty sects. Mahāyāna had two main schools, the Mādhyamika, ascribed to Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva about the second century A. D., and the Yogācārya, ascribed to Asaṅga and Vasubandhu in the fourth century A. D. In China thirteen sects were founded: (1) 倶舍宗 Abhidharma or Kośa sect, representing Hīnayāna, based upon the Abhidharma-kosa-śāstra or 倶舍論. (2) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect, based on the 成實論 Satyasiddhi-śāstra, tr. by Kumārajīva; no sect corresponds to it in India; in China and Japan it became incorporated in the 三論宗. (3) 律宗 Vinaya or Discipline sect, based on 十誦律, 四分律, 僧祗律, etc. (4) 三論宗 The three śāstra sect, based on the Mādhyamika-śāstra 中觀論 of Nāgārjuna, the Sata-śāstra 百論 of Āryadeva, and the Dvādasa-nikāya-śāstra 十二門論 of Nāgārjuna; this school dates back to the translation of the three śāstras by Kumārajīva in A. D. 409. (5) 涅槃宗 Nirvāṇa sect, based upon the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra 涅槃經 tr. by Dharmaraksa in 423; later incorporated in Tiantai, with which it had much in common. (6) 地論宗 Daśabhūmikā sect, based on Vasubandhu's work on the ten stages of the bodhisattva's path to Buddhahood, tr. by Bodhiruci 508, absorbed by the Avataṃsaka school, infra. (7) 淨土宗 Pure-land or Sukhāvatī sect, founded in China by Bodhiruci; its doctrine was salvation through faith in Amitābha into the Western Paradise. (8) 禪宗 dhyāna, meditative or intuitional sect, attributed to Bodhidharma about A. D. 527, but it existed before he came to China. (9) 攝 論宗, based upon the 攝大乘論 Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra by Asaṅga, tr. by Paramārtha in 563, subsequently absorbed by the Avataṃsaka sect. (10) 天台宗 Tiantai, based on the 法華經 Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sūtra, or the Lotus of the Good Law; it is a consummation of the Mādhyamika tradition. (11) 華嚴宗 Avataṃsaka sect, based on the Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra, or Gandha-vyūha 華嚴經 tr. in 418. (12) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, established after the return of Xuanzang from India and his trans. of the important Yogācārya works. (13) 眞言宗 Mantra sect, A. D. 716. In Japan twelve sects are named: Sanron, Hossō, Kegon, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Ritsu, Tendai, Shingon; these are known as the ancient sects, the two last being styled mediaeval; there follow the Zen and Jōdo; the remaining two are Shin and Nichiren; at present there are the Hossō, Kegon, Tendai, Shingon, Zen, Jōdo, Shin, and Nichiren sects.

宗用 Principles and their practice, or application.

宗祖 The founder of a sect or school.

宗家 A name for Shandao 善導 (d. 681), a writer of commentaries on the sutras of the Pure Land sect, and one of its principal literary men; cf. 念佛宗.

宗義 The tenets of a sect.

宗致 The ultimate or fundamental tenets of a sect.

宗要 The fundamental tenets of a sect; the important elements, or main principle.

宗說倶通 In doctrine and expression both thorough, a term applied to a great teacher.

宗門 Originally the general name for sects. Later appropriated to itself by the 禪 Chan (Zen) or Intuitional school, which refers to the other schools as 教門 teaching sects, i. e. those who rely on the written word rather than on the 'inner light'.

宗風 The customs or traditions of a sect. In the Chan sect it means the regulations of the founder.

宗骨 The 'bones' or essential tenets of a sect.

宗體 The body of doctrine of a sect. The thesis of a syllogism, v. 宗法.

Dwell, reside; be.

居士 倶欏鉢底; 迦羅越 kulapati. A chief, head of a family; squire, landlord. A householder who practises Buddhism at home without becoming a monk. The female counterpart is 女居士. The 居士傳 is a compilation giving the biography of many devout Buddhists.

居倫 居鄰 (or 倶鄰); 拘輪 idem Ājñāta-kauṇḍinya, v. 憍.

To bend; oppression, wrong.

屈屈吒播陀 (or屈屈吒波陀) Kukkuṭapādagiri; Cock's foot, a mountain said to be 100 li east of the bodhi tree, and, by Eitel, 7 miles south-east of Gayā, where Kāśyapa entered into nirvāṇa; also known as 窶盧播陀山 tr. by 尊足 'honoured foot'. The legend is that these three sharply rising peaks, on Kāśyapa entering, closed together over him. Later, when Mañjuśrī ascended, he snapped his fingers, the peaks opened, Kāśyapa gave him his robe and entered nirvāṇa by fire. 屈叱阿濫摩 Kukkuṭa-ārāma, a monastery built on the above mountain by Aśoka, cf. 西域記 8.

屈支 屈茨; 庫車; 龜弦; 丘玆 Kutche (Kucha). An ancient kingdom and city in Turkestan, north-east of Kashgar.

屈浪那 (or 屈浪拏) Kūrān, anciently a kingdom Tokhara, 'the modern Garana, with mines of lapis lazuli (Lat. 36°28 N., Long. 71° 2 E. ).' Eitel.

屈摩羅 屈滿囉 A lotus bud.

屈眴 A cottony material of fine texture.

屈陀迦阿含 The Pali Khuddakāgama, the fifth of the Āgamas, containing fifteen (or fourteen), works, including such as the Dharmapāda ,Itivṛttaka, Jātaka, Buddhavaṃsa, etc.

屈霜儞迦 Kashanian, a region near Kermina, Lat. 39°50 N., Long. 65°25 E. Eitel.

屈露多 Kulūta. An ancient Kingdom in north India famous for its rock temples; Kulu, north of Kangra.

kūla. Shore, bank.

岸樹 A tree on a river's brink, life's uncertainty.

岸頭 The shore of the ocean of suffering.

彼岸 The other shore; nirvāṇa.

Kerchief, veil.

帕克斯巴 Bashpa, v. 八 and 巴.

Age; change; west; to reward; the seventh of the ten celestial stems.

庚申會 An assembly for offerings on the night of Keng-shen to an image in the form of a monkey, which is the shen symbolical animal; a Taoist rite adopted by Buddhism.

Bottom, basis; translit. t, d, dh.

底下 At the bottom, below, the lowest class (of men).

底哩 tri, three, in trisamaya, etc.

底彦多 丁岸哆 tiṅanta, tryanta, described as the singular, dual, and plural endings in verbs.

底栗車 tiryagyoni, the animal species, animals, especially the six domestic animals.

底沙 Tiṣya. (1) The twenty-third of the twenty-eight constellations 鬼宿 γδηθ in Cancer; it has connection with Śiva. (2) Name of a Buddha who taught Śākyamuni and Maitreya in a former incarnation.

底理 The fundamental principle or law.

v. 囘 6.

Prolong, prolonged, delay; invite.

延年 延壽; 延命; Prolonged life.

延年轉壽 Prolonged years and returning anniversaries.

延命法 Methods of worship of the 延命菩薩 life-prolonging bodhisattvas to increase length of life; these bodhisattvas are 普賢; 金剛薩埵; 地藏; 觀音, and others.

延促劫智 Buddha-wisdom, which surmounts all extending or shrinking kalpas, v. 劫波.

延壽 Prolonged life, the name of Yanshou, a noted Hangzhou monk of the Song dynasty.

延壽堂 The hall or room into which a dying person is taken to enter upon his 'long life'.

延慶寺 Yanqing si, the monastery in which is the ancient lecture hall of Tiantai at 四明山 Siming Shan in Zhejiang.

Crossbow, bow.

弩達囉灑 Durdharṣa, hard to hold 難執持, or hard to overcome 難降伏, or hard to behold 無能見, guardian of the inner gate in Vairocana's maṇḍala.

弩蘖帝 anvāgati, approaching, arriving.

That, the other, in contrast with 此 this.

彼岸 波羅 parā, yonder shore i. e. nirvāṇa. The saṃsāra life of reincarnation is 此岸 this shore; the stream of karma is 中流 the stream between the one shore and the other. Metaphor for an end to any affair. pāramitā (an incorrect etymology, no doubt old) is the way to reach the other shore.

彼茶 peta, or piṭaka, a basket.

To go; gone, past; to be going to, future.

往生 The future life, the life to which anyone is going; to go to be born in the Pure Land of Amitābha. (1) 往相囘向 To transfer one's merits to all beings that they may attain the Pure Land of Amitābha. (2) 還相囘向 Having been born in the Pure Land to return to mortality and by one's merits to bring mortals to the Pure Land.


忠心 Loyal, faithful, honest.

Suddenly; hastily; a millionth.

忽懍 Khulm, an ancient kingdom and city between Balkh and Kunduz.

忽露摩 Shadumān, 'a district of ancient Tukhāra, north of the Wakhan.' Eitel.

uttras-; santras-; fear, afraid.

怖捍 霍罕 Ferghana, in Russian Turkestan.

怖畏施 Almsgiving to remove one's fears.

怖魔 Scare-demon, a supposed tr. of the term bhikṣu.

Distressed; pity. Translit. for t, ta, tan, etc.

怛他 tadyathā, 所謂 whereas, as here follows.

怛他揭多 (or 怛他蘖多); 怛陀竭多; 怛佗議多; 怛薩阿竭 (or 怛闥阿竭) tathāgata, v. 多.

怛利耶怛喇舍 (or 怛利耶怛喇奢) Trayastriṃśa, the thirty-three heavens of lndra, cf. 多羅夜登陵舍.

怛刹那 ? tṛṇa, a length of time consisting of 120 kṣaṇa, or moments; or 'a wink', the time for twenty thoughts.

怛哩支伐離迦 tricīvaraka, the three garments of a monk.

怛囉麽洗 Caitra-māsa, tr. as the 正月 or first month; M. W. gives March-April.

怛索迦 Takṣaka, name of a dragon-king.

怛縛 tvam, thou, you.

怛羅夜耶 traya, three, with special reference to the triratna .

怛荼 daṇḍa, cf. 檀拏 a staff.

怛那 idem 檀那 dāna, alms, giving, charity.

怛鉢那 tapana, an ego, or self, personal, permanent existence, both 人我 and 法我 q. v.

忿 Anger.

忿怒 Anger, angry, fierce, over-awing: a term for the 忿王 or 忿怒王 (忿怒明王) the fierce mahārājas as opponents of evil and guardians of Buddhism; one of the two bodhisattva forms, resisting evil, in contrast with the other form, manifesting goodness. There are three forms of this fierceness in the Garbhadhātu group and five in the Diamond group.

忿怒鉤 A form of Guanyin with a hook.

忿結 The bond of anger.

smṛti. Recollection, memory; to think on, reflect; repeat, intone; a thought; a moment.

念力 smṛtibala, one of the five bāla or powers, that of memory. Also one of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分.

念佛 To repeat the name of a Buddha, audibly or inaudibly.

念佛者 One who repeats the name of a Buddha, especially of Amitābha, with the hope of entering the Pure Land.

念佛宗 or 念佛門. The sect which repeats only the name of Amitābha, founded in the Tang dynasty by 道綽 Daochuo, 善道 Shandao, and others.

念佛三昧 The samādhi in which the individual whole-heartedly thinks of the appearance of the Buddha, or of the dharmakāya, or repeats the Buddha's name. The one who enters into this samādhi, or merely repeats the name of Amitābha, however evil his life may have been, will acquire the merits of Amitābha and be received into Paradise, hence the term.

念佛往生 This is the basis or primary cause of such salvation (念佛三昧).

念佛爲本 or 念佛爲先. Amitābha's merits by this means revert to the one who repeats his name 念佛廻向.

念佛往生願 The eighteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows.

念天 One of the six devalokas, that of recollection and desire.

念定 Correct memory and correct samādhi.

念念 kṣaṇa of a kṣaṇa, a kṣaṇa is the ninetieth part of the duration of a thought; an instant; thought after thought.

念念無常 Instant after instant, no permanence, i. e. the impermanence of all phenomena; unceasing change.

念念相續 Unbroken continuity; continuing instant in unbroken thought or meditation on a subject; also unceasing invocation of a Buddha's name.

念持 To apprehend and hold in memory.

念根 smṛtīndriya. The root or organ of memory, one of the five indriya 五根.

念漏 The leakages; or stream of delusive memory.

念珠 To tell beads.

念經 To repeat the sutras, or other books; to intone them.

念著 Through perverted memory to cling to illusion.

念處 smṛtyupasthāna. The presence in the mind of all memories, or the region which is contemplated by memory.

四念處 Four objects on which memory or the thought should dwell— the impurity of the body, that all sensations lead to suffering, that mind is impermanent, and that there is no such thing as an ego. There are other categories for thought or meditation.

念覺支 Holding in memory continually, one of the sapta bodhyaṅga 七覺支.

念言 (As) the mind remembers, (so) the mouth speaks; also the words of memory.

念誦 To recite, repeat, intone, e. g. the name of a Buddha; to recite a dhāraṇī, or spell.

svabhāva, prakṛti, pradhāna. The nature intp. as embodied, causative, unchanging; also as independent or self-dependent; fundamental nature behind the manifestation or expression. Also, the Buddha-nature immanent in all beings, the Buddha heart or mind.

性佛 The dharmakāya 法性佛, v. 法身.

性具 The Tiantai doctrine that the Buddha-nature includes both good and evil; v. 觀音玄義記 2. Cf. 體具; 理具 of similar meaning.

性分 The nature of anything; the various nature of various things.

性命 The life of conscious beings; nature and life.

性善 Good by nature (rather than by effort); naturally good; in contrast with 性惡 evil by nature. Cf. 性具.

性土 The sphere of the dharma-nature, i. e. the bhūtatathatā, idem 法性土.

性地 Spiritual nature, the second of the ten stages as defined by the 通教 Intermediate School, in which the illusion produced by 見思 seeing and thinking is subdued and the mind obtains a glimmer of the immateriality of things. Cf. 十地.

性宗 v. 法性宗.

性得 Natural attainment, i. e. not acquired by effort; also 生得.

性德 Natural capacity for good (or evil), in contrast with 修性 powers (of goodness) attained by practice.

性心 The perfectly clear and unsullied mind, i. e. the Buddha mind or heart. The Chan (Zen) school use 性心 or 心性 indifferently.

性念處 citta-smṛtyupasthāna, one of the four objects of thought, i. e. that the original nature is the same as the Buddha-nature, v. 四念處.

性戒 The natural moral law, e. g. not to kill, steal, etc, not requiring the law of Buddha.

性我 The Buddha-nature ego, which is apperceived when the illusory ego is banished.

性橫修縱 A division of the triratna in its three aspects into the categories of 橫 and 縱, i. e. cause and effect, or effect and cause; a 別教 division, not that of the 圓教.

性欲 Desires that have become second nature; desires of the nature.

性海 The ocean of the bhūtatathatā, the all-containing, immaterial nature of the dharmakāya.

性火 Fire as one of the five elements, contrasted with 事火 phenomenal fire.

性相 The nature (of anything) and its phenomenal expression xing being 無爲 non-functional, or noumenal and xiang 有爲 functional, or phenomenal.

性相學 The philosophy of the above (性相), i. e. of the noumenal and phenomenal. There are ten points of difference between the 性相二宗, i. e. between the 性 and 相 schools, v. 二宗.

性種性 Nature-seed nature, i. e. original or primary nature, in contrast with 習性性 active or functioning nature; it is also the bodhisattva 十行 stage.

性種戒 idem 性戒.

性空 The nature void, i. e. the immateriality of the nature of all things.

性空教 One of the three 南山 Nanshan sects which regarded the nature of things as unreal or immaterial, but held that the things were temporally entities.

性空觀 The meditation of the 性空教 sect on the unreality, or immateriality, of the nature of things.

性罪 Sins that are such according to natural law, apart from Buddha's teaching, e. g. murder, etc.

性色 Transcendent rūpa or form within or of the tathāgatagarbha; also 眞色.

性覺 Inherent intelligence, or knowledge, i. e. that of the bhūtatathatā.

性識 Natural powers of perception, or the knowledge acquired through the sense organs; mental knowledge.

性起 Arising from the primal nature, or bhūtatathatā, in contrast with 緣起 arising from secondary causes.

性遮 Natural and conventional sins, i. e. sins against natural law, e. g. murder, and sins against conventional or religious law, e. g. for a monk to drink wine, cut down trees, etc.

House, room. The rooms for monks and nuns in a monastery or nunnery.

房宿 Scorpio, idem 劫賓那.

A place; where, what, that which, he (etc. ) who.

所作 That which is done, or to be done, or made, or set up, etc.

所依 āśraya, that on which anything depends, the basis of the vijñānas.

所別 The subject of the thesis of a syllogism in contrast with 能別 the predicate; that which is differentiated.

所化 The one who is transformed or instructed.

所引 That which is brought forward or out; a quotation.

所有 What one has, what there is, whatever exists.

所知依 That on which all knowledge depends, i. e. the ālayavijñāna, the other vijñānas being derived from it; cf. 八識.

所知障 The barrier of the known, arising from regarding the seeming as real.

所立 A thesis; that which is set up.

所緣 ālambana; that upon which something rests or depends, hence object of perception; that which is the environmental or contributory cause; attendant circumstances.

所緣緣 adhipatipratyaya. The influence of one factor in causing others; one of the 四緣.

所詮 That which is expounded, explained, or commented on.

所遍計 That by which the mind is circumscribed, i. e. impregnated with the false view that the ego and things possess reality.

所量 That which is estimated; the content of reasoning, or judgment.

A prop, a post.

拄杖 (拄杖子) A crutch, staff.

Rub out or on, efface.

抹香 Powdered incense to scatter over images.

Carry (on the palm), entrust to, pretext, extend.

拓林羅 One of the twelve generals in the Yaoshi (Bhaiṣajya) sutra.

拍掌 拍手 Clapping of hands at the beginning and end of worship, a Shingon custom.

Embrace, enfold, cherish.

抱佛脚 (Only when old or in trouble) to embrace the Buddha's feet.

Receive, succeed to, undertake, serve.

承事 Entrusted with duties, serve, obey, and minister.

承露盤 or 承露槃 The 'dew-receivers', or metal circles at the top of a pagoda.

Stupid, clumsy.

拙具羅 (or 窶具羅); 求求羅 kukura, kukkura; a plant and its perfume.

拙度 A stupid, powerless salvation, that of Hīnayāna.

Knock; arrive; resist, bear; substitute.

抵彌 timi, timiṅgila, a huge fish, perhaps a whale.

Tear open, break down.

折摩駄那 Calmadana or 涅末 Nimat, 'An ancient kingdom and city at the south-east borders of the desert of Gobi.' Eitel.

Draw, withdraw, pull out.

抽籤 To draw lots, seek divine indications, etc.

抽脫 To go to the latrine.

Tow, tug; delay; implicate.

拖泥帶水 和泥合水 Mud and water hauler, or made of mud and water, a Chan (Zen) school censure of facile remarks.

To rub, wipe, dust.

拂子 A duster, fly brush.

拂石 盤石劫 A kalpa as measured by the time it would take to wear away an immense rock by rubbing it with a deva-garment; cf. 芥 and 劫波.

拂迹入玄 To rub out the traces of past impurity and enter into the profundity of Buddha.

Call, beckon, notify, cause; confess.

招魂 To call back the spirit (of the dead).

招提 拓鬪提舍 caturdiśaḥ, the four directions of space; cāturdiśa, belonging to the four quarters, i. e. the saṃgha or Church; name for a monastery.

To spread open, unroll, thrown on (as a cloak). 披 is to wear the garment over both shoulders; 袒 is to throw it over one shoulder.

披剃 The first donning of the robe and shaving of the head (by a novice).

To take in the fingers, pluck, pinch.

拈古 拈提 To refer to ancient examples.

拈花微笑 'Buddha held up a flower and Kāśyapa smiled'. This incident does not appear till about A. D. 800, but is regarded as the beginning of the tradition on which the Chan (Zen) or Intuitional sect based its existence.

拈衣 To gather up the garment.

拈香 To take and offer incense.

拈語 To take up and pass on a verbal tradition, a Chan (Zen) term.

Pull up, or out; raise.

拔婆 拔波 vatsa, calf, young child.

拔底耶 upādhyāya, a spiritual teacher, or monk 和尚 v. 烏.

拔提 -vatī, a terminal of names of certain rivers, e. g. Niraṇyavatī.

拔提達多 Bhadradatta, name of a king.

拔濟 To rescue, save from trouble.

拔舌地獄 The hell where the tongue is pulled out, as punishment for oral sins.

拔苦與樂 To save from suffering and give joy.

拔羅魔囉 bhramara, a kind of black bee.

拔思發 拔合思巴; 八思巴 Baschpa (Phags-pa), Tibetan Buddhist and adviser of Kublai Khan, v. 八發 (八發思).

Seize, take, arrest; translit. k sounds, cf. 巨, 矩, 倶, 憍.

拘利 拘胝 koṭī. A million. Also explained by 億 100, 000; or 100 lakṣa, i. e. ten millions. Also 倶利 or 倶胝.

拘利太子 Kolita, the eldest son of Droṇodana, uncle of Śākyamuni; said to be Mahānāma, but others say Mahāmaudgalyāyana. Also 拘栗; 拘肄多.

拘吒賒摩利 Kūṭaśālmali. Also 居吒奢摩利 (or 居吒奢摩離) A fabulous tree on which garuḍas find nāgas to eat: M. W. describes it as 'a fabulous cotton tree with sharp thorns with which the wicked are tortured in the world of Yama'.

拘吒迦 kuṭaṅgaka, thatched; a hut.

拘尸那 Kuśinagara; 拘尸那竭 or拘尸那揚羅; 拘夷那竭 (or 倶夷那竭); 倶尸那; 究施 a city identified by Professor Vogel with Kasiah, 180 miles north-west of Patna, 'capital city of the Mallas' (M. W.); the place where Śākyamuni died; 'so called after the sacred Kuśa grass.' Eitel. Not the same as Kuśāgārapura, v. 矩.

拘摩羅 kumāra; also 矩摩羅 (or 鳩摩羅); a child, youth, prince, tr. by 童子 a youth, 拘摩羅天; 鳩摩羅伽天 Kumārakadeva, Indra of the first dhyāna heaven whose face is like that of a youth, sitting on a peacock, holding a cock, a bell, and a flag.

拘摩羅尊 Kumārata, v. 鳩.

拘沙 A branch of the Yüeh-chih people, v. 月.

拘流沙 Kuru, the country where Buddha is said to have delivered the sutra 長阿合大緣方便經.

拘物頭 kumuda; also 拘物陀; 拘物度; 拘勿頭 (or 拘勿投); 拘牟頭 ( or拘貿頭or 拘某頭or 拘那頭); 拘母陀; 句文羅; 倶勿頭; 屈摩羅; 究牟陀 a lotus; an opening lotus; but kumuda refers especially to the esculent white lotus. M. W.

拘理迦 Kulika. 'A city 9 li south-west of Nālanda in Magadha.' Eitel.

拘瑟耻羅 Kauṣṭhila, also 倶瑟祉羅; an arhat, maternal uncle of Śāriputra, who became an eminent disciple of Śākyamuni.

拘留孫佛 Krakucchanda; also 拘留泰佛; 拘樓秦; 倶留孫; 鳩樓孫; 迦羅鳩餐陀 (or 迦羅鳩村馱); 羯洛迦孫馱; 羯羅迦寸地; 羯句忖那, etc. The first of the Buddhas of the present Bhadrakalpa, the fourth of the seven ancient Buddhas.

拘盧舍 (拘盧) krośa; also 拘樓賒; 拘屢; 倶盧舍; the distance a bull's bellow can be heard, the eighth part of a yojana, or 5 li; another less probable definition is 2 li. For 拘盧 Uttarakuru, see 倶.

拘睒彌 Kauśāmbī, or Vatsapattana 拘邊; 憍賞彌; a country in Central India; also called 拘羅瞿 v. 巨.

拘羯羅 cakra, v. 斫.

拘耆 (拘耆那羅) Kokila, also 拘翅羅, the cuckoo, M. W.

拘蘇摩 kusuma, 'the white China aster.' Eitel.

拘蘇摩補羅 Kusumapura, city of flower-palaces; two are named, Pāṭaliputra, ancient capital of Magadha, the modern Patna; and Kanyākubja, Kanauj (classical Canogyza), a noted city in northern Hindustan; v. 羯.

拘謎陀 Kumidha, 'An ancient kingdom on the Beloortagh to the north of Badakhshan. The vallis Comedorum of Ptolemy.' Eitel.

拘那牟尼 (拘含牟尼) Kanakamuni, 拘那含; 迦諾迦牟尼 q. v., lit. 金寂 the golden recluse, or 金仙 golden ṛṣi; Brahman of the Kāśyapa family, native of Śobhanavatī, second of the five Buddhas of the present Bhadra-kalpa fifth of the seven ancient Buddhas; possibly a sage who preceded Śākyamuni in India.

拘那羅 Kuṇāla; also 拘拏羅, 拘浪拏; 鳩那羅 a bird with beautiful eyes; name of Dharmavivardhana (son of Aśoka), whose son Sampadi 'became the successor of Aśoka'. Eitel. Kuṇāla is also tr. as an evil man, possibly of the evil eye.

拘那羅陀 (or拘那羅他); 拘那蘭難陀 ? Guṇarata, name of Paramārtha, who was known as 眞諦三藏, also as Kulanātha, came to China A. D. 546 from Ujjain in Western India, tr. many books, especially the treatises of Vasubandhu.

拘鄰 Kauṇḍinya; also 拘輪 (or 倶輪); 倶鄰;鄰 (or 居倫). v. 憍.

拘鞞陀羅 Kovidāra, bauhinia variegata, fragrant trees in the great pleasure ground (of the child Śākyamuni).

To let go, release, send out; put, place.

放下 To put down, let down, lay down.

放光 Light-emitting; to send out an illuminating ray.

放光三昧 A samādhi in which all kinds and colours of light are emitted.

放光瑞 The auspicious ray emitted from between the eyebrows of the Buddha before pronouncing the Lotus Sutra.

放燈 Lighting strings of lanterns, on the fifteenth of the first month, a custom wrongly attributed to Han Ming Ti, to celebrate the victory of Buddhism in the debate with Taoists; later extended to the seventh and fifteenth full moons.

放生 To release living creatures as a work of merit.

放逸 Loose, unrestrained.

At, in, on, to, from, by, than.

於諦 All Buddha's teaching is 'based upon the dogmas' that all things are unreal, and that the world is illusion; a 三論 phrase.

於麾 A name for Ladakh. 'The upper Indus valley under Cashmerian rule but inhabited by Tibetans.' Eitel.

Change; easy.

易行 Easy progress, easy to do.

變易 To change.

Of old, formerly.

昔哩 śrī, fortunate, idem 室利 (or 尸利).

昆勒 piṭaka, also 蜫勒 defined as the śāstras; a misprint for 毘.

Dusk, dull, confused.

昏城 The dim city, the abode of the common, unenlightened man.

昏識 Dull, or confused, knowledge.

昏醉 matta, drunk, intoxicated.

昏鐘 昏鼓 The bell, or drum, at dusk.

昏默多 Kandat, the capital of Tamasthiti, perhaps the modern Kunduz, but Eitel says 'Kundoot about 40 miles above Jshtrakh, Lat. 36° 42N., Long. 71° 39E.''

vidyā, knowledge. ming means bright, clear, enlightenment, intp. by 智慧 or 聰明 wisdom, wise; to understand. It represents Buddha-wisdom and its revelation; also the manifestation of a Buddha's light or effulgence; it is a term for 眞言 because the 'true word' can destroy the obscurity of illusion; the 'manifestation' of the power of the object of worship; it means also dhāraṇīs or mantras of mystic wisdom. Also, the Ming dynasty A. D. 1368-1644.

明了 To understand thoroughly; complete enlightenment.

無明 Commonly tr. 'ignorance', means an unenlightened condition, non-perception, before the stirrings of intelligence, belief that the phenomenal is real, etc.

明信佛智 To believe clearly in Buddha's wisdom (as leading to rebirth in the Pure Land).

明冥 The (powers of) light and darkness, the devas and Yama, gods and demons, also the visible and invisible.

明利 Clear and keen (to penetrate all mystery).

明地 The stage of illumination, or 發光地 the third of the ten stages, v. 十地.

明妃 Another name for dhāraṇī as the queen of mystic knowledge and able to overcome all evil. Also the female consorts shown in the maṇḍalas.

明度無極 An old intp. of prajñāpāramitā 度, the wisdom that ferries to the other shore without limit; for which 明炬 a shining torch is also used.

明得 (明定) A samādhi in the Bodhisattva's 四加行 in which there are the bright beginnings of release from illusion.

明德菩薩 The Bodhisattva who has reached the stage of 明得, i. e. the 煗位.

明心 The enlightened heart.

明慧 The three enlightenments 三明, and the three wisdoms 三慧.

明敏 Śīghrabodhi. 'A famous priest of the Nālanda monastery.' Eitel.

明星 Venus; 太白 and the 天子 deva-prince who dwells in that planet; but it is also said to be Aruṇa, which indicates the Dawn.

明月 The bright moon.

明月珠 明珠; 摩尼 The bright-moon maṇi or pearl, emblem of Buddha, Buddhism, the Buddhist Scriptures, purity, etc.

明月天子 The moon-deva, in Indra's retinue.

明法 The law or method of mantras, or magic formulæ.

明薫 The inner light, enlightenment censing and overcoming ignorance, like incense, perfuming and interpenetrating.

明王 The rājas, ming-wang, or fence sprits who are the messengers and manifestation of Vairocana's wrath against evil spirits.

明相 Early dawn, the proper time for the monk's breakfast; brightness.

明神 The bright spirits, i. e. devas, gods, demons.

明脫 Enlightenment (from ignorance) and release (from desire).

明藏 The Buddhist canon of the Ming dynasty; there were two editions, one the Southern at Nanjing made by T'ai Tsu, the northern at Beijing by Tai Tsung. A later edition was produced in the reign of Shen Tsung (Wan Li), which became the standard in Japan.

明處 The regions or realms of study which produce wisdom, five in number, v. 五明 (五明處).

明行足 vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpañña; knowledge-conduct-perfect 婢侈遮羅那三般那. (1) The unexcelled universal enlightenment of the Buddha based upon the discipline, meditation, and wisdom regarded as feet; one of the ten epithets of Buddha. Nirvāṇa Sūtra 18. (2) The 智度論 2 interprets 明 by the 三明 q. v., the 行 by the 三業 q. v., and the 足 by complete, or perfect.

明道 The bright or clear way; the way of the mantras and dhāraṇīs.

明達 Enlightenment 明in the case of the saint includes knowledge of future incarnations of self others, of the past incarnation of self and others, and that the present incarnation will end illusion. In the case of the Buddha such knowledge is called 達 thorough or perfect enlightenment.

Submit, serve; clothing, to wear; mourning; to swallow; a dose.

服水論師 The sect of non-Buddhist philosophers who considered water the beginning and end of all things.

A board; a board struck for calling e. g. to meals.

A cup.

杯度 Beidu, a fifth-century Buddhist monk said to be able to cross a river in a cup or bowl, hence his name.

Oppression, wrong; crooked; in vain.

枉死 Wrongly done to death.

To divide, separate, differentiate, explain.

分析 To divide; leave the world; separation.

析小 To traverse or expose the fallacy of Hīnayāna arguments.

析微塵 To subdivide molecules till nothing is reached.

析水 To rinse (the alms-bowl).

析智 Analytical wisdom, which analyses Hīnayāna dharmas and attains to the truth that neither the ego nor things have a basis in reality.

A branch.

枝香 Incense made of branches of trees, one of the three kinds of incense, the other two being from roots and flowers.

枝末惑 or枝末無明 Branch and twig illusion, or ignorance in detail, contrasted with 根本無明root, or radical ignorance, i. e. original ignorance out of which arises karma, false views, and realms of illusion which are the 'branch and twig' condition or unenlightenment in detail or result. Also, the first four of the 五住地 five causal relationships, the fifth being 根本無明.

A grove, or wood; a band.

林微尼 (or 林毘尼); 嵐毘尼; 龍彌你 (or流彌你); 臘伐尼; 論民; 林毘, etc. Lumbinī, the park in which Śākyamuni was born, '15 miles east of Kapilavastu.' Eitel.

林葬 Forest burial, to cast the corpse into a forest to be eaten by animals.

林藤 Vegetable food, used by men at the beginning of a kalpa.

林變 The trees of the wood turned white when the Buddha died.

pūrva, east.

東勝身洲 (佛婆毘提訶) 毘提訶; 佛婆提; 佛于逮; 逋利婆; 鼻提賀; 布嚕婆, etc. Pūrvavideha. The eastern of the four great continents of a world, east of Mt. Meru, semicircular in shape.

東司 東淨; 東厠 The privy in a monastery.

東土 The eastern land, i. e. China.

東密 The eastern esoteric or Shingon sect of Japan, in contrast with the Tiantai esoteric sect.

東山 An eastern hill, or monastery, general and specific, especially the 黃梅東山 Huangmei eastern monastery of the fourth and fifth patriarchs of the Chan (Zen) school.

東山部 佛媻勢羅部 Pūrvaśailāḥ; one of the five divisions of the Mahāsāṃghikaḥ school.

東山寺 Pūrvaśailā-saṃghārāma, a monastery east of Dhanakaṭaka.

東嶽 The Eastern Peak, Tai Shan in Shandong, one of the five sacred peaks; the god or spirit of this peak, whose protection is claimed all over China.

東庵 The eastern hall of monastery.

東方 The east, or eastern region.

東曼陀羅 The eastern maṇḍala, that of the Garbhadhātu.

phala, 頗羅 fruit; offspring; result, consequence, effect; reward, retribution; it contrasts with cause, i. e. 因果 cause and effect. The effect by causing a further effect becomes also a cause.

果上 In the stage when the individual receives the consequences of deeds done.

果人 Those who have obtained the fruit, i. e. escaped the chain of transmigration, e. g. buddha, pratyekabuddha, arhat.

果位 The stage of attainment, or reward as contrasted with the cause-stage, i. e. the deed.

果佛性 Fruition of the Buddha-enlightenment, its perfection, one of the five forms of the Buddha-nature.

果分 The reward, e. g. of ineffable nirvāṇa, or dharmakāya.

果名 果號 Attamentment-name, or reward-name or title, i. e. of every Buddha, indicating his enlightenment.

果唯識 The wisdom attained from investigating and thinking philosophy, or Buddha-truth, i. e. of the sūtras and abhidharmas; this includes the first four under 五種唯識.

果圓 Fruit complete, i. e. perfect enlightenment, one of the eight Tiantai perfections.

果地 The stage of attainment of the goal of any disciplinary course.

果報 異熟 Retribution for good or evil deeds, implying that different conditions in this (or any) life are the variant ripenings, or fruit, of seed sown in previous life or lives.

果報土 The realm of reward, where bodhisattvas attain the full reward of their deeds, also called 實報無障礙土, one of the 四土 of Tiantai.

果報四相 The four forms of retribution — birth, age, sickness, death.

果德 The merits nirvāṇa, i. e. 常樂我淨 q. v., eternal, blissful, personal (or autonomous), and pure, all transcendental.

果斷 To cut off the fruit, or results, of former karma. The arhat who has a 'remnant of karma', though he has cut off the seed of misery, has not yet cut off its fruits.

果果 The fruit of fruit, i. e. nirvāṇa, the fruition of bodhi.

果果佛性 The fruit of the fruit of Buddhahood, i. e. parinirvāṇa, one of the 五佛性.

果極 Fruition perfect, the perfect virtue or merit of Buddha-enlightenment.

果極法身 The dharmakāya of complete enlightenment.

果海 The ocean of bodhi or enightenment.

果滿 The full or complete fruition of merit; perfect reward.

果熟識 The ālaya-vijñāna, i. e. storehouse or source of consciousness, from which both subject and object are derived.

果界圓現 In the Buddha-realm, i. e. of complete bodhi-enlightenment, all things are perfectly manifest.

果相 Reward, retribution, or effect; especially as one of the three forms of the ālaya-vijñāna.

果縛 Retribution-bond; the bitter fruit of transmigration binds the individual so that he cannot attain release. This fruit produces 子縛 or further seeds of bondage.

果縛斷 Cutting off the ties of retribution, i. e. entering nirvāṇa, e. g. entering salvation.

果脣 Fruit lips, Buddha's were 'red like the fruit of the Bimba tree'.

果遂 The fruit follows.

果遂願 The assurance of universal salvation, the twentieth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows.

果頭 The condition of retribution, especially the reward of bodhi or enlightenment, idem 果上, hence 果頭佛 is he who has attained the Buddha-condition, a Tiantai term.

Joyful, elated, elevated.

欣求 To seek gladly.

欣界 The joyful realm (of saints and sages).


毒器 The poison vessel, the body.

毒天二鼓 The two kinds of drum: poison-drum, harsh or stern words for repressing evil, and devadrum, gentle words for producing good; also, misleading contrasted with correct teaching. The毒鼓 is likened also to the Buddha-nature which can slay all evil.

毒樹 Poison tree, an evil monk.

毒氣 Poison vapour, emitted by the three poisons, 貪瞋痴, desire, hate (or anger), stupor (or ignorance).

毒箭 Poison arrow, i. e. illusion.

毒藥 Poison, cf. the sons who drank their father's poisons in the 善門 chapter of The Lotus Sutra.

毒蛇 Poisonous snakes, the four elements of the body— earth, water, fire, wind (or air)— which harm a man by their variation, i. e. increase and decrease. Also, gold.

毒龍 The poisonous dragon, who accepted the commandments and thus escaped from his dragon form, i. e. Śākyamuni in a former incarnation. 智度論 14.

Fix, record; flow.

注荼半托迦 Cūḍapanthaka, the sixteenth of the sixteen arhats.


油鉢 A bowl of oil.

持油鉢 As careful as carrying a bowl of oil.

A bubble, a blister; to infuse.

泡影 Bubble and shadow, such is everything.

River (in north), canal (in south), especially the Yellow River in China and the Ganges 恒河in India.

河沙 The sands of Ganges, vast in number.

河鼻旨 Avīci, the hell of uninterrupted suffering, where the sufferers die and are reborn to torture without intermission.

Ripple, babble; join. Translit. t, d, etc.

沓婆 沓婆摩羅 Dravya Mallaputra, an arhat who was converted to the Mahāyāna faith.

Rule, govern; prepare; treat, cure; repress, punish.

治國天 (or 持國天) One of the four devas or maharājas, guarding the eastern quarter.

治地住 One of the 十住 q. v.

治生 A living, that by which one maintains life.

Vast; to flow off; ruin, confusion.

泯權歸實 To depart from the temporary and find a home in the real, i. e. forget Hīnayāna, partial salvation, and turn to Mahāyāna for full and complete salvation.

Mud; paste; clogged; bigoted; translit. n; v. 尼.

泥人 A sufferer in niraya, or hell, or doomed to it.

泥哩底 Nirṛti, one of the rakṣa-kings.

泥塔 Paste pagoda; a mediaeval Indian custom was to make a small pagoda five or six inches high of incense, place scriptures in and make offerings to it. The esoterics adopted custom, and worshipped for the purpose of prolonging life and ridding themselves of sins, or sufferings.

泥洹 Nirvāṇa; also泥丸; 泥日; 泥垣; 泥畔; v. 涅槃.

泥犁 niraya, intp. as joyless, i. e. hell; also 泥梨 (泥梨耶); 泥梨迦; 泥黎; 泥囉耶; 泥底 v. 捺趣迦 naraka.

泥盧鉢羅 nīla-utpala; the blue lotus, portrayed in the hand of Mañjuśrī.

泥盧都 One of the sixteen hells.

泥縛些那 nivāsana, a garment, a skirt. Also 泥婆娑; 泥伐散娜; 涅般僧.

taraṅga. A wave, waves; to involve; translit. p, b, v; cf. 婆; 般; 鉢 etc.

波儞尼 or (波你尼) Pāṇini, the great Indian grammarian and writer of the fourth century B. C., also known as Śālāturīya.

波利 pari round, round about; complete, all.

波利伽羅, 波伽羅 parikara, an auxiliary garment, loincloth, towel, etc.

波利婆沙 parivāsa, sent to a separate abode, isolation for improper conduct.

波利質羅 (波利質多羅), 波疑質姤; 波利樹 paricitra, a tree in the trāyastriṃśas heavens which fills the heavens with fragrance; also Pārijāta, a tree in Indra's heaven, one of the five trees of paradise, the coral-tree, erythina indica.

波利涅縛南 波利暱縛M003660 parinirvāṇa, v, 般.

波卑 idem 波旬.

波叉 Virūpākṣa, 毘留愽叉, 鼻溜波阿叉 irregular-eyed, a syn. of Śiva; the guardian king of the West.

波吒羅 Pāṭalī, 鉢怛羅 a tree with scented lossoms, the trumpet-flower, Bignonia Suaveolens. A kingdom i. e. 波吒釐 (波吒釐子); 波吒利弗; 波吒梨耶; 波羅利弗多羅; 巴蓮弗 Pāṭaliputra, originally Kusumapura, the modern Patna; capital of Aśoka, where the third synod was held.

波哆迦 patākā, a flag.

波夷羅 Vajra, one of the generals of Yaoshi, Bhaiṣajya, the Buddha of Healing.

波奴 ? Vidhu, a syn. for the moon.

波婆利 (or 波和利) Pravarī, or perhaps Pravara, woollen or hairy cloth, name of a monastery, the 波婆梨奄婆. Also 波婆利or 波婆離 name of a maternal aunt of Maitreya.

波尼 波抳 pāna, drink, beverage; tr. as water (to drink); 波尼藍 tr. as 'water', but may be pānila, a drinking vessel.

波崙 v. 薩陀.

波帝 pati, 鉢底 master, lord, proprietor, husband.

波戌 paśu, any animal.

波斯 Pārasī, Persian, Persia. 波嘶; 波刺斯 or 波刺私; 波羅悉. In its capital of Surasthāna the Buddha's almsbowl was said to be in A. D. 600. Eitel.

波斯匿 鉢邏犀那特多 (or 鉢邏斯那特多) (or 鉢邏犀那時多); 波刺斯 Prasenajit, king of Śrāvastī, contemporary of the Buddha, and known inter alia as (勝光王) 光王; father of Virūḍhaka, who supplanted him.

波旬 (波旬踰); 波鞞 Pāpīyān. Pāpīmān. Pāpīmā. Pāpīyān is very wicked. Pāpīyān is a Buddhist term for 惡者 the Evil One; 殺者 the Murderer; Māra; because he strives to kill all goodness; v. 魔. Also 波卑面 or 波卑椽 or 波卑緣.

波濕縛 (波栗濕縛); 波奢 pārśva, the ribs. Pārśva, the tenth patriarch, previously a Brahman of Gandhāra, who took a vow not to lie down until he had mastered the meaning of the Tripiṭaka, cut off all desire in the realms of sense, form and non-form, and obtained the six supernatural powers and eight pāramitās. This he accomplished after three years. His death is put at 36 B. C. His name is tr. as 脇尊者 his Worship of the Ribs.

波樓那 A fierce wind, hurricane, perhaps Vātyā.

波樓沙迦 Paruṣaka, a park in the trāyastriṃśas heaven.

波波 Running hither and thither. Also, Pāvā, a place near Rājagṛha.

波波劫劫 Running about for ever.

波波羅 Pippala, ficus religiosa.

波浪 taraṅga, a wave, waves.

波演那 (or 波衍那) ? paryayaṇa, suggesting an ambulatory; intp. as a courtyard.

波羅伽 pāraka, carrying over, saving; the pāramitā boat.

波羅迦 Pāraga, a title of the Buddha who has reached the other shore.

波羅伽羅 鉢囉迦羅 prākāra, a counting wall, fence.

波羅夷 pārājika. The first section of the Vinaya piṭaka containing rules of expulsion from the order, for unpardonable sin. Also 波羅闍巳迦; 波羅市迦. Cf. 四波羅夷. There are in Hīnayāna eight sins for expulsion of nuns, and in Mahāyāna ten. The esoteric sects have their own rules.

波羅夷四喩 The four metaphors addressed by the Buddha to monks are: he who breaks the vow of chastity is as a needle without an eye, a dead man, a broken stone which cannot be united, a tree cut in two which cannot live.

波羅奈 (波羅奈斯) Vārāṇasī. Ancient kingdom and city on the Ganges, now Benares, where was the Mṛgadāva park. Also 波羅捺 (波羅捺寫); 波羅痆斯; 波刺那斯.

波羅奢華 palāśa; a leaf, petal, foliage; the blossom of the Butea frondosa, a tree with red flowers, whose sap is used for dye; said to be black before sunrise, red during the day, and yellow after sunset.

波羅尼密婆舍跋提天 Paranirmita-vaśavartin, 'obedient to the will of those who are transformed by others,' M. W.; v. 他化自在天.

波羅提舍尼 (波羅提提舍尼) pratideśanīya. A section of the Vinaya concerning public confession of sins. Explained by 向彼悔罪 confession of sins before another or others. Also 波羅舍尼; 提舍尼; 波胝提舍尼; 鉢刺底提舍尼.

波羅提木叉 prātimokṣa; emancipation, deliverance, absolution. Prātimokṣa; the 250 commandments for monks in the Vinaya, v. 木叉, also 婆; the rules in the Vinaya from the four major to the seventy-five minor offences; they should be read in assembly twice a month and each monk invited to confess his sins for absolution.

波羅提毘 (or波羅梯毘) pṛthivī, the earth. Also 鉢里體尾. See 地.

波羅末陀 paramārtha, the highest truth, ultimate truth, reality, fundamental meaning, 眞諦. Paramārtha, name of a famous monk from Western India, Guṇarata, v. 拘, whose title was 眞諦三藏; reached China 547 or 548, but the country was so disturbed that he set of to return by sea; his ship was driven back to Canton, where he translated some fifty works.

波羅蜜多 pāramitā, 播囉弭多, derived from parama, highest, acme, is intp. as to cross over from this shore of births and deaths to the other shore, or nirvāṇa. The six pāramitās or means of so doing are: (1) dāna, charity; (2) śīla, moral conduct; (3) kṣānti, patience; (4) vīrya, energy, or devotion; (5) dhyāna, contemplation, or abstraction; (6) prajñā, knowledge. The 十度 ten are the above with (7) upāya, use of expedient or proper means; (8) praṇidhāna, vows, for bodhi and helpfulness; (9) bāla, strength purpose; (10) wisdom. Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of almsgiving, morality, abnegation of the world and of self, wisdom, energy, patience, truth, resolution, kindness, and resignation. Each of the ten is divisible into ordinary, superior, and unlimited perfection, or thirty in all. pāramitā is tr. by 度; 度無極; 到彼岸; 究竟.

波羅赴 Prabhu, 鉢唎部 surpassing, powerful; a title of Viṣṇu 'as personification of the sun', of Brahmā, Śiva, Indra, etc. prabhū, come into being, originate, original.

波羅越 Pārāvata, a dove; the fifth row of a rock-cut temple in the Deccan, said to resemble a dove, described by Faxian.

波羅門 Brahmin, v. 婆.

波羅頗婆底 Prabhāvatī, younger sister of Aśoka.

波羅頗迦羅密多羅 Prabhākaramitra, enlightener, v. 波頗.

波耶 payas, water; in Sanskrit it also means milk, juice, vital force.

波謎羅 Pamira, the Pamirs, 'the centre of the Tsung-ling mountains with the Sirikol lake (v. Anavatapta) in Lat. 38° 20 N., Long. 74° E.' Eitel.

波輸鉢多 Pāśupata; a particular sect of Sivaites who smeared their bodies with ashes.

波逸提 波藥致 pātaka. A sin causing one to fall into purgatory. Also 波逸底迦; 波夜迦; 波羅逸尼柯; 波質胝迦 (波羅夜質胝迦); but there seems to be a connection with prāyaścitta, meaning expiation, atonement, restitution.

波那姿 panasa, 半那娑 the bread-fruit tree, jaka or jack-fruit.

波里衣多羅 Pāriyātra, 'an ancient kingdom 800 li south-west of Śatadru, a centre of heretical sects. The present city of Birat, west of Mathurā.' Eitel.

波闍波提 Prajāpatī, 波闍鉢提 (波邏闍鉢提) aunt and nurse of the Buddha, v. 摩訶.

波闍羅 vajra, the diamond sceptre, v. 金剛杵.

波陀 pada; a step, footprint, position; a complete word; u. f. 阿波陀那 avadāna.

波陀劫 跋達羅劫 Bhadra-kalpa, v. 賢劫 and 颰.

波離 Upāli, v. 優.

波鞞 v. 波旬.

波頗 Prabhāmitra, (Prabhākaramitra), an Indian monk, who came to China in A. D. 626.

波頭摩 padma; 波曇摩; 波暮; etc., the red lotus; v. 鉢; tr. 華 or 蓮.

波頭摩巴尼 Padmapāṇi, one of the forms of Guanyin, holding a lotus.

Dharma, 達磨; 曇無 (or 曇摩); 達摩 (or 達謨) Law, truth, religion, thing, anything Buddhist. Dharma is 'that which is held fast or kept, ordinance, statute, law, usage, practice, custom'; 'duty'; 'right'; 'proper'; 'morality'; 'character'. M. W. It is used in the sense of 一切 all things, or anything small or great, visible or invisible, real or unreal, affairs, truth, principle, method, concrete things, abstract ideas, etc. Dharma is described as that which has entity and bears its own attributes. It connotes Buddhism as the perfect religion; it also has the second place in the triratna 佛法僧, and in the sense of 法身 dharmakāya it approaches the Western idea of 'spiritual'. It is also one of the six media of sensation, i. e. the thing or object in relation to mind, v. 六塵.

法主 Dharma-lord, Buddha.

法乳 The milk of the dharma which nourishes the spiritual nature.

法事 佛事 Religious affairs, e. g. assemblies and services; discipline and ritual.

法位 (1) Dharma-state, the bhūtatathatā. (2) The grade or position of a monk.

法住 Dharma abode, i. e. the omnipresent bhūtatathatā in all things. dharmasthititā, continuity of dharma.

法佛 idem 法身佛, or 法性佛.

法侶 A companion of the Dharma, a disciple.

法供養 dharmapūjā. Serving the Dharma, i. e. believing, explaining, keeping, obeying it, cultivating the spiritual nature, protecting and assisting Buddhism. Also, offerings of or to the Dharma.

法光定 samādhi of the light of Truth, that of the bodhisattva in the first stage.

法入 法處 The sense-data of direct mental perception, one of the 十二入 or 處.

法公 Signior of the Law, a courtesy title of any monk.

法典 The scriptures of Buddhism.

法利 The blessing, or benefits, of Buddhism.

法劍 The sword of Buddha-truth, able to cut off the functioning of illusion.

法力 The power of Buddha-truth to do away with calamity and subdue evil.

法化 Transformation by Buddha-truth; teaching in or by it.

法化生身 The nirmāṇakāya, or corporeal manifestation of the spiritual Buddha.

法匠 Dharma workman, a teacher able to mould his pupils.

法印 The seal of Buddha-truth, expressing its reality and immutability, also its universality and its authentic transmission from one Buddha or patriarch to another.

法句經 Dharmapāda, 曇鉢經 a work by Dharmatrāta, of which there are four Chinese translations, A. D. 224, 290-306, 399, 980-1001.

法名 A monk's name, given to him on ordination, a term chiefly used by the 眞 Shin sect, 戒名 being the usual term.

法同舍 A communal religious abode, i. e. a monastery or convent where religion and food are provided for spiritual and temporal needs.

法味 The taste or flavour of the dharma.

法命 The wisdom-life of the dharmakāya, intp. as 法身慧命. The age or lifetime of a monk.

法喜 Joy in the Law, the joy of hearing or tasting dharma. Name of Dharmanandi, v. 曇.

法喜食 The food of joy in the Law.

法號 The name received by a monk on ordination, i. e. his 戒名; also his posthumous title.

法器 Implements used in worship; one who obeys the Buddha; a vessel of the Law.

法四依 The four trusts of dharma: trust in the Law, not in men; trust in sūtras containing ultimate truth; trust in truth, not in words; trust in wisdom growing out of eternal truth and not in illusory knowledge.

法城 Dharma as a citadel against the false; the secure nirvāṇa abode; the sūtras as the guardians of truth.

法域 The realm of dharma, nirvāṇa; also 法性土.

法堂 The chief temple, so called by the Chan (Zen) sect; amongst others it is 講堂 preaching hall.

法堅那羅王 Druma, king of the Kinnaras.

法場 Any place set aside for religious practices, or purposes; also 道場.

法執 Holding to things as realities, i. e the false tenet that things are real.

法報化三身 The trikāya: 法 dharmakāya, the absolute or spiritual body; 報 saṃbhogakāya, the body of bliss; 化 nirmāṇakāya, the body of incarnation. In Hīnayāna 法身 is described as the commandments, meditations, wisdom, nirvāṇa, and nirvāṇa-enlightenment; 報身 is the reward-body of bliss; 化 or 應 (化) is the body in its various incarnations. In Mahāyāna, the three bodies are regarded as distinct, but also as aspects of one body which pervades all beings. Cf. 三身.

法塵 A mental object, any direct mental perception, not dependent on the sense organs. Cf. 六塵.

法夏 Dharma summers, the years or age of a monk; v. 法臘.

法天 Dharmadeva, a monk from the Nālandāsaṃghārāma who tr. under this name forty-six works, 973-981, and under the name of Dharmabhadra seventy-two works, 982-1001.

法子 Child of the Dharma, one who makes his living by following Buddhism.

法宇 Dharma roof, or canopy, a monastery.

法定 One of the twelve names for the Dharma-nature, implying that it is the basis of all phenomena.

法家 Buddhism; cf. 法門.

法密 Dharmagupta, founder of the school of this name in Ceylon, one of the seven divisions of the Sarvāstivādaḥ.

法寶 Dharmaratna. (1) Dharma-treasure, i. e. the Law or Buddha-truth, the second personification in the triratna 三寶. (2) The personal articles of a monk or nun— robe, almsbowl, etc.

法寶藏 The storehouse of all law and truth, i. e. the sūtras.

法尼 A nun.

法山 Buddha-truth mountain, i. e. the exalted dharma.

法帝 Dharma emperor, i. e. the Buddha.

法師 A Buddhist teacher, master of the Law; five kinds are given— a custodian (of the sūtras), reader, intoner, expounder, and copier.

法幢 The standard of Buddha-truth as an emblem of power over the hosts of Māra.

法平等 dharmasamatā; the sameness of truth as taught by all Buddhas.

法度 Rules, or disciplines and methods.

法弟 A Buddhist disciple.

法律 Laws or rules (of the Order).

法忍Patience attained through dharma, to the overcoming of illusion; also ability to bear patiently external hardships.

法念處 The position of insight into the truth that nothing has reality in itself; v. 四念處.

法性 dharmatā. Dharma-nature, the nature underlying all thing, the bhūtatathatā, a Mahāyāna philosophical concept unknown in Hīnayāna, v. 眞如 and its various definitions in the 法相, 三論 (or法性), 華嚴, and 天台 Schools. It is discussed both in its absolute and relative senses, or static and dynamic. In the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra and various śāstras the term has numerous alternative forms, which may be taken as definitions, i. e. 法定 inherent dharma, or Buddha-nature; 法住 abiding dharma-nature; 法界 dharmakṣetra, realm of dharma; 法身 dharmakāya, embodiment of dharma; 實際 region of reality; 實相 reality; 空性 nature of the Void, i. e. immaterial nature; 佛性 Buddha-nature; 無相 appearance of nothingness, or immateriality; 眞如 bhūtatathatā; 如來藏 tathāgatagarbha; 平等性 universal nature; 離生性 immortal nature; 無我性 impersonal nature; 虛定界: realm of abstraction; 不虛妄性 nature of no illusion; 不變異性 immutable nature; 不思議界 realm beyond thought; 自性淸淨心 mind of absolute purity, or unsulliedness, etc. Of these the terms 眞如, 法性, and 實際 are most used by the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

法性土 The kṣetra or region of the dharma-nature, i. e. the bhūtatathatā, or 眞如, in its dynamic relations.

法性宗 The sects, e. g. 華嚴宗, 天台宗, 眞言宗 Huayan, Tiantai, Shingon, which hold that all things proceed from the bhūtatathatā, i. e. the dharmakāya, and that all phenomena are of the same essence as the noumenon.

法性山 The dharma-nature as a mountain, i. e. fixed, immovable.

法性常樂 The eternity and bliss of the dharma-nature, v. 常樂我淨.

法性水 The water of the dharma-nature, i. e. pure.

法性海 The ocean of the dharma-nature, vast, unfathomable, v. 法水.

法性眞如 Dharma-nature and bhūtatathatā, different terms but of the same meaning.

法性身 idem 法身.

法性隨妄 The dharma-nature in the sphere of delusion; i. e. 法性隨緣; 眞如隨緣 the dharma-nature, or bhūtatathatā, in its phenomenal character; the dharma-nature may be static or dynamic; when dynamic it may by environment either become sullied, producing the world of illusion, or remain unsullied, resulting in nirvāṇa. Static, it is likened to a smooth sea; dynamic, to its waves.

法恩 Dharma-grace, i. e. the grace of the triratna.

法悅 Joy from hearing end meditating on the Law.

法慳 Meanness in offering Buddha-truth, avariciously holding on to it for oneself.

法愛 Religious love in contrast with 欲愛 ordinary love; Dharma-love may be Hīnayāna desire for nirvāṇa; or bodhisattva attachment to illusory things, both of which are to be eradicated; or Tathāgata-love, which goes out to all beings for salvation.

法成就 siddhi 悉地 ceremony successful, a term of the esoteric sect when prayer is answered.

法我 A thing per se, i. e. the false notion of anything being a thing in itself, individual, independent, and not merely composed of elements to be disintegrated. 法我見 The false view as above, cf. 我見.

法教 Buddhism.

法數 The categories of Buddhism such as the three realms, five skandhas, five regions, four dogmas, six paths, twelve nidānas, etc.

法文 The literature of Buddhism.

法施 The almsgiving of the Buddha-truth, i. e. its preaching or explanation; also 法布施.

法明 Dharmaprabhāsa, brightness of the law, a Buddha who will appear in our universe in the Ratnāvabhāsa-kalpa in a realm called Suviśuddha 善淨, when there will be no sexual difference, birth taking place by transformation.

法明道 The wisdom of the pure heart which illumines the Way of all Buddhas.

法明門 The teaching which sheds light on everything, differentiating and explaining them.

法智 Dharma-wisdom, which enables one to understand the four dogmas 四諦; also, the understanding of the law, or of things.

法會 An assembly for worship or preaching.

法會社 A monastery.

法有 The false view of Hīnayāna that things, or the elements of which they are made, are real.

法有我無宗 The Sarvāstivādins who while: disclaiming the reality of personality claimed the reality of things.

法服 法衣 Dharma garment, the robe.

法本 The root or essence of all things, the bhūtatathatā.

法樂 Religious joy, in contrast with the joy of common desire; that of hearing the dharma, worshipping Buddha, laying up merit, making offerings, repeating sūtras, etc.

法樹 The dharma-tree which bears nirvāṇa-fruit.

法橋 The bridge of Buddha-truth, which is able to carry all across to nirvāṇa.

法殿 The temple, or hall, of the Law, the main hall of a monastery; also the Guanyin hall.

法比量 Inferring one thing from another, as from birth deducing death, etc.

法水 Buddha-truth likened to water able to wash away the stains of illusion; 法河 to a deep river; 法海 to a vast deep ocean.

法妙 Kashgar, "or (after the name of the capital) 疏勒. An ancient Buddhistic kingdom in Central Asia. The casia regis of the ancients." Eitel.

法波羅蜜 One of the four pāramitā bodhisattavas in the Diamond realm.

法滅 The extinction of the Law, or Buddhism, after the third of the three stages 正像末.

法炬 The torch of Buddhism.

法照 Dharma-shining; name of the fourth patriarch of the 蓮宗 Lotus sect.

法然 According to rule, naturally; also 法爾; 自然.

法燈 The lamp of dharma, which dispels the darkness of ignorance.

法無我 dharmanairātmya. Things are without independent individuality, i.e. the tenet that things have no independent reality, no reality in themselves. 法無我智 The knowledge or wisdom of the above.

法無礙 (法無礙解 or法無礙智) Wisdom or power of explanation in unembarrassed accord with the Law, or Buddha-truth.

法爾 idem 法然.

法將 Dharma-generals, i.e. monks of high character and leadership.

法王 Dharmarāja, King of the Law, Buddha.

法王子 Son of the Dharma-king, a bodhisattva.

法界 dharmadhātu, 法性; 實相; 達磨馱都 Dharma-element, -factor, or-realm. (1) A name for "things" in general, noumenal or phenomenal; for the physical universe, or any portion or phase of it. (2) The unifying underlying spiritual reality regarded as the ground or cause of all things, the absolute from which all proceeds. It is one of the eighteen dhātus. These are categories of three, four, five, and ten dharmadhātus; the first three are combinations of 事 and 理 or active and passive, dynamic and static; the ten are: Buddha-realm, Bodhisattva-realm, pratyekabuddha-realm, śrāvaka, deva, Human, asura, Demon, Animal, and Hades realms-a Huayan category. Tiantai has ten for meditaton, i.e. the realms of the eighteen media of perception (the six organs, six objects, and six sense-data or sensations), of illusion, sickness, karma, māra, samādhi, (false) views, pride, the two lower Vehicles, and the Bodhisattva Vehicle.

法界一相 The essential unity of the phenomenal realm.

法界佛 The dharmadhātu Buddha, i.e. the dharmakāya; the universal Buddha; the Buddha of a Buddha-realm.

法界加持 Mutual dependence and aid of all beings in a universe.

法界唯心 The universe is mind only; cf. Huayan Sutra, Laṅkāvatāra Sutra, etc.

法界圓融 The perfect intercommunion or blending of all things in the dharmadhātu; the 無礙 of Huayan and the 性具 of Tiantai.

法界定 In dharmadhātu meditation, a term for Vairocana in both maṇḍalas.

法界宮 The dharmadhātu-palace, i.e. the shrine of Vairocana in the garbhadhātu.

法界實相 dharmadhātu-reality, or dharmadhātu is Reality, different names but one idea, i.e. 實相 is used for 理 or noumenon by the 別教 and 法界 by the 圓教.

法界性 idem 法界 and 法性.

法界無礙智 法界佛邊智 The unimpeded or unlimited knowledge or omniscience of a Buddha in regard to all beings and things in his realm.

法界等流 The universal outflow of the spiritual body of the Buddha, i.e. his teaching.

法界緣起 The dharmadhātu as the environmental cause of all phenomena, everything being dependent on everything else, therefore one is in all and all in one.

法界藏 The treasury or storehouse or source of all phenomena, or truth.

法界身 The dharmakāya (manifesting itself in all beings); the dharmadhātu as the buddhakāya, all things being Buddha.

法界體性智 Intelligence as the fundamental nature of the universe; Vairocana as cosmic energy and wisdom interpenetrating all elements of the universe, a term used by the esoteric sects.

法相 The aspects of characteristics of things-all things are of monad nature but differ in form. A name of the 法相宗 Faxiang or Dharmalakṣaṇa sect (Jap. Hossō), called also 慈恩宗 Cien sect from the Tang temple, in which lived 窺基 Kuiji, known also as 慈恩. It "aims at discovering the ultimate entity of cosmic existence n contemplation, through investigation into the specific characteristics (the marks or criteria) of all existence, and through the realization of the fundamental nature of the soul in mystic illumination". "An inexhaustible number" of "seeds" are "stored up in the Ālaya-soul; they manifest themselves in innumerable varieties of existence, both physical and mental". "Though there are infinite varieties. . . they all participate in the prime nature of the ālaya." Anesaki. The Faxiang School is one of the "eight schools", and was established in China on the return of Xuanzang, consequent on his translation of the Yogācārya works. Its aim is to understand the principle underlying the 萬法性相 or nature and characteristics of all things. Its foundation works are the 解深密經, the 唯識論, and the 瑜伽論. It is one of the Mahāyāna realistic schools, opposed by the idealistic schools, e.g. the 三論 school; yet it was a "combination of realism and idealism, and its religion a profoundly mystic one". Anesaki.

法相教 (大乘法相教) The third of the five periods of doctrinal development as distinguished by 圭峯 Guifeng.

法眼 The (bodhisattva) dharma-eye able to penetrate all things. Name of the founder of the法眼宗 Fayan sect, one of the five Chan (Zen) schools.

法眼淨 To see clearly or purely the truth: in Hīnayāna, to see the truth of the four dogmas; in Mahāyāna, to see the truth which releases from reincarnation.

法空 The emptiness or unreality of things, everything being dependent on something else and having no individual existence apart from other things; hence the illusory nature of all things as being composed of elements and not possessing reality.

法空眞如 The bhūtatathatā as understood when the non-individuality or unreality of "things" is perceived.

法空觀 Meditative insight into the unreality of all things.

法緣 Dharma-caused, i.e. the sense of universal altruism giving rise to pity and mercy.

法縛 idem 法執.

法臘 The end of the monk's year after the summer retreat; a Buddhist year; the number of 夏 or 戒臘 summer or discipline years indicating the years since a monk's ordination.

法臣 Ministers of the Law, i.e. bodhisattvas; the Buddha is King of the Law, these are his ministers.

法自在 A bodhisattva's complete dialectical freedom and power, so that he can expound all things unimpeded.

法自相相違因 One of the four fallacies connected with the reason (因), in which the reason is contrary to the truth of the premiss.

法舟 法船 The barque of Buddha-truth which ferries men out from the sea of mortality and reincarnation to nirvana.

法芽 The sprout or bud of Buddhism.

法苑 The garden of Dharma, Buddhism.

法華 The Dharma-flower, i.e. the Lotus Sutra, the法華經 or 妙法蓮華經 q.v. Saddharmapuṇḍarīka Sutra; also the法華宗 Lotus sect, i.e. that of Tiantai, which had this sutra for its basis. There are many treatises with this as part of the title. 法華法, 法華會, 法華講 ceremonials, meetings, or explications connected with this sutra.

法華一實 The one perfect Vehicle of the Lotus gospel.

法華八年 The last eight years of the Buddha's life, when, according to Tiantai, from 72 to 80 years of age he preached the Lotus gospel.

法華三昧 The samādhi which sees into the three 諦 dogmas of 空假中 unreality, dependent reality and transcendence, or the noumenal, phenomenal, and the absolute which unites them; it is derived from the "sixteen" samādhis in chapter 24 of the Lotus Sutra. There is a法華三昧經 independent of this samādhi.

法藏 Dharma-store; also 佛法藏; 如來藏 (1) The absolute, unitary storehouse of the universe, the primal source of all things. (2) The Treasury of Buddha's teaching the sutras, etc. (3) Any Buddhist library. (4) Dharmākara, mine of the Law; one of the incarnations of Amitābha. (5) Title of the founder of the Huayan School 賢首法藏Xianshou Fazang.

法藥 The medicine of the Law, capable of healing all misery.

法蘊 The Buddha's detailed teaching, and in this respect similar to 法藏.

法蘭 Gobharana, 竺法蘭, companion of Mātaṅga, these two being the first Indian monks said to have come to China, in the middle of the first century A.D.

法螺 Conch of the Law, a symbol of the universality, power, or command of the Buddha's teaching. Cf. 商佉 śaṅkha.

法衆 The Buddhist monkhood; an assembly of monks or nuns.

法衣 The religious dress, general name of monastic garments.

法要 The essentials of the Truth; v. 法會.

法見 Maintaining one tenet and considering others wrong; narrow-minded, bigoted.

法語 Dharma-words, religious discourses.

法誓 A religious vow.

法譬 Similes or illustrations of the Dharma.

法財 The riches of the Law, or the Law as wealth.

法身 dharmakāya, embodiment of Truth and Law, the "spiritual" or true body; essential Buddhahood; the essence of being; the absolute, the norm of the universe; the first of the trikāya, v.三身. The dharmakāya is divided into 總 unity and 別 diversity; as in the noumenal absolute and phenomenal activities, or potential and dynamic; but there are differences of interpretation, e.g. as between the 法相 and 法性 schools. Cf. 法身體性. There are many categories of the dharmakāya. In the 2 group 二法身 are five kinds: (1) 理 "substance" and 智 wisdom or expression; (2) 法性法身 essential nature and 應化法身 manifestation; the other three couples are similar. In the 3 group 三法身 are (1) the manifested Buddha, i.e. Śākyamuni; (2) the power of his teaching, etc.; (3) the absolute or ultimate reality. There are other categories.

法身佛 The dharmakāya Buddha.

法身如來 The dharmakāyatathāgata, the Buddha who reveals the spiritual body.

法身塔 The pagoda where abides a spiritual relic of Buddha: the esoteric sect uses the letter पं as such an abode of the dharmakāya.

法身流轉 dharmakāya in its phenomenal character, conceived as becoming, as expressing itself in the stream of being.

法舍利 (法身舍利); 法身偈 The śarīra, or spiritual relics of the Buddha, his sutras, or verses, his doctrine and immutable law.

法身菩薩 法身大士 dharmakāyamahāsattva, one who has freed himself from illusion and attained the six spiritual powers 六神通; he is above the 初地, or, according to Tiantai, above the 初住.

法身藏 The storehouse of the dharmakāya, the essence of Buddhahood, by contemplating which the holy man attains to it.

法身觀 Meditation on, or insight into, the dharmakāya, varying in definition in the various schools.

法身體性 The embodiment, totality, or nature of the dharmakāya. In Hīnayāna the Buddha-nature in its 理 or absolute side is described as not discussed, being synonymous with the 五分 five divisions of the commandments, meditation, wisdom, release, and doctrine, 戒, 定, 慧, 解脫, and 知見. In the Mahāyāna the 三論宗 defines the absolute or ultimate reality as the formless which contains all forms, the essence of being, the noumenon of the other two manifestations of the triratna. The 法相宗 defines it as (a) the nature or essence of the whole triratna; (b) the particular form of the Dharma in that trinity. The One-Vehicle schools represented by the 華嚴宗, 天台, etc., consider it to be the bhūtatathatā, 理 and 智 being one and undivided. The Shingon sect takes the six elements-earth, water, fire, air, space, mind-as the 理 or fundamental dharmakāya and the sixth, mind, intelligence, or knowledge, as the 智 Wisdom dharmakāya.

法輪 dharmacakra, the Wheel of the Law, Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil and all opposition, like Indra's wheel, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place, age to age. 轉法輪To turn, or roll along the Law-wheel, i.e. to preach Buddha-truth.

法鈴 The dharma-bell; the pleasing sound of intoning the sutras.

法鏡 The Dharma mirror, reflecting the Buddha-wisdom.

法門 dharmaparyāya. The doctrines, or wisdom of Buddha regarded as the door to enlightenment. A method. Any sect. As the living have 84,000 delusions, so the Buddha provides 84,000 methods法門of dealing with them. Hence the法門海 ocean of Buddha's methods.

法門身 A Tiantai definition of the dharmakāya of the Trinity, i.e. the qualities, powers, and methods of the Buddha. The various representations of the respective characteristics of buddhas and bodhisattvas in the maṇḍalas.

法陀羅尼 One of the four kinds of dhāraṇī: holding firmly to the truth one has heard, also called 聞法陀羅.

法阿育 Dharmāśoka; name given to Aśoka on his conversion; cf. 阿育.

法集 idem 佛會.

法雨 The rain of Buddha-truth which fertilizes all beings.

法雲 dharmamegha. Buddhism as a fertilizing cloud.

法雲地 The tenth bodhisattva stage, when the dharma-clouds everywhere drop their sweet dew.

法雲等覺 The stage after the last, that of universal knowledge, or enlightenment.

法雷 The thunder of dharma, awakening man from stupor and stimulating the growth of virtue, the awful voice of Buddha-truth. 法電 The lightning of the Truth.

法非法 dharmādharma; real and unreal; thing and nothing; being and non-being, etc.

法音 The sound of the Truth, or of preaching.

法顯 Faxian, the famous pilgrim who with fellow-monks left Chang'an A.D. 399 overland for India, finally reached it, remained alone for six years, and spent three years on the return journey, arriving by sea in 414. His 佛國記 Records of the Buddhistic Kingdoms were made, for his information, by Buddhabhadra, an Indian monk in China. His own chief translation is the 僧祗律, a work on monastic discipline.

法食 dharmāhāra. Diet in harmony with the rules of Buddhism; truth as food. 法食時 The regulation time for meals, at or before noon, and not after.

法體 Embodiment of the Law, or of things. (1) Elements into which the Buddhists divided the universe; the Abhidharmakośa has 75, the 成實論 Satyasiddhi Sāstra 84, the Yogācārya 100. (2) A monk.

法魔 Bemused by things; the illusion that things are real and not merely seeming.

法鼓 The drum of the Law, stirring all to advance in virtue.

法齋日 The day of abstinence observed at the end of each half month, also the six abstinence days, in all making the eight days for keeping the eight commandments.

Broil, burn, roast, dry; intimate.

炙茄會 A Chan (Zen) School winter festival at which roasted lily roots were eaten.

Blazing, burning.

炎熱地獄 Tapana, the hell of burning or roasting, the sixth of the eight hot hells, where 24 hours equal 2,600 years on earth, life lasting 16,000 years.

炎經 A name for the Nirvana Sutra, referring to the Buddha's cremation; also to its glorious teaching.

炎點 Nirvana, which burns up metempsychosis.

To herd, pastor.

牧牛 Cowherd.

Thing, things in general, beings, living beings, matters; "substance," cf. 陀羅驃 dravya.

物施 One of the three kinds of almsgiving, that of things.

物機 That on which anything depends, or turns; the motive or vital principle.

A fox; seems to be used also for a jackal.

A dog.

狗心 A dog's heart, satisfied with trifles, unreceptive of Buddha's teaching.

狗戒 Dog-rule, dog-morals, i.e. heretics who sought salvation by living like dogs, eating garbage, etc.

狗法 Dog-law, fighting and hating, characteristics of the monks in the last days of the world.

狗臨井吠 Like the dog barking at its own reflection in the well.

狗著獅子皮 The dog in the lion's skin-all the dogs fear him till he barks.

盂蘭盆 (盂蘭); 鳥藍婆 (鳥藍婆拏) ullambana 盂蘭 may be another form of lambana or avalamba, "hanging down," "depending," "support"; it is intp. "to hang upside down", or "to be in suspense", referring to extreme suffering in purgatory; but there is a suggestion of the dependence of the dead on the living. By some 盆 is regarded as a Chinese word, not part of the transliteration, meaning a vessel filled with offerings of food. The term is applied to the festival of All Souls, held about the 15th of the 7th moon, when masses are read by Buddhist and Taoist priests and elaborate offerings made to the Buddhist Trinity for the purpose of releasing from purgatory the souls of those who have died on land or sea. The Ullambanapātra Sutra is attributed to Śākyamuni, of course incorrectly; it was first tr. into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, A.D. 266-313 or 317; the first masses are not reported until the time of Liang Wudi, A.D. 538; and were popularized by Amogha (A.D. 732) under the influence of the Yogācārya School. They are generally observed in China, but are unknown to Southern Buddhism. The "idea of intercession on the part of the priesthood for the benefit of" souls in hell "is utterly antagonistic to the explicit teaching of primitive Buddhism'" The origin of the custom is unknown, but it is foisted on to Śākyamuni, whose disciple Maudgalyāyana is represented as having been to purgatory to relieve his mother's sufferings. Śākyamuni told him that only the united efforts of the whole priesthood 十方衆會 could alleviate the pains of the suffering. The mere suggestion of an All Souls Day with a great national day for the monks is sufficient to account for the spread of the festival. Eitel says: "Engrafted upon the narrative ancestral worship, this ceremonial for feeding the ghost of deceased ancestors of seven generations obtained immense popularity and is now practised by everybody in China, by Taoists even and by Confucianists." All kinds of food offerings are made and paper garments, etc., burnt. The occasion, 7th moon, 15th day, is known as the盂蘭會 (or 盂蘭盆會 or 盂蘭齋 or 盂蘭盆齋) and the sutra as 盂蘭經 (or 盂蘭盆經).


盲冥 Blind and in darkness, ignorant of the truth.

盲跛 Blind and lame, an ignorant teacher.

盲龍 The blind dragon who appealed to the Buddha and was told that his blindness was due to his having been formerly a sinning monk.

盲龜 It is as easy for a blind turtle to find a floating long as it is for a man to be reborn as a man, or to meet with a buddha and his teaching.

Straight, upright, direct; to arrange.

直傳 Direct information or transmission (by word of mouth).

直堂 The servant who attends in the hall; an announcer.

直心 Straightforward, sincere, blunt.

直掇 直裰 A monk's garment, upper and lower in one.

直歳 A straight year, a year's (plans, or duties).

直說 Straight, or direct, speech; the sutras.

直道 The direct way (to nirvana and Buddha-land).

To know. Sanskrit root vid, hence vidyā, knowledge; the Vedas, etc. 知 vijñā is to know, 智 is vijñāna, wisdom arising from perception or knowing.

知一切法智 The Buddha-wisdom of knowing every thing or method (of salvation).

知一切衆生智 The Buddha-wisdom which knows (the karma of) all beings.

知世間 lokavid. He who knows the world, one of the ten characteristics of a Buddha.

知事 To know affairs. The karmadāna, or director of affairs in a monastery, next below the abbot.

知客 The director of guests, i.e. the host.

知寮 Warden of the monasterial abodes.

知庫 The bursar (of a monastery).

知根 The organs of perception. To know the roots, or capacities (of all beings, as does a bodhisattva; hence he has no fears).

知殿 The warden of a temple.

知法 To know the Buddha-law, or the rules; to know things; in the exoteric sects, to know the deep meaning of the sutras; in the esoteric sects, to know the mysteries.

知無邊諸佛智 To have the infinite Buddha-wisdom (of knowing all the Buddha-worlds and how to save the beings in them).

知禮 Knowing the right modes of respect, or ceremonial; courteous, reverential; Zhili, name of the famous tenth-century monk of the Song dynasty, Siming 四明, so called after the name of his monastery, a follower of the Tiantai school, sought out by a Japanese deputation in 1017.

知者 The knower, the cognizer, the person within who perceives.

知苦斷集 To know (the dogma of) suffering and be able to cut off its accumulation; cf. 四諦.

知見 To know, to know by seeing, becoming aware, intellection; the function of knowing; views, doctrines.

知見波羅蜜 The prajñāpāramitā, v. 般若.

知論 A name for the prajñāpāramitā, v. 般若.

知識 (1) To know and perceive, perception, knowledge. (2) A friend, an intimate. (3) The false ideas produced in the mind by common, or unenlightened knowledge; one of the 五識 in 起信論.

知識衆 A body of friends, all you friends.

知足 Complete knowledge; satisfaction.

知足天 (知足) Tuṣita, the fourth devaloka, Maitreya's heaven of full knowledge, where all bodhisattvas are reborn before rebirth as buddhas; the inner court is知足院.

知道者 The one who knows the path to salvation, an epithet of the Buddha.

Gods of the land; a village, clan, society.

社伽 jagat, all the living.

社得迦 jātaka, previous births or incarnations (especially of buddhas or bodhisattvas).

社得迦摩羅 Jātakamālā, a garland of incarnation stories in verse.

To lay hold of, grasp.

秉拂 To hold the fly-brush, or whisk, the head of an assembly, the five heads of a monastery have this privilege.

秉持 To hold firmly (to the discipline, or rules).

秉炬 To carry the torch (for cremation).

śūnya, empty, void, hollow, vacant, nonexistent. śūnyatā, 舜若多, vacuity, voidness, emptiness, non-existence, immateriality, perhaps spirituality, unreality, the false or illusory nature of all existence, the seeming 假 being unreal. The doctrine that all phenomena and the ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of skandhas or elements, which disintegrate. The void, the sky, space. The universal, the absolute, complete abstraction without relativity. There are classifications into 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, and 18 categories. The doctrine is that all things are compounds, or unstable organisms, possessing no self-essence, i.e. are dependent, or caused, come into existence only to perish. The underlying reality, the principle of eternal relativity, or non-infinity, i.e. śūnya, permeates all phenomena making possible their evolution. From this doctrine the Yogācārya school developed the idea of the permanent reality, which is Essence of Mind, the unknowable noumenon behind all phenomena, the entity void of ideas and phenomena, neither matter nor mind, but the root of both.

空一切處 Universal emptiness, or space; the samādhi which removes all limitations of space; also 空徧處.

空三昧 The samādhi which regards the ego and things as unreal; one of the 三三昧.

空假中 Unreality, reality, and the middle or mean doctrine; noumenon, phenomenon, and the principle or absolute which unifies both. 空Unreality, that things do not exist in reality; 假 reality, that things exist though in "derived" or "borrowed" form, consisting of elements which are permanent; 中 the "middle" doctrine of the Madhyamaka School, which denies both positions in the interests of the transcendental, or absolute. 空以破一切法, 假以立一切法, 中以妙一切法 other 卽 空卽假卽中. śūnya (universality) annihilates all relativities, particularity establishes all relativities, the middle path transcends and unites all relativities. Tiantai asserts that there is no contradiction in them and calls them a unity, the one including the other 即空即假即中.

空劫 The empty kalpa, v. 劫.

空卽是色 The immaterial is the material, śūnya is rūpa, and vice versa, 色不異空.

空執 v. 空有二執.

空塵 śūnya as sub-material, ghostly, or spiritual, as having diaphanous form, a non-Buddhist view of the immaterial as an entity, hence the false view of a soul or ego that is real.

空大 Space, one of the five elements (earth, water, fire, wind, space); v. 五大.

空如來藏 The bhūtatathatā in its purity, or absoluteness.

空始教 The initial teaching of the undeveloped Mahāyāna doctrines is the second of the five periods of Śākyamuni's teaching as defined by the Huayan School. This consists of two parts: 空始教 the initial doctrine of śūnya, the texts for which are the 般若, 三論, etc.; and 相始教, the initial doctrine of the essential nature as held by the esoterics; intp. in the 深密 and 瑜伽 texts.

空定 The meditation which dwells on the Void or the Immaterial; it is divided into 内道, i.e. the 三三昧, and 外道, the latter limited to the four dhyānas 四空定 q.v., except the illusion that things have a reality in themselves, as individuals 法我 q.v.

空宗 The śūnya sects, i.e. those which make the unreality of the ego and things their fundamental tenet.

空寂 Immaterial; a condition beyond disturbance, the condition of nirvana.

空居天 devas dwelling in space, or the heavenly regions, i.e. the devalokas and rūpalokas.

空徧處 idem 空一切處.

空心 An empty mind, or heart; a mind meditating on the void, or infinite; a mind not entangled in cause and effect, i.e. detached from the phenomenal.

空忍 Patience attained by regarding suffering as unreal; one of the 十忍.

空性 śūnyata, v. 空, the nature of the Void, or immaterial, the bhūtatathatā, the universal substance, which is not 我法 ego and things, but while not Void is of the Void-nature.

空想 Thinking of immateriality. Also, vainly thinking, or desiring.

空慧 The wisdom which beholds spiritual truth.

空拳 riktamuṣṭi; empty fist, i.e. deceiving a child by pretending to have something for it in the closed hand; not the Buddha's method.

空教 The teaching that all is unreal. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa School divided Buddha's teaching into three periods: (1) the Hīnayāna period, teaching that 法有 things are real; (2) the 般若 prajñā period, that 法 空things are unreal; (3) the Huayan and Lotus period of the middle or transcendental doctrine 中道教.

空有 Unreal and real, non-existent and existent, abstract and concrete, negative and positive.

空有二執 (or 空有二見). The two (false) tenets, or views, that karma and nirvana are not real, and that the ego and phenomena are real; these wrong views are overcome by the 空有二觀 meditating on the unreality of the ego and phenomena, and the reality of karma and nirvana.

空有二宗 The two schools 空and 有 in Hīnayāna are given as 倶舍 Kośa for 有 in 成實 Satyasiddhi for 空, in Mahāyāna 法相 for 有 and 三論 for 空.

空果 Empty fruit; also fruit of freedom from the illusion that things and the ego are real.

空法 (1) To regard everything as unreal, i.e. the ego, things, the dynamic, the static. (2) The nirvana of Hīnayāna.

空海 Like sky and sea: like space and the ocean for magnitude.

空無 Unreality, or immateriality, of things, which is defined as nothing existing of independent or self-contained nature.

空無我 Unreal and without ego. 空無邊處. v. 空處.

空王 The king of immateriality, or spirituality, Buddha, who is lord of all things.

空王佛 Dharmagahanābhyudgata-rāja. A Buddha who is said to have taught absolute intelligence, or knowledge of the absolute, cf. Lotus Sutra 9.

空理 The śūnya principle, or law, i.e. the unreality of the ego and phenomena.

空生 The one who expounded vacuity or immateriality, i.e. Subhūti, one of the ten great pupils of the Buddha.

空界 The realm of space, one of the six realms, earth, water, fire, wind, space, knowledge. The空界色 is the visible realm of space, the sky, beyond which is real space.

空相 Voidness, emptiness, space, the immaterial, that which cannot be expressed in terms of the material. The characteristic of all things is unreality, i.e. they are composed of elements which disintegrate. v. 空.

空空 Unreality of unreality. When all has been regarded as illusion, or unreal, the abstract idea of unreality itself must be destroyed.

空空寂寂 Void and silent, i.e. everything in the universe, with form or without form, is unreal and not to be considered as real.

空經 The sutras of unreality or immateriality, e.g. the Prajñāpāramitā.

空聖 A saint who bears the name without possessing the character.

空聚 (1) An empty abode or place. (2) The body as composed of the six skandhas, which is a temporary assemblage without underlying reality.

空色 Formless and with form; noumena and phenomena.

空華 空花 khapuṣpa, flowers in the sky, spots before the eyes, Muscœ volitantes; illusion. The Indian Hīnayānists style Mahāyānists空華外道 śūnyapuṣpa, sky-flower heretics, or followers of illusion.

空處 空無邊處 Ākāśānantyāyatana; the abode of infinite space, the formless, or immaterial world 無色界 the first of the arūpaloka heavens, one of the four brahmalokas.

空處定 (or 空無邊處定) The dhyāna, or meditation connected with the above, in which all thought of form is suppressed.

空行 The discipline or practice of the immaterial, or infinite, thus overcoming the illusion that the ego and all phenomena are realities.

空見 The heterodox view that karma and nirvana are not real, v. 空有.

空觀 v. 空有二觀.

空解 The interpretation (or doctrine) of ultimate reality.

空解脫門 The gate of salvation or deliverance by the realization of the immaterial, i.e. that the ego and things are formed of elements and have no reality in themselves; one of the three deliverances.

空諦 The doctrine of immateriality, one of the three dogmas of Tiantai, that all things animate and inanimate, seeing that they result from previous causes and are without reality in themselves, are therefore 空or not material, but "spiritual".

空輪 The wheel of space below the water and wind wheels of a world. The element space is called the wheel of space.

空門 (1) The teaching which regards everything as unreal, or immaterial. (2) The school of unreality, one of the four divisions made by Tiantai (3) The teaching of immateriality, the door to nirvana, a general name for Buddhism; hence空門子 are Buddhist monks.

空閑處 A tr. of 阿蘭若 araṇya, i.e. "forest". A retired place, 300 to 600 steps away from human habitation, suitable for the religious practices of monks.

空際 The region of immateriality, or nirvana. Also called 實際, the region of reality.

空魔 The demons who arouse in the heart the false belief that karma is not real.

空鳥 The bird that cries 空空, the cuckoo, i.e. one who, while not knowing the wonderful law of true immateriality (or spirituality), yet prates about it.

空點 The dot over the or in Sanskrit, symbolizing that all things are empty or unreal; used by the Shingon sect with various meanings.

Indian. 竺土; 天竺; 竺India.

竺經 Indian, i.e. Buddhist, sutras. Several Indians are known by this term.

竺曇摩羅察 竺法護 Dharmarakṣa, or Indu-dharmarakṣa, a native of Tukhāra, who knew thirty-six languages and tr. (A.D. 266-317) some 175 works.

竺法蘭 Dharmarakṣa, or Indu-dharmāraṇya, to whom with Kāśyapa Mātaṅga the translation of the sutra of 42 sections is wrongly attributed; he tr. five works in A.D. 68-70.

竺法力 Dharmabala, translator A.D. 419 of the larger Sukhāvatī-vyūha, now lost.

竺葉摩騰 Kāśyapa Mātaṅga, v. 迦葉摩騰.

竺刹尸羅 Taksaśīla, v. 呾叉始羅.


肥者耶? Vajradhātrī, the wife or female energy of Vairocana.

肥膩 A grass or herb said to enrich the milk of cattle.


肩次 肩下; 下肩 shoulder by shoulder, one next to another.

To rear, nurture.

育坻 育抵 yukti, yoking, joining, combination, plan.

育坻華 yuktā, a kind of celestial flower.

育多婆提? yukta-bodhi, steps in Yoga wisdom.

śayana, lying down, sleeping.

卧具 A couch, bed, mat, bedding, sleeping garments, etc.

卧佛寺 A shrine of the "sleeping Buddha", i.e. of the dying Buddha.

A shelter, cottage; used as a term of humility for "my"; to lodge; let go, relinquish.

舍利 (1) śārī, śārikā; a bird able to talk, intp. variously, but, M. W. says the mynah. Śārikā was the name of Śāriputra's mother, because her eyes were bright and clever like those of a mynah; there are other interpretation (2) śarīra(m). 設利羅 (or 室利羅); 實利; 攝 M004215 藍 Relics or ashes left after the cremation of a buddha or saint; placed in stupas and worhipped. The white represent bones; the black, hair; and the red, flesh. Also called dhātu-śarīra or dharma-śarīra. The body, a dead body. The body looked upon as dead by reason of obedience to the discipline, meditation, and wisdom. The Lotus Sutra and other sutras are counted as relics, Śākyamuni's relics are said to have amounted to 八斛四斗 84 pecks, for which Aśoka is reputed to have built in one day 84,000 stupas; but other figures are also given. śarīra is also intp. by grains of rice, etc., and by rice as food.

舍利塔 śarīra-stūpa, a reliquary, or pagoda for a relic (of Buddha).

舍利婆婆 sarṣapa, a mustard seed, 芥子 q.v., the 10,816,000th part of a yojana 由旬 q.v.

舍利弗 奢利弗羅 (or 奢利弗多羅 or 奢利富羅or 奢利富多羅); 奢利補担羅; 舍利子Śāriputra. One of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni, born at Nālandāgrāṃa, the son of Śārikā and Tiṣya, hence known as Upatiṣya; noted for his wisdom and learning; he is the "right-hand attendant on Śākyamuni". The followers of the Abhidharma count him as their founder and other works are attributed, without evidence, to him. He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is said to have died before his master; he is represented as standing with Maudgalyāyana by the Buddha when entering nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha 華光佛.

舍囉摩拏 śramaṇa. 室拏; 沙迦滿囊; 沙門; 桑門; v. 沙門.

舍多提婆魔 M077447 舍諵 śāstādevamanuṣyāṇām, intp. as 天人師 teacher of gods and men, one of the ten titles of a buddha.

舍多毘沙 Śatabhiṣā, a constellation identified with 危 in Aquarius.

舍夷 ? Śākya, one of the five surnames of the Buddha.

舍婆提 v. 舍衞.

舍摩 śama, calm, quiet, a name for the bodhi tree. For舍摩陀 v. 奢.

舍支 śaśa, 設施 a hare; śaśī, or śaśin, the moon; śakti, energy. (1) The hare (which threw itself into the fire to save starving people), transferred by Indra to the centre of the moon. (2) śakti is the wife or female energy of a deity, cf. 舍脂. (3) The female organ.

舍樓伽 śāluka, esculent lotus roots; intp. as a kind of cooked liquid food.

舍磨奢那 śmaśāna, a cemetery or crematorium; a low mound of stone under which the remains of monks are buried in countries west of China. Also 奢舍磨奢.

舍羅 śārikā, śārī, v.舍利. śālakā, bamboo or wooden tallies used in numbering monks.

舍羅婆迦 śrāvaka; a hearer, disciple, 聲聞 q. v. (1) He who has heard ( the voice of Buddha). All the personal disciples of Śākyamuni, the chief disciples being called mahāśrāvaka. (2) The lowest degree of saintship, the others being pratyekabuddha, bodhisattva, buddha.

舍脂 śācī, 舍支; 設施 power of speech and action. Name of Indra's chief consort. Indra is known as舍脂鉢低 Śacīpati.

舍舍迦 śaśaka, a hare, rabbit, v. 舍支.

舍衞 Śrāvastī, 舍婆提; 室羅伐 (室羅伐悉底); 尸羅跋提; 捨羅婆悉帝耶; intp as 聞物 the city of famous things, or men, or the famous city; it was a city and ancient kingdom 500 li northwest of Kapilavastu, now Rapetmapet south of Rapti River (M. W. says Sāhet-Māhet). It is said to have been in 北憍薩羅 norhern Kośala, distinct from the southern kingdom of that name. It was a favourite resort of Śākyamuni, the 祗園 Jetavana being there.

舍那身 The body or person of Vairocana; 舍那尊特 is defined as Locana; the 舍那 in both cases seems to be "cana", an abbreviation of Vairocana, or Locana.

舍勒 śāṭaka, 舍吒迦; 舍那 (or 奢那) An inner garment, a skirt.

舍頭諫 Śārdūla-karṇa. The original name of Ānanda, intp. 虎耳 tiger's ears.

A felicitous plant; sesamum.

芝苑 Name for 元照 Yuanzhao of 靈芝 Lingzhi monastery, Hangzhou.

Fragrant; confused; translit. puṇ in芬陀利 (or芬陁利) puṇḍarīka. The white lotus, v. 分陀利.

puṣpa, a flower, flowers; especially the lotus, and celestial flowers. 花座 The lotus throne on which buddhas and bodhisattvas sit.

花筥 花籠; 花皿 Flower baskets for scattering lotus flowers, or leaves and flowers in general.

芥子 sarṣapa, 薩利刹跛; 舍利沙婆 Mustard seed. (1) A measure of length, 10,816,000th part of a yojana, v. 由旬. (2) A weight, the 32nd part of a 賴提 or 草子 raktikā, 2 3/16 grains. (3) A trifle. (4) On account of its hardness and bitter taste it is used as a symbol for overcoming illusions and demons by the esoteric sects. (5) The appearance of a buddha is as rare as the hitting of a needle's point with a mustard seed thrown from afar.

芥子劫 A mustard-seed kalpa, i.e. as long as the time it would take to empty a city 100 yojanas square, by extracting a seed once every century.

芥石 Mustard-seed kalpa and rock kalpa, the former as above, the latter the time required to rub away a rock 40 li square by passing a soft cloth over it once every century.

vyāghra, 弭也竭羅 a tiger.

虎丘山 Huqiu Shan, a monastery at Suzhou, which gave rise to a branch of the Chan (Zen) school, founded by 紹隆 Shaolong.

虎虎婆 Hahava, the fifth hell. For 虎耳 v. 舍頭.

Indicate, manifest, express, expose; external.

表刹 The flagpole on a pagoda.

表德 To manifest virtue, in contrast with 遮情 to repress the passions; the positive in deed and thought, as expounded by the 華嚴宗 Huayan school.

表無表戒 The expressed and unexpressed moral law, the letter and the spirit.

表白 To explain, expound, clear up.

表示 To indicate, explain.

表色 Active expression, as walking, sitting, taking, refusing, bending, stretching, etc.; one of the three 色 forms, the other two being 顯 the colours, red, blue, etc., and 形 shape, long, short, etc.

表銓 Positive or open exposition, contrasted with 遮銓 negative or hidden exposition; a term of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school.

Go to meet, receive, welcome.

迎接 To receive, or be received, e.g. by Amitābha into Paradise.

Near, near to, approach, intimate, close.

近事 Those who attend on and serve the triratna, the近事男 upāsaka, male servant or disciple, and近事女 upāsikā, female servant or disciple, i.e. laymen or women who undertake to obey the five commandments. 近住 Laymen or women who remain at home and observe the eight commandments, i.e. the近事律儀.

近圓 Nearing perfection, i.e. the ten commands, which are "near to" nirvana.

近童 A devotee, or disciple, idem upāsaka.

邲輸跋陀 Viśvabhadra, name of 普顯 Puxian, Samanatabhadra.

hiraṇya, 伊爛拏 which means cold, any precious metal, semen, etc.; or 蘇伐刺 suvarṇa, which means "of a good or beautiful colour", "golden", "yellow", "gold", "a gold coin", etc. The Chinese means metal, gold, money.

金人 Buddha; an image of Buddha of metal or gold, also 金佛.

金仙 Golden ṛṣi, or immortal, i.e. Buddha; also Taoist genī.

金光 (金光明) Golden light, an intp. of suvarṇa, prabhāsa, or uttama. It is variously applied, e. g. 金光明女 Wife of 金天童子; 金光明鼓 Golden-light drum. 金光明經 Golden-light Sutra, tr. in the sixth century and twice later, used by the founder of Tiantai; it is given in its fullest form in the 金光明最勝王經 Suvarṇa-prabhāsa-uttamarāja Sutra.

金光佛刹 The lowest of the Buddha-kṣetra, or lands.

金刹 A "golden" pagoda; the nine "golden" circles on top of a pagoda.

金剛 vajra, 伐闍羅; 跋折羅 (or跋闍羅); 縛曰羅(or 縛日羅) The thunderbolt of Indra, often called the diamond club; but recent research considers it a sun symbol. The diamond, synonym of hardness, indestructibility, power, the least frangible of minerals. It is one of the saptaratna 七寶.

金剛杵 The vajra, or thunderbolt; it is generally shaped as such, but has various other forms. Any one of the beings represented with the vajra is a 金剛. The vajra is also intp. as a weapon of Indian soldiers. It is employed by the esoteric sects, and others, as a symbol of wisdom and power over illusion and evil spirits. When straight as a sceptre it is 獨股 one limbed, when three-pronged it is 三股, and so on with five and nine limbs.

金剛不壞 (金剛不壞身) The diamond indestructible (body), the Buddha.

金剛乘 vajrayāna. The diamond vehicle, another name of the 眞言 Shingon.

金剛夜叉 (or 金剛藥叉) Vajrayakṣa. One of the five 大明王, fierce guardian of the north in the region of Amoghasiddhi, or Śākyamuni, also styled the bodhisattva with the fangs.

金剛佛 vajra-buddha. Vairocana, or 大日 the Sun-buddha; sometimes applied to Śākyamuni as embodiment of the Truth, of Wisdom, and of Purity.

金剛佛子 A son of the vajra-buddha, i.e. of Vairocana, a term applied to those newly baptized into the esoteric sect.

金剛刹 vajrakṣetra, a vajra or Buddhist monastery or building.

金剛力 vajra-power, irresistible strength; 金剛力 (or 金剛力士) is the 金剛神 q.v.

金剛口 Diamond mouth, that of a buddha.

金剛天 The vajradevas twenty in number in the vajradhātu group.

金剛子 rudrākṣa, a seed similar to a peach-stone used for beads, especially in invoking one of the 金剛. Also a vajra son.

金剛定 vajrasamādhi, 金剛喩定; 金剛三昧; 金剛滅定 diamond meditation, that of the last stage of the bodhisattva, characterized by firm, indestructible knowledge, penetrating all reality; attained after all remains of illusion have been cut off.

金剛密迹 The deva-guardians of the secrets of Vairocana, his inner or personal group of guardians in contrast with the outer or major group of Puxian, Mañjuśrī, etc. Similarly, Śāriputra, the śrāvakas, etc., are the 'inner' guardians of Śākyamuni, the bodhisattvas being the major group. Idem 金剛手; 金剛力士; 密迹力士, etc.

金剛寶戒 The Mahāyāna rules according to the 梵網 Sutra.

金剛寶藏 The 'Diamond' treasury i.e. nirvana and the pure bodhi-mind, as the source of the mind of all sentient beings, v. Nirvana Sutra.

金剛山 (or 金剛圍山 or金剛輪山) The concentric iron mountains about the world; also Sumeru; also the name of a fabulous mountain. Cf. 金山.

金剛幡 vajraketu. A flag, hung to a pole with a dragon's head.

金剛幡菩薩 Vajraketu Bodhisattva, the flag-bearer, one of the sixteen in the vajradhātu group.

金剛座 (or金剛座床) vajrāsana, or bodhimaṇḍa, Buddha's seat on attaining enlightenment, the 'diamond' throne. Also a posture or manner of sitting. M.W.

金剛心 Diamond heart, that of the bodhisattva, i.e. infrangible, unmoved by 'illusion'.

金剛心殿 The vajradhātu (maṇḍala), in which Vairocana dwells, also called 不壞金剛光明心殿 the shrine of the indestructible diamond-brilliant heart.

金剛念誦 Silent repetition; also 金剛語言.

金剛慧 Diamond wisdom, which by its reality overcomes all illusory knowledge.

金剛手 vajrapāṇi, a holder of the vajra, a protector, any image with this symbol; 金剛部 Groups of the same in the 金 and 胎 maṇḍalas.

金剛手菩薩 (or 金剛手薩埵) Vajrapāṇi Bodhisattva, especially Puxian 普賢 Samantabhadra.

金剛拳 vajra-fist, the hands doubled together on the breast.

金剛拳菩薩 One of the bodhisattvas in the Diamond group.

金剛智 vajramati. The indestructible and enriching diamond wisdom of the Buddha. Also the name of an Indian who came to China A.D. 619; he is said to have introduced the Yogācāra system and founded the esoteric school, but this is attributed to Amoghavajra, v. 大教. 金剛智三藏 Vajrabodhi may be the same person, but there is doubt about the matter, cf. 大教.

金剛曼荼羅 v. 金剛界.

金剛杵 (or 金剛杖) v. 金剛.

金剛水 Diamond or vajra water, drunk by a prince on investiture, or by a person who receives the esoteric baptismal rite; also 誓水.

金剛法界宮 The palace or shrine of Vairocana in the Garbhadhātu.

金剛炎 Diamond-blaze, a circle of fire to forbid the entry of evil spirits, also called 金炎; 火院 (or 火院界印 or火院密縫印).

金剛王 The vajra-king, i.e. the strongest, or finest, e.g. a powerful bull.

金剛王寶覺 The diamond royal-gem enlightenment, i.e. that of the Buddha.

金剛王菩薩 One of the sixteen bodhisattvas in the Diamond-realm, one of Akṣobhya's retinue; also known as 金剛鉤王 the vajra hook king.

金剛界 vajradhātu, 金界 The 'diamond', or vajra, element of the universe; it is the 智 wisdom of Vairocana in its indestructibility and activity; it arises from the garbhadhātu 胎藏界q.v., the womb or store of the Vairocana 理 reason or principles of such wisdom, v. 理智. The two, garbhadhātu and vajradhātu, are shown by the esoteric school, especially in the Japanese Shingon, in two maṇḍalas, i.e. groups or circles, representing in various portrayals the ideas arising from the two, fundamental concepts. vajradhātu is intp. as the 智 realm of intellection, and garbhadhātu as the 理 substance underlying it, or the matrix; the latter is the womb or fundamental reason of all things, and occupies the eastern position as 'cause' of the vajradhātu, which is on the west as the resultant intellectual or spiritual expression. But both are one as are Reason and Wisdom, and Vairocana (the illuminator, the 大日 great sun) presides over both, as source and supply. The vajradhātu represents the spiritual world of complete enlightenment, the esoteric dharmakāya doctrine as contrasted with the exoteric nirmāṇakāya doctrine. It is the sixth element 識 mind, and is symbolized by a triangle with the point downwards and by the full moon, which represents 智 wisdom or understanding; it corresponds to 果 fruit, or effect, garbhadhātu being 因 or cause. The 金剛王五部 or five divisions of the vajradhātu are represented by the Five dhyāni-buddhas, thus: centre 大日Vairocana; east 阿閦 Akṣobhya; south 寶生Ratnasambhava; west 阿彌陀 Amitābha; north 不 空 成就 Amoghasiddhi, or Śākyamuni. They are seated respectively on a lion, an elephant, a horse, a peacock, and a garuda. v. 五佛; also 胎.

金剛神 The guardian spirits of the Buddhist order; the large idols at the entrance of Buddhist monasteries; also 金剛手; 金剛力士.

金剛童子 vajrakumāra, 金剛使者 a vajra-messenger of the buddhas or bodhisattvas; also an incarnation of Amitābha in the form of a youth with fierce looks holding a vajra.

金剛索 vajrapāśa, the diamond lasso, or noose; in the hand of 不動明王 and others.

金剛菩薩 Vajrapāśa Bodhisattva in the vajradhātumaṇḍala, who carries the snare of compassion to bind the souls of the living.

金剛經 The Diamond Sutra; Vajracchedikā-prājñāpāramitā Sutra 金剛能斷般若波羅蜜經 A condensation of the Prājñāpāramitā Sutratitle>; first tr. by Kumārajīva, later by others under slightly varying titles.

金剛菩薩 There are many of these vajra-bodhisattvas, e.g.: 金剛因菩薩 Vajrahetu, 金剛手菩薩 Vajrapāṇi, 金剛寳菩薩 Vajraratna, 金剛藏菩薩 Vajragarbha, 金剛針菩薩 Vajrasūci, 金剛將菩薩 Vajrasena, 金剛索菩薩 Vajrapāśa, 金剛鉤菩薩 Vajrāṅkuśa, 金剛香菩薩 Vajradhūpa, 金剛光菩薩 Vajratejaḥ, 金剛法菩薩 Vajradharma, 金剛利菩薩 Vajratīkṣṇa, and others.

金剛藏 Vajragarbha, the bodhisattva in the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra.

金剛藏王 A form of the next entry; also Śākyamuni.

金剛薩埵 Vajrasattva(-mahāsattva). 金薩 A form of Puxian (Samantabhadra), reckoned as the second of the eight patriarchs of the 眞言宗 Shingon sect, also known as 金剛手 (金剛手祕密王 or金剛手菩薩) and other similar titles. The term is also applied to all vajra-beings, or vajra-bodhisattvas; especially those in the moon-circle in the east of the Diamond maṇḍala. Śākyamuni also takes the vajrasattva form. (1) All beings are vajrasattva, because of their Buddha-nature. (2) So are all beginners in the faith and practice. (3) So are the retinue of Akṣobhya. (4) So is Great Puxian.

金剛衆 The retinue of the 金剛神 vajradevas.

金剛觀 The diamond insight or vision which penetrates into reality.

金剛語言 idem 金剛念誦.

金剛身 The diamond body, the indestructible body of Buddha.

金剛輪 The diamond or vajra wheel, symbolical of the esoteric sects. The lowest of the circles beneath the earth.

金剛部 The various groups in the two maṇḍalas, each having a 主 or head; in the Diamond maṇḍala Akṣobhya, or Vajrasattva, is spoken of as such.

金剛部母 忙莽鷄 māmakī is 'mother' in this group.

金針 (金剛針) The straight vajra, or sceptre; also v. 金針菩薩.

金剛鈴 The diamond or vajra bell for attracting the attention of the objects of worship, and stimulating all who hear it.

金剛鈴菩薩 Vajraghaṇṭā, a bodhisattva holding a bell in the vajradhātumaṇḍala.

金剛鏁 vajra-śṛṅkhalā. The vajra chain, or fetter.

金剛鏁菩薩 The chain-bearer in the Diamond group.

金剛門 The diamond door of the garbhadhātumaṇḍala.

金剛頂 The diamond apex or crown, a general name of the esoteric doctrines and sutras of Vairocana. The sutra金剛頂經 is the authority for the金剛頂宗 sect.

金剛體 The diamond body, that of Buddha, and his merits.

金口 The golden mouth of the Buddha, a reference inter alia to 金剛口 the diamond-like firmness of his doctrine.

金口相承 金口祖承 The doctrines of the golden mouth transmitted in 'apostolic succession' through generations (of patriarchs).

金地 A Buddhist monastery; v. also 逝 Jetavana.

金地國 Suvarṇabhūmi, said to be a country south of Śrāvastī, to which Aśoka sent missionaries. Also 金出; 金田.

金大王 Protector of travellers, shown in the train of the 1, 000-hand Guanyin.

金山 Metal or golden mountain, i.e. Buddha, or the Buddha's body.

金山王 Buddha, especially Amitābha. The 七金山 are the seven concentric ranges around Sumeru, v. 須; viz. Yugaṃdhara, Īśādhara, Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara, v. respectively 踰, 伊, 竭, 蘇, 頞, 毘, and 尼.

金星 Śukra, the planet Venus.

金杖 The golden staff broken into eighteen pieces and the skirt similarly torn, seen in a dream by king Bimbisāra, prophetic of the eighteen divisions of Hīnayāna.

金毘羅 kumbhīra, 金毘囉; 金波羅; 禁毘羅 (or 宮毘羅); a crocodile, alligator, described as 蛟龍 a 'boa-dragon'; cf. 失. A yakṣa-king who was converted and became a guardian of Buddhism, also known as 金毘羅陀 (金毘羅陀迦毘羅); 金毘羅神; 金毘羅大將. For 金毘羅比丘 Kampilla, v. 劫.

金毛獅子 The lion with golden hair on which Mañjuśrī (Wenshu) rides; also a previous incarnation of the Buddha.

金水 Golden water, i.e. wisdom.

金沙 Golden-sand (river), an imaginary river in the Nirvana Sutra 10. Also the Hiraṇyavatī, v. 尸.

金河 Hiraṇyavatī, v. 尸賴拏伐底;.

金粟如來 The golden grain tathāgata, a title of Vimalakīrti 維摩 in a previous incarnation.

金翅鳥 (金翅鳥王) Garuda, 妙翅; 迦樓羅 the king of birds, with golden wings, companion of Viṣṇu; a syn. of the Buddha.

金胎 idem 金剛界 and 胎藏界.

金色 Golden coloured.

金色世界 The golden-hued heaven of Mañjuśrī (Wenshu).

金色女 The princess of Vārāṇaśī, who is said to have been offered in marriage to Śākyamuni because he was of the same colour as herself.

金色孔雀王 The golden-hued peacock king, protector of travellers, in the retinue of the 1,000-hands Guanyin.

金色王 A previous incarnation of the Buddha.

金色迦葉 金色尊者; 金色頭陀 Names for Mahākāśyapa, as he is said to have 飮光 swallowed light, hence his golden hue.

金藏 Golden treasury, i.e. the Buddha-nature in all the living.

金藏雲 The first golden-treasury cloud when a new world is completed, arising in the 光音天 Ābhāsvara heaven and bringing the first rain.

金襴衣 A kāṣāya or robe embroidered with gold; a golden robe; also 金襴袈裟; 金色衣.

金言 Golden words, i.e. those of Buddha.

金蹄 Kaṇṭhaka aśvarāja, 金泥; 犍渉駒 name of the steed on which Śākyamuni left his home.

金身 金軀 The golden body or person, that of Buddha.

金輪 The metal circle on which the earth rests, above the water circle which is above the wind (or air) circle which rests on space. Also the cakra, wheel or disc, emblem of sovereignty, one of the seven precious possessions of a king.

金輪王 A golden-wheel king, the highest in comparison with silver, copper, and iron cakravartin.

金鷄 The golden cock (or, fowl), with a grain of millet in its beak, a name for Bodhidharma.

金骨 Golden bones, i.e. Buddha's relics.

金龜 The golden tortoise on which the world rests, idem 金輪.

chang, long; always; zhang, to grow, rising, senior.

長乞食 Always to ask food as alms, one of the twelve duties of a monk.

長壽 Long life.

長壽天 devas of long life, in the fourth dhyāna heaven where life is 500 great kalpas, and in the fourth arūpaloka where life extends over 80, 000 kalpas.

長夜 The whole night, the long night of mortality or transmigration.

長日The long day, or succeeding days prolonged.

長生Long or eternal life (in Paradise), 長生不死, 長生不老 long life without death, or growing old, immortality.

長生符 The charm for immortality, i.e. Buddhism.

長老 Senior, venerable, title for aged and virtuous monks; also an abbot.

長者 揭利呵跋底; 疑叻賀鉢底 gṛhapati. A householder; one who is just, straightforward, truthful, honest, advanced in age, and wealthy; an elder.

長衣 長物; 長鉢 Clothes, things, or almsbowls in excess of the permitted number.

長跪 Kneeling with knees and toes touching the ground and thighs and body erect; tall kneeling.

長阿含經 dīrghāgama, the long āgamas, cf. 阿含.

長食Ample supplies of food, i.e. for a long time.

A door; gate; a sect, school, teaching, especially one leading to salvation or nirvana.

門侶 Disciple, fellow-student. 門師Preceptor, the monk who is recognized as teacher by any family. 門徒 Disciple.

門派 門流; 門葉; 門跡 The followers, or development of any sect.

門狀 參狀 or 榜 A name paper, card, visiting-card.

門神 門丞 The gate-gods or guardians.

門經 The funeral service read at the house-door.

門答辣 maṇḍala, see 曼.

門首 門主 The controller of a gate, or sect.

Adjoin, attached to, append, near.

附佛法外道 Heretics within Buddhism.

Steep bank, declivity; translit. t, h, d, dh, ty, dy, dhy; cf. 荼, 多, 檀.

陀呵 dāha, burning.

陀多竭多 tathāgata, v. 多.

陀摩 dama, tamed, domiciled, obedient, good.

陀歷 Darada, 'the country of the ancient Dardae mentioned by Strabo and Pliny. The region near Dardu Lat. 35° 11 N., Long. 73° 54 E.' Eitel.

陀毘羅 (or 陀毘荼); 達羅毘荼 (or達羅弭荼) Damila, Dravila, probably Drāviḍa, or Drāvira, anciently a kingdom in Southern India, 'bounded in the South by the Cauveri and reaching northward as far as Arcot or Madras.' Eitel.

陀羅 tārā, star, shining, radiating, a female deity, v. 多.

陀羅尼 (or 陀羅那); 陀鄰尼 dhāraṇī. Able to lay hold of the good so that it cannot be lost, and likewise of the evil so that it cannot arise. Magical formulas, or mystic forms of prayer, or spells of Tantric order, often in Sanskrit, found in China as early as the third century A.D.; they form a potion of the dhāraṇīpiṭaka; made popular chiefly through the Yogācārya 瑜伽 or 密教esoteric school. Four divisions are given, i.e. 法陀羅尼, 義陀羅尼, 咒陀羅尼 and 忍陀羅尼; the 咒, i.e. mantra or spell, is emphasized by the 眞言 Shingon sect. There are numerous treatises, e.g. 陀羅尼集經; 瑜伽師地論, attributed to Asaṅga, founder of the Buddhist Yoga school.

陀羅尼菩薩 Dhāraṇī-bodhisattva, one who has great power to protect and save.

陀羅那 Name of a yakṣa.

陀羅羅 Name of a ṛṣi.

陀羅驃 dravya, the nine 'substances' in the nyāya philosophy, earth, water, fire, air, ether 空, time, space 方, soul 神, and mind 意.

陀那 dāna, bestow, alms; the marks on a scale; ādāna, another name for the ālaya-vijñāna.

陀那婆 Dānavat, name of a god.

陀那伽他 dānagāthā, or dakṣiṇāgāthā, the verse or utterance of the almsgiver.

陀那鉢底 or 陀那施主 dānapati, almsgiver.

idem 陀.

a or ā, अ, आ. It is the first letter of the Sanskrit Siddham alphabet, and is also translit. by 曷, 遏, 安, 頞, 韻, 噁, etc. From it are supposed to be born all the other letters, and it is the first sound uttered by the human mouth. It has therefore numerous mystical indications. Being also a negation it symbolizes the unproduced, the impermanent, the immaterial; but it is employed in many ways indicative of the positive. Amongst other uses it indicates Amitābha, from the first syllable in that name. It is much in use for esoteric purposes.

阿世耶 āśaya, 阿奢也, disposition, mind; pleased to, desire to, pleasure.

阿他婆吠陀 Atharvaveda, also Ātharvaṇa, the fourth Veda, dealing with sorcery or magic; also 阿達婆鞞陀; 阿闥波陀.

阿伐羅勢羅 Avraśāilāḥ, the school of the dwellers in the Western mountains 西山寺 in Dhanakaṭaka; it was a subdivision of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ.

阿伽 arghya, argha, 閼伽; 遏伽; 遏迦 tr. by water, but it specially indicates ceremonial water, e.g. offerings of scented water, or water containing fragrant flowers. 阿伽坏The vase or bowl so used.

阿伽坏 The vase or bowl used for ceremonial water 阿伽.

阿伽嚧 阿伽樓; 惡揭嚕 agaru, aguru, fragment aloe-wood, intp. 沉香the incense that sinks in water, the agallochum; 'the Ahalim or Ahaloth of the Hebrews.' Eitel.

阿伽摩 v. 阿含 agama.

阿伽羅伽 Aṅgāraka, the planet Mars; a star of ill omen; a representation in the garbhadhātu.

阿伽陀 阿竭陀; 阿揭 (阿揭陀) agada, free from disease, an antidote, intp. as 普去 a medicine that entirely rids (of disease), elixir of life, universal remedy.

阿伽曇 aghana, not solid, not dense.

阿修羅 asura, 修羅 originally meaning a spirit, spirits, or even the gods, it generally indicates titanic demons, enemies of the gods, with whom, especially Indra, they wage constant war. They are defined as 'not devas', and 'ugly', and 'without wine'. Other forms are 阿須羅 (or 阿蘇羅, or 阿素羅); 阿修倫 (or羅須倫 or 阿修輪 or 羅須輪); 阿素洛; 阿差. Four classes are named according to their manner of rebirth-egg, born, womb-born, transformation-born, and spawn- or water-born. Their abode is in the ocean, north of Sumeru, but certain of the weaker dwell in a western mountain cave. They have realms, rulers, and palaces, as have the devas. The 阿修羅道 is one of the six gatis, or ways of reincarnation. The 修羅場 or 修羅巷 is the battlefield of the asuras against Indra. The 阿修羅琴 are their harps.

阿傍 阿防 The ox-head torturers in Hades. Also 阿傍羅刹.

阿儞囉迦 ārdraka, raw ginger.

阿僧伽 (阿僧) asaṅga, āryāsaṅga, intp. as 無著 unattached, free; lived 'a thousand years after the Nirvāṇa', probably the fourth century A.D., said to be the eldest brother of 天親 Vasubandhu, whom he converted to Mahāyāna. He was first a follower of the Mahīśāsaka hschool, but founded the Yogācārya or Tantric school with his Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra 瑜伽師地論, which in the 三藏傳 is said to have been dictated to him by Maitreya in the Tuṣita heaven, along with the 莊嚴大乘論 and the 中邊分別論. He was a native of Gandhāra, but lived mostly in Ayodhyā (Oudh).

阿僧祇 asaṅkhya, asaṅkhyeya, 阿僧企耶; 僧祇 intp. 無數 innumerable, countless, said to be 一千萬萬萬萬萬萬萬萬兆 kalpas. There are four asaṅkhyākalpas in the rise, duration, and end of every universe, cf. 劫.

M077477 樓馱 v. 阿那律Aniruddha.

M077477 羅陀補羅 Anurādhapura, a northern city of Ceylon, at which tradition says Buddhism was introduced into the island; cf. Abhayagiri, 阿跋.

阿利尼 Alni or Arni; 'a kingdom which formed part of ancient Tukhāra, situated near to the sources of the Oxus.' Eitel.

阿利沙 (or阿黎沙) ārṣa, connected with the ṛṣis, or holy men; especially their religious utterances in verse 阿利沙偈; also a title of a buddha.

阿利沙住處 the highest position of achievement, perfection; see 阿利沙.

阿利羅跋提 Ajitavatī, 阿特多伐底, see 尸 Hiraṇyavatī.

阿利耶 idem 阿賴耶 ālaya, and 阿梨耶.

阿制多 ajita, v. 阿逸多.

阿剡底詞羅 Name of a demon burnt up by the fire it eats.

阿卑羅吽欠 a-vi-ra-hūm-kham, (or āḥ-vi-ra-hūm-kham the Shingon 'true word' or spell of Vairocana, for subduing all māras, each sound representing one of the five elements, earth, water, fire, wind (or air), and space (or ether). Also, 阿毘羅吽欠 (or 阿尾羅吽欠 or阿尾羅吽劍 or阿毘羅吽劍); 阿味囉 M020011欠.

阿叉摩羅 akṣamālā, a rosary, especially of the seeds of the Eleocarpus. M.W. Also a symbol of the ten perfections.

阿吒利 Aṭāli, 阿吒釐 a province of the ancient kingdom of Malwa, or Malava; its people rejected Buddhism.

阿吒吒 Aṭaṭa; the third of the four cold hells.

阿吒婆拘 阿吒嚩迦; 阿吒薄倶 (or 遏吒薄倶) Āṭavika, name of a demon-general.

阿吒筏底 Alakavatī, the city of Vaiśravaṇa.

阿含 āgama, 阿含暮; 阿鋡; 阿伽摩 (or 阿笈摩), the āgamas, a collection of doctrines, general name for the Hīnayāna scriptures: tr. 法歸 the home or collecting-place of the Law or Truth; 無比法 peerless Law; or 趣無 ne plus ultra, ultimate, absolute truth. The 四阿含經 or Four Āgamas are (1) 長阿含 Dīrghāgama, 'Long' treatises on cosmogony. (2) Madhyamāgama, 中阿含, 'middle' treatises on metaphysics. (3) Saṃyuktāgama, 雜阿含 'miscellaneous' treatises on abstract contemplation. (4) Ekottarāgama 增一阿含 'numerical' treatises, subjects treated numerically. There is also a division of five āgamas.

阿含時 The period when the Buddha taught Hīnayāna doctrine in the Lumbini garden during the first twelve years of his ministry.

阿含部 Hīnayāna.

阿吽 ahūṃ, the supposed foundation of all sounds and writing, 'a' being the open and 'hūṃ' the closed sound. 'A' is the seed of Vairocana, 'hūṃ' that of Vajrasattva, and both have other indications. 'A' represents the absolute, 'hūṃ' the particular, or phenomenal.

阿呼 ahu! aho! an interjection, e.g. 奇哉 Wonderful ! Also arka, a flash, ray, the sun; praise; name of a mountain; cf. 阿羅歌.

阿呼地獄 The hell of groaning.

阿呵呵 ahaha, sound of laughter.

阿周陀 The name of 目連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana as a ṛṣi.

阿周陀那 Arjuna v. 阿順那.

阿唎多羅 (阿唎耶多羅) Ārya-tārā; one of the titles of Guanyin, Āryāvalokiteśvara 阿唎多婆盧羯帝爍鉢囉耶.

阿地目得迦 ati-muktata, v. 阿提.

阿夜健多 ayaḥkāṇḍa, an iron arrow; also 阿夜塞健那.

阿失麗沙 Aśleṣā, the 柳 or 24th constellation, stars in Hydra; M.W. says the 9th nakṣatra contraining five stars.

阿夷 arhan, a worthy, noble, or saintly man; especially 阿私陀 Asita, q.v.

阿夷恬 ? ādikarnika, a beginner, neophyte.

阿夷頭 idem 阿耆多 ajita.

阿夷羅和帝 (or阿夷羅婆帝 or 阿夷羅和底 or 阿夷羅婆底 or 阿夷羅和跋提 or 阿夷羅婆跋提), v. 阿特 the river Ajiravatī. v. 阿羅漢.

阿奢也 v. 阿世耶.

阿奢理貳 or 阿奢理兒 āścarya, rare, extraordinary. Part of the name of an ancient monastery in Karashahr.

阿奴謨柁 anumoda, concurrence, a term of thanks from a monk to a donor on parting.

阿奴邏陀 Anurādhā, the seventeenth of the twenty-eight nakṣatras, or lunar mansions. M.W. The 房 constellation in Scorpio.

阿娑嚩 a-sa-va, a formula covering the three sections of the garbhadhātu-'a' the tathāgata section, 'sa' the Lotus section, and 'va' the Diamond section.

阿娑摩補多 asamāpta, incomplete, unended.

阿裟磨娑摩 (or 阿裟摩娑摩) asamasama, one of the titles of a buddha; it is defined as 無等等 which has various interpretations, but generally means of unequalled rank. 阿娑弭 has similar meaning.

阿娑弭 same as 阿裟磨娑摩.

阿娑羅 asaru, a medicine; a plant, Blumea-lacera; or perhaps asāra, the castor-oil plant, or the aloe.

阿娑頗那伽 āśvāsa-apānaka, contemplation by counting the breathings; c.f. 阿那波那.

阿婆 apa, abha, ava, etc.

阿婆摩羅 (or 阿婆娑摩羅) apasmāra, epileptic, demons of epilepsy.

阿婆孕迦羅 abhayaṃkara, giving security from fear, name of a tathāgata.

阿婆盧吉低舍羅 Avalokiteśvara, name of Guanyin.

阿婆磨 anupma, applied to a buddha as無等等 of unequalled rank, cf. 阿娑磨.

阿密哩多 amṛta, 阿密?帝; 阿沒?都 nectar, ambrosia. 阿密哩多軍荼利 One of the five 明王 q.v.

阿尸羅婆那 Śravaṇā, which M.W. gives as 'one of the lunar asterisms... α, β, γ, Aquilae'. Śravaṇā is the month which falls in July-August.

阿尾捨 avesa, spiritualistic possession, a youthful medium. Also 阿尾舍, 阿尾奢, 阿尾賖, 阿毘舍.

阿底哩 (or 阿跌哩) Atri, a devourer; one of the stars in Ursa Major; one of the assistants of Agni shown in the Garbhadhātu; an ancient ṛṣi.

阿庾多 idem 阿由多.

阿差末 akṣayamti, unceasing devotion, with an unfailing mind; name of a bodhisattva.

阿彌陀 (阿彌) amita, boundless, infinite; tr. by 無量 immeasurable. The Buddha of infinite qualities, known as 阿彌陀婆 (or 阿彌陀佛) Amitābha, tr. 無量光 boundless light; 阿彌陀廋斯Amitāyus, tr. 無量壽 boundless age, or life; and among the esoteric sects Amṛta 甘露 (甘露王) sweet-dew (king). An imaginary being unknown to ancient Buddhism, possibly of Persian or Iranian origin, who has eclipsed the historical Buddha in becoming the most popular divinity in the Mahāyāna pantheon. His name indicates an idealization rather than an historic personality, the idea of eternal light and life. The origin and date of the concept are unknown, but he has always been associated with the west, where in his Paradise, Suikhāvatī, the Western Pure Land, he receives to unbounded happiness all who call upon his name (cf. the Pure Lands 淨土 of Maitreya and Akṣobhya). This is consequent on his forty-eight vows, especially the eighteenth, in which he vows to refuse Buddhahood until he has saved all living beings to his Paradise, except those who had committed the five unpardonable sins, or were guilty of blasphemy against the Faith. While his Paradise is theoretically only a stage on the way to rebirth in the final joys of nirvana, it is popularly considered as the final resting-place of those who cry na-mo a-mi-to-fo, or blessed be, or adoration to, Amita Buddha. The 淨土 Pure-land (Jap. Jōdo) sect is especially devoted to this cult, which arises chiefly out of the Sukhāvatīvyūha, but Amita is referred to in many other texts and recognized, with differing interpretations and emphasis, by the other sects. Eitel attributes the first preaching of the dogma to 'a priest from Tokhara' in A. D.147, and says that Faxian and Xuanzang make no mention of the cult. But the Chinese pilgrim 慧日Huiri says he found it prevalent in India 702-719. The first translation of the Amitāyus Sutra, circa A.D. 223-253, had disappeared when the Kaiyuan catalogue was compiled A.D. 730. The eighteenth vow occurs in the tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D. 308. With Amita is closely associated Avalokiteśvara, who is also considered as his incarnation, and appears crowned with, or bearing the image of Amita. In the trinity of Amita, Avalokiteśvara appears on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. Another group, of five, includes Kṣitigarbha and Nāgārjuna, the latter counted as the second patriarch of the Pure Land sect. One who calls on the name of Amitābha is styled 阿彌陀聖 a saint of Amitābha. Amitābha is one of the Five 'dhyāni buddhas' 五佛, q.v. He has many titles, amongst which are the following twelve relating to him as Buddha of light, also his title of eternal life: 無量光佛Buddha of boundless light; 無邊光佛 Buddha of unlimited light; 無礙光佛 Buddha of irresistible light; 無對光佛 Buddha of incomparable light; 燄王光佛 Buddha of yama or flame-king light; 淸淨光佛 Buddha of pure light; 歡喜光佛 Buddha of joyous light; 智慧光佛 Buddha of wisdom light; 不斷光佛 Buddha of unending light; 難思光佛 Buddha of inconceivable light; 無稱光佛Buddha of indescribable light; 超日月光佛 Buddha of light surpassing that of sun and moon; 無量壽 Buddha of boundless age. As buddha he has, of course, all the attributes of a buddha, including the trikāya, or 法報化身, about which in re Amita there are differences of opinion in the various schools. His esoteric germ-letter is hrīḥ, and he has specific manual-signs. Cf. 阿彌陀經, of which with commentaries there are numerous editions.

阿彌陀檀那 Amṛtodana 甘露王. A king of Magadha, father of Anuruddha and Bhadrika, uncle of Śākyamuni.

阿恃多伐底 Ajiravatī; v. 尸. The river Hiraṇyavatī, also 阿利羅跋提 (or阿夷羅跋提or 阿利羅拔提or 阿夷羅拔提); 阿夷羅婆底 (or 阿脂羅婆底or 阿寅羅婆底); 阿爾多嚩底. It is probable that 阿恃多, intp. 無勝 unconquered, is Ajita and an error. Cf. 阿誓.

阿折羅 Ācāra, an arhat of the kingdom of Andhra, founder of a monastery.

阿拘盧奢 ākrośa; 罵 scolding, abusing.

阿拏 aṇu, 阿莬; 阿耨 Minute, infinitesimal, the smallest aggregation of matter, a molecule consisting of 七微 seven atoms.

阿提佛陀 Ādi-buddha, the primal buddha of ancient Lamaism (Tib. chos-kyi-daṅ-poḥi-saṅs-rgyas); by the older school he is associated with Puxian born of Vairocana i.e. Kuntu-bzan-po, or Dharmakāya-Samantabhadha; by the later school with Vajradhara, or Vajrasattva, who are considered as identical, and spoken of as omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, eternal, infinite, uncaused, and causing all things.

阿提目多 (or 阿地目多 or 阿提目多伽 or 阿地目多伽) adhimukti or atimukti, entire freedom of mind, confidence, intp. by 善思惟 'pious thoughtfulness', good propensity. atimuktaka, a plant like the 'dragon-lick', suggestive of hemp, with red flowers and bluish-green leaves; its seeds produce fragrant oil, sesame. Also, a kind of tree.

阿提阿耨波陀 ādyanutpāda, or ādyanutpanna; 本初不生 the original uncreated letter ā or a.

阿摩 ambā, or mother, a title of respect.

阿摩爹爹 Mother and father.

阿摩提 (or 阿麽提); 阿摩 M048697 The 21st of the thirty-three forms of Guanyin, three eyes, four arms, two playing a lute with a phoenix-head, one foot on a lion, the other pendent.

阿摩羅 amala; spotless, unstained, pure; the permanent and unchanging in contrast with the changing; the pure and unsullied, e.g. saintliness; the true nirvana. Also 菴阿摩; 阿末摩 q.v.

阿擅 anātman, 阿檀; 阿捺摩, i.e. 無我 without an ego, impersonality, different from soul or spirit.

阿施 artha, 義 reason, sense, purpose. 施 is probably a misprint for 陁; the Huayan uses 曷攞多; also 他 is used for 施.

阿末羅 āmra, āmalaka, āmrāta.

阿摩洛迦 菴摩洛迦 (or 菴摩羅迦 or 菴摩勒迦) āmra, mango, Mangifera indica; āmalaka, Emblic myrobalan, or Phyllanthus ernhlica, whose nuts are valued medicinally; āmrāta, hog-plum, Spondias mangifera. Also used for discernment of mental ideas, the ninth of the nine kinds of 心識. 菴沒羅 (or 菴摩羅or 菴婆羅) should apply to āmra the mango, but the forms are used indiscriminately. Cf. 阿摩羅.

阿梨宜 āliṅg-; to embrace; āliṅgī, a small drum; a kind of ecstatic meditation.

阿梨樹 (or 阿棃樹) arjaka, ? Ocymum pilosum, a tree with white scented flowers, said to fall in seven parts, like an epidendrum, styled also 頞杜迦曼折利 (? 頞杜社迦曼折利).

阿梨吒 (阿梨瑟吒) ariṣṭa(ka), the soap-berry tree, Sapindus detergens, 木槵子, whose berries are used for rosaries. Name of a bhikṣu.

阿梨耶 ārya, 阿利宜; 阿棃宜; 阿黎宜; 阿犁宜; 阿離宜; 阿哩夜; 阿略 or 阿夷; 梨耶 loyal, honourable, noble, āryan, 'a man who has thought on the four chief principles of Buddhism and lives according to them,' intp. by 尊 honourable, and 聖 sage, wise, saintly, sacred. Also, ulūka, an owl.

阿梨呵 arhan, 阿羅漢 q.v.

阿梨耶伐摩 Āryavaman, of the Śarvāstivādin school, author of a work on the vaibhāṣika philosophy.

阿梨斯那 (阿梨耶斯那) Āryasena, a monk of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ.

阿梨耶馱娑 Āryadāsa, a monk of the Mahāsaṅghikāḥ.

阿槃陀羅 avāntara, intermediate, within limits, included.

阿歐 au! An exclamation, e.g. Ho! Oh! Ah! Also 阿傴; 阿嘔; 阿漚 or 阿優. The two letters a and u fell from the comers of Brahmā's mouth when he gave the seventy-two letters of Kharoṣṭhī, and they are said to be placed at the beginning of the Brahminical sacred books as divine letters, the Buddhists adopting 如是 'Thus' (evam) instead.

阿毗 avīci, 阿毘 (阿毘至) cf. 阿鼻.

阿毗三佛 (阿毗三佛陀); 阿惟三佛 abhisaṃbuddha, abhisaṃbodha; realizing or manifesting universal enlightenment; fully awake, complete realization.

阿毗目底 abhimukti, probably in error for adhimukti, implicit faith, conviction.

阿毗目佉 (or 阿比目佉) abhimukham, towards, approaching, in presence of, tr. 現前. abhimukhī, the sixth of the ten stages 十住.

阿毗私度 Abhijit, 女宿 the tenth Chinese stellar mansion, stars in Aquarius.

阿毗跋致 阿鞞跋致; 阿惟越致 avivartin, 不退 No retrogression.

阿毗達磨 阿毗曇; 阿鼻達磨 abhidharma. The śāstras, which discuss Buddhist philosophy or metaphysics; defined by Buddhaghōsa as the law or truth (dharma) which (abhi) goes beyond or behind the law; explained by傳 tradition, 勝法 surpassing law, 無比法 incomparable law, 對法 comparing the law, 向法 directional law, showing cause and effect. The阿毗達磨藏 or 阿毗達磨論藏 is the abhidharma-piṭaka, the third part of the tripiṭaka. In the Chinese canon it consists of 大乘論 Mahāyāna treatises, 小乘論 Hīnayāna treatises, and 藏諸論 those brought in during the Song and Yuan dynasties. The阿毗達磨倶舍論 abhidharma-kośa-śāstra, tr. By Xuanzang, is a philosophical work by Vasubandhu refuting doctrines of the Vibhāṣā school. There are many works of which abhidharma forms part of the title.

阿毗遮羅 abhicāra. A hungry ghost.

阿毗遮嚕迦 阿毗拓M066116迦 (or 阿毗左M066116迦); 阿毗左囉 abhicāraka, exorcism; an exorciser, or controller (of demons).

阿沙陀 āṣāḍha, 阿沙荼; 頞沙荼 the fourth month, part of June and July. Name of a monk. Aṣāḍā, an Indian constellation comprising箕 and 斗, stars in Sagittarius. Cf. 阿薩多.

阿泥底耶 Āditya, the sons of Aditi, the gods; Varuṇa; the sun; the sky; son of the sun-deva.

阿波摩羅 apasmāra, malevolent demons, epilepsy, and the demons who cause it; also 阿婆摩羅; 阿跋摩羅; 阿跛娑摩囉.

阿波會 阿婆譮; 阿波羅 ābhāsvara(-vimāna), the sixth of the brahmalokas 光音天 of light and sound (ābhāsvara) and its devas, but it is better intp. as ābhās, shining and vara, ground, or splendid, the splendid devas or heaven; shown in the garbhadhātu. Like other devas they are subject to rebirth. Also 阿會亙修 (or 阿會亙差); 阿波嘬羅 (阿波嘬羅?); 阿衞貨羅.

阿波末加 (or 阿婆末加); 阿波麽羅誐 apāmargā, 牛膝草 Achryanthes aspera.

阿波波 ababa, hahava, the only sound possible to those in the fourth of the eight cold hells.

阿波羅囉 阿波邏羅; 阿波摩利; 阿波波; 阿鉢摩; and ? 阿羅婆樓 apalāla, 'not fond of flesh' (M.W.), a destroyer by flood of the crops; the nāga of the source of the river Śubhavăstu (Swat) of Udyāna, about which there are various legends; he, his wife 比壽尼, and his children were all converted to Buddhism.

阿波摩那婆 (阿波羅摩那阿婆); 阿婆摩那婆 (or 廅婆摩那婆 or阿鉢摩那婆 or廅鉢摩那婆); 阿波摩那; 波摩那 Apramāṇābha, intp. as 無量光 immeasurable light, the fifth of the brahmalokas.

阿波那伽低 aparagati, the three evil paths, i.e. animal, hungry ghost, hell, but some say only the path to the hells.

阿波陀那 阿波陁那; 阿波他那 avadāna, parables, metaphors, stories, illustrations; one of the twelve classes of sutras; the stories, etc., are divided into eight categories.

阿浮呵那 (or 阿浮訶那) āvāhana, or āpattivyutthāna, the calling of a monk or nun into the assembly for penance, or to rid the delinquent of sin.

阿浮達摩 (阿浮陀達摩) adbhuta-dharma, miraculous or supernatural things, a section of the canon recounting miracles and prodigies.

阿潘 Apan, name of the 'first' Chinese Buddhist nun, of Luoyang in Henan.

阿濕喝咃波力叉 aśvattha-vṛkṣa; v. 菩提樹 the ficus religiosa.

阿濕婆 aśva, a horse.

阿濕喝迷陀 aśvamedha, the ancient royal horse-sacrifice.

阿濕摩 (or 阿濕麽or 阿濕魔) aśman, a stone, rock.

阿濕喝揭婆 aśmagarbha; emerald, tr. by 石藏, but also by 馬腦 agate, the idea apparently being derived from another form 阿濕嚩揭波 aśvagarbha, horse matrix. Other forms are 阿濕喝碣婆 (or 阿輸喝碣婆 or 阿舍喝碣婆 or阿濕喝揭婆 or 阿輸喝揭婆 or 阿舍喝揭婆 or 阿濕喝竭婆 or 阿輸喝竭婆 or 阿舍喝竭婆 or 阿濕喝碣波 or 阿輸喝碣波 or 阿舍喝碣波 or 阿濕喝揭波 or 阿輸喝揭波 or 阿舍喝揭波 or 阿濕喝竭波 or 阿輸喝竭波 or 阿舍喝竭波); 遏濕喝揭婆.

阿濕毘儞 aśvinī. M.W. says it is the first of the twenty-eignt nakṣatras; the eleventh of the Chinese twenty-eight constellations, xu, β Aquarī, α Eqūlei.

阿濕波 aśvin, the twins of the Zodiac, Castor and Pollux, sons of the Sun and aśvinī; they appear in the sky before dawn riding in a golden carriage drawn by horses or birds.

阿濕縛伐多 阿濕婆恃; 阿濕婆 (阿濕婆氏多); 阿濕波持; 阿說示 (or阿說示旨); 阿輸實; 頞鞞 Aśvajit 馬勝 'Gaining horses by conquest.' M.W. Name of one of the first five disciples and a relative of Śākyamuni; teacher of Śāriputra.

阿濕縛庾闍 阿濕嚩若 aśvayuja. The month in which the moon is in conjunction with aśvinī, 16th of the 8th moon to 15th of the 9th; it is the middle month of autumn.

阿濕縛窶沙 (or阿溼縛窶沙); 馬鳴 q.v. Aśvaghosa.

阿濕縛羯拏 阿輸割那 aśvakarṇa, 馬耳 the horse-ear mountains, fifth of the seven concentric mountains around Sumeru.

阿點婆翅羅國 Atyambakela, an ancient kingdom near Karachi.

阿牟伽 v. 阿目佉 amogha.

阿牟伽皤賒 Amoghapāśa, Guanyin with the noose.

阿犍多 (or 阿揵多) āgantuka, any visitant, or incident; a visiting monk; accidental.

阿由 āyurvēda, one of the vedas, the science of life or longevity.

阿由多 (or 阿庾多) ayuta, variously stated as a million or a thousand millions; and a 大阿由多 as ten thousand millions.

阿盧那 aruṇa, 阿留那 (or 阿樓那) ruddy, dawn-colour, dawn, south, fire, Mars, etc.

阿盧那花 aruṇakamala, the red lotus.

阿盧那跋底 A red-coloured incense.

阿目佉 (阿目佉跋折羅) Amogha, or Amoghavajra, 阿牟伽 (or 阿謨伽 or 阿穆伽) intp. 不空 (不空金剛) a monk from northern India, a follower of the mystic teachings of Samantabhadra. Vajramati 金剛智 is reputed to have founded the Yogācārya or Tantric school in China about A.D. 719-720. Amogha succeeded him in its leadership in 732. From a journey through India and Ceylon, 741-6, he brought to China more than 500 sutras and śāstras; introduced a new form for transliterating Sanskrit and published 108 works. He is credited with the introduction of the Ullambana fesival of All Souls, 15th of 7th moon, v. 盂. He is the chief representative of Buddhist mysticism in China, spreading it widely through the patronage of three successive emperors, Xuanzong, Suzong, who gave him the title of 大廣智三藏 q.v., and Daizong, who gave him the posthumous rank and title of a Minister of State. He died 774.

阿祇儞 or 阿祇尼 Agni, 阿耆尼 (or 阿擬尼) Fire, the fire-deva.

阿私仙 Asita-ṛṣi. 阿私陀 (or 阿斯陀); 阿氏多; 阿夷. (1) A ṛṣi who spoke the Saddhamapuṇḍarīka Sutra to Śākyamuni in a former incarnation. (2) The aged saint who pointed out the Buddha-signs on Buddha's body at his birth.

阿竭多 (or 阿揭多) Agastya, the star Canopus, also intp. as lightning.

阿竭多仙 One of the genī in the Nirvana Sutra, who stopped the flow of the Ganges for twelve years by allowing it to run into one of his ears.

阿維羅提 (or 阿比羅提) Abhirati, the eastern Pure Land of Akṣobhya.

阿縛羅訶佉 a-va-ra-ha-kha, a spell uniting the powers respectively of earth, water, fire, air, and space.

阿縛盧枳低濕伐邏 Avalokiteśvara, 阿縛盧枳帝濕伐邏 (or 阿縛盧枳多伊濕伐邏); 阿婆盧吉帝舍婆羅; 阿那婆婁吉低輸; 阿梨耶婆樓吉弓稅; also Āryā valokiteśvara. Intp. as 觀世音 or 光世音 'Regarder (or Observer) of the world's sounds, or cries'; or ? 'Sounds that enlighten the world'. Also 觀自在 The Sovereign beholder, a tr. of īśvara, lord, sovereign. There is much debate as to whether the latter part of the word is svara, sound, or īśvara, lord; Chinese interpretations vary. Cf. 觀音.

阿羅伽 rāga, desire, emotion, feeling, greed, anger, wrath; and many other meanings; derived from to dye, colour, etc.

阿羅歌 阿迦 or 阿伽 arka, or white flower, asclepias (M.W. says calotropis) gigantea. Cf. 阿呼.

阿羅波遮那 (or 阿羅婆遮那) arapacana, a mystical formula, v. Lévi's article on arapacana, Batavian Society Feestbundel, 1929, II, pp. 100 seq.

阿羅漢 arhan, arhat, lohan; worthy, venerable; an enlightened, saintly man; the highest type or ideal saint in Hīnayāna in contrast with the bodhisattva as the saint in Mahāyāna; intp. as 應供worthy of worship, or respect; intp. as 殺賊 arihat, arihan, slayer of the enemy, i.e. of mortality; for the arhat enters nirvana 不生 not to be reborn, having destroyed the karma of reincarnation; he is also in the stage of 不學 no longer learning, having attained. Also 羅漢; 阿盧漢; 阿羅訶 or 阿羅呵; 阿梨呵 (or 阿黎呵); 羅呵, etc.; cf. 阿夷; 阿畧.

阿羅漢向 The direction leading to arhatship, by cutting off all illusion in the realms of form and beyond form.

阿羅漢果 The fruit of arhat discipline.

阿羅漢訶 One of the titles of Buddha, the arhan who has overcome mortality.

阿羅磨 ārāma, garden, grove, pleasaunce; hence saṅghārāma, a monastery with its gardens. Also, 阿羅; 阿羅彌; 阿藍麽 or 阿藍摩; 藍.

阿羅邏 Ārāḍa Kālāma, v. next. Also the Atata or Hahava cold hells.

阿羅邏迦藍 Ālāra Kālāma or Ārāḍa Kālāma, the ṛṣi to whom Śākyamuni went on leaving home; another was Udraka Rāmaputra; they had attained to the concept of nothingness, including the non-existence of ideas. Other forms are 阿羅邏迦羅摩; 阿羅?迦邏摩; 阿藍迦; 阿藍 (阿藍伽藍); 阿蘭迦蘭; 羅勒迦藍.

阿羅闍 rāja, a king.

阿羅闍界 rāja-dhātu, a dominion; kingdom.

阿羯羅 āgāra, a house, dwelling, receptacle; tr. 境 and used in the sense of an organ, e.g. the ear for sound, etc.

阿耆多 ajita, v. 阿逸多.

阿耆多翅舍欽婆羅 (or 阿耆多頸舍欽婆羅 or阿耆多翅舍甘婆羅 or阿耆多頸舍甘婆羅; 阿末多 Ajita Keśa Kambalin, the unyielding one whose cloak is his hair. One of the six tīrthyas, or brahminical heretics, given to extravagant austerities; his doctrine was that the happiness of the next life is correlative to the sufferings of this life.

阿耆尼 agni, fire, v. 阿祇儞 'Agni or Akni, name of a kingdom... north of lake Lop'. Eitel.

阿耆達 (or 阿耆多達 or 阿耆陀 or 阿耆多陀) Agnidatta, name of a king.

阿耆毘伽 ājīvika, or ājīvaka, 邪命 One who lives on others, i.e. by improper means; an improper livelihood (for one in orders).

阿耨 v. 阿拏 aṇu; and used for Anavatapta, infra.

阿耨菩提 (阿耨多羅三藐三菩提) anuttara-samyak-saṃbodhi; or anubodhi. Unexcelled complete enlightenment, an attribute of every buddha; tr. by 無上正偏知; 無上正等正覺, the highest correct and complete, or universal knowledge or awareness, the perfect wisdom of a buddha, omniscience.

阿耨樓陀 Anuruddha, son of Amṛtodana, and 'cousin german' to Śākyamumi (Eitel); not Aniruddha; cf. 阿那.

阿耨窣都婆 anuṣṭubh; v, 阿莬.

阿耨觀音 Anu Guanyin, the twentieth of the thirty-three forms of the 'Goddess of Mercy', seated on a rook scanning the sea to protect or save voyagers.

阿耨達 阿那婆答多 (or 阿那波達多) Anavatapta, a lake in Jambudvīpa, north of the Himālayas, south of 香山 Gandha-mādana, descrbed as about 800 li in circumference, bordered by gold, silver, precious stones, etc. It is said to be the source of the four great rivers: east, the Ganges out of a silver ox mouth; south, the Indus out of that of an elephant; west, the Oxus; and north, the Śītā, said to be the Yellow River. Eitel has the Brahmaputra, Ganges, Śatadru (or Sutlej), and the Oxus; but there is confusion in the records. The Dragon-king of this lake became a Bodhisattva and is exempt from the distresses of the other seven dragon-kings. The阿耨達山 are the mountains north of the lake.

阿耶 āya, approach, drawing near.

阿耶羅 āyanā has the same meaning as 阿耶, but is intp. by 觀 to contemplate, look into.

阿耶怛那 (or 阿也怛那) āyatana, seat, abode, intp. by 入 or 處 entrance, or place i.e. the sadāyatanas, six entrances or places of sense-data, or sensation; v. 六 入.

阿耶揭哩婆 (or 阿耶揭唎婆) Hayagrīva, the horse-head Guanyin.

阿耶穆佉 Ayamukha, Hayamukha, an ancient kingdom in Central India.

阿育 Aśoka, 阿恕伽; 阿輸迦(or 阿舒迦, or 阿叔迦) Grandson of Candragupta (Sandrokottos), who united India and reached the summit of his career about 315 B.C. Aśoka reigned from about 274 to 237 B.C. His name Aśoka, 'free from care,' may have been adopted on his conversion. He is accused of the assassination of his brother and relatives to gain the throne, and of a fierce temperament in his earlier days. Converted, he became the first famous patron of Buddhism, encouraging its development and propaganda at home and abroad, to which existing pillars, etc., bear witness; his propaganda is said to have spread from the borders of China to Macedonia, Epirus, Egypt, and Cyrene. His title is Dharmāśoka; he should be distinguished from Kālāśoka, grandson of Ajātaśatru. Cf. 阿育伽經、 阿育伽傳, etc.

阿育伽樹 The name of a tree under which the mother of the Buddha was painlessly delivered of her son, for which Chinese texts give eight different dates; the jonesia aśoka; it is also called 畢利叉 vṛkṣa.

阿若多 (阿若) Ājñāta-kāuṇḍinya, 阿若憍陳如 one of the first five disciples of Śākyamuni, said to be the first to realize the Buddha-truth. ājñāta, his designation (i.e. recognized or confessed), is intp. as 巳知 Having known and 無知 Not knowing, or knowledge of non-existence. Or perhaps for ājñātṛ, confessor. Kaundinya, his surname, is said to mean a 'fire holder' from 'the early fire worship of the Brahmins.'

阿菟 aṇu, v. 阿拏.

阿菟吒闡提 anustubhchandas, a metre of two lines each in 8 十 8 syllables; also 阿耨窣都婆.

阿落刹婆 rākṣāsa, 阿落迦婆 demons, evil spirts; rākṣāsī are female demons, but are also said to be protectresses, cf. 羅叉婆.

阿薄健 Avakan, Vakhan, Khavakan; Wakhan, an ancient kingdom on the borders of the present Afghanistan, described by Xuanzang as 200 li south-east of Badakshan. Also 濕薄健; 劫薄健.

阿薩多 aṣāḍhā, is a double nakṣatra (two lunar mansions) associated with 箕, stars in Sagittarius; this form is said to be pūrvāṣāḍhā and is intp. as 軫, i.e. stars in Corvus, but these stars are in the Indian constellation Hastā, the Hand, which may be the more correct transliteration; cf. 阿沙陀.

阿薩闍 asādhya, incurable.

阿蘭若 āraṇya; from araṇya, 'forest.'阿蘭若迦 āraṇyaka, one who lives there. Intp. by 無諍聲 no sound of discord; 閑靜 shut in and quiet; 遠離 far removed; 空 寂 uninhabited and still; a lonely abode 500 bow-lengths from any village. A hermitage, or place of retirement for meditation. Three kinds of occupants are given: 達磨阿蘭若迦 dharma-āraṇyaka; 摩祭阿蘭若迦 mātaṅga-āraṇyaka, and 檀陀阿蘭若迦 daṇḍaka-āraṇyaka. Other forms are: 阿蘭那 or 阿蘭攘; 阿蘭陀 or 陁; 阿練若 or 阿練茄; 曷刺 M028515.

達磨阿蘭若迦 dharma-āraṇyaka, meditators on the principle of inactivity, or letting Nature have its course; see 阿蘭若.

摩祭阿蘭若迦 mātaṅga-āraṇyaka, those who dwell among the dead, away from human voices; see 阿蘭若.

檀陀阿蘭若迦 daṇḍaka-āraṇyaka, those who dwell in sandy deserts and among rocks (as in the ancient Deccan); see 阿蘭若.

阿術達 Āśu-cittā, daughter of Ajātaśatru, king of Magadha, noted for her wisdom at 12 years of age.

阿詣羅 Aṅgiras, one of the seven deva-ṛṣis born from Brahma's mouth, shown in the Diamond Court of the Garbhadhātu, red coloured, holding a lotus on which is a vase; in Sanskrit the planet Jupiter. A title of the Buddha. Also M030215 M021474 伽羅和.

阿誓單闍那 (or 阿恃單闍那) ajitaṃjaya, invincible, a charm for entering the meditation on invincibility. Cf. 阿恃.

阿說他 aśvattha, a tree, the ficus religiosa, or bodhi-tree, called also the 無罪樹 no-sin tree, because whoever goes around it three times is rid of sin. Also 阿濕波他; 阿舍波陀; 阿輸他.

阿說羅部 aiśvarikas, a theistic school of Nepal, which set up Ādi-Buddha as a supreme divinity.

阿賀羅 āhāra, v. 食 9.

阿賒迦 A kind of hungry ghost; ? connected with Aśanāyuka.

阿賴耶 ālaya, an abode, resting-place (hence Himālaya, the storehouse of snow), intp. as 無沒 non-disappearing, perhaps non-melting, also as 藏 store. Other forms are 阿利耶 (or 阿梨耶, 阿黎耶, or 阿羅耶); also 賴 or 梨耶. Any of these terms is used in abbreviation for Ālaya-vijñāna.

阿賴耶外道 The ālaya heresy, one of the thirty heretical sects named in the 大日經, 住心, chapter 1, that the ālaya is a sort of eternal substance or matter, creative and containing all forms; when considered as a whole, it is non-existent, or contains nothing; when considered 'unrolled,' or phenomenal, it fills the universe. It seems to be of the nature of materialism as opposed to the idealistic conception of the ālaya-vijñāna.

阿賴耶識 ālaya-vijñāna. 'The receptacle intellect or consciousness;' 'the orginating or receptacle intelligence;' 'basic consciousness' (Keith). It is the store or totality of consciousness, both absolute and relative, impersonal in the whole, temporally personal or individual in its separated parts, always reproductive. It is described as 有情根本之心識 the fundamental mind-consciousness of conscious beings, which lays hold of all the experiences of the individual life: and which as storehouse holds the germs 種子 of all affairs; it is at the root of all experience, of the skandhas, and of all things on which sentient beings depend for existence. Mind is another term for it, as it both stores and gives rise to all seeds of phenomena and knowledge. It is called 本識 original mind, because it is the root of all things; 無沒識 inexhaustible mind, because none of its seeds (or products) is lost; 現識 manifested mind, because all things are revealed in or by it; 種子識 seeds mind, because from it spring all individualities, or particulars; 所知依識 because it is the basis of all knowledge; 異熟識 because it produces the rounds of morality, good and evil karma, etc.; 執持識 or 阿陀那 q.v., that which holds together, or is the seed of another rebirh, or phenomena, the causal nexus; 第一識 the prime or supreme mind or consciousness; 宅識 abode (of) consciousness; 無垢識 unsullied consciousness when considered in the absolute, i.e. the Tathāgata; and 第八識, as the last of the eight vijñānas. There has been much discussion as to the meaning and implications of the ālaya-vijñāna. It may also be termed the unconscious, or unconscious absolute, out of whose ignorance or unconsciousness rises all consciousness.

阿跋多羅 avatāra, descent or epiphany, especially of a deity; but intp. as 無上 peerless and 入 to enter, the former at least in mistake for anuttara.

阿跋耶祇釐 Abhayagiri, Mount Fearless, in Ceylon at Anurādhapura; in its monastery a broad school of the Sthavirāḥ arose.

阿路巴 rūpya, silver.

阿路猱 Aruṇa, a mountain in the Punjab said formerly to fluctuate in height.

阿踰闍 Ayodhyā, 阿踰陀; 阿輸闍 capital of Kośala, headquarters of ancient Buddhdism, the present Oudh, Lat. 26° N., Long. 82° 4 E.

阿軫M067750 acintya, beyond conception, v. 不思議.

阿輸柯 Younger brother of Aśoka; he is said to have reigned for seven days and then resigned to Aśoka, but cf. Mahendra under 摩.

阿轆轆地 The land where all goes smoothly along (a-lu-lu) at will; idem 轉轆轆地.

阿迦 Translit. aka, agha, etc.

阿迦奢 ākāśa, the sky space, the air, ether, atmosphere.

阿迦色 agna, but may be ākāśa; it has two opposite interpretations, substantial and unsubstantial, the latter having special reference to the empyrean.

阿迦囊 阿迦; 阿揭多 A flash in the east, the lightning god; the term is defined as 無厚 not solid, liquid, Sanskrit aghana (aghanam).

阿迦雲 A physician, a healer, probably should be 阿迦曇.

阿迦曇 agadaṃ; especially Bhaiṣajyarāia, the King of Medicine, or Healing.

阿迦尼吒 (阿迦瑟吒) akaniṣṭha, not the least, i.e. the highest, or eighteenth of the heavens of form, or brahmalokas; also阿迦尼沙吒(or 阿迦尼師吒) or 阿迦尼沙託 or 阿迦尼師託; 阿迦貳吒; 阿迦尼M012229 (阿迦瑟M012229); 尼吒;尼師吒; 二吒.

阿逸多 (阿逸) ajita, 無能勝 invincible, title of Maitreya; and of others. Also 阿氏多 (or 阿底多, 阿M060537多, or 阿嗜多); 阿私陀; 阿夷頭.

阿遮利耶 ācārya, 阿闍黎, 闍黎 or 阿闍梨, 闍梨; 阿舍梨; 阿祇利 or 阿祇梨 spiritual teacher, master, preceptor; one of 正行 correct conduct, and able to teach others. There are various categories, e.g. 出家阿遮利 one who has charge of novices; 教授阿遮利 a teacher of the discipline; 羯磨阿遮利 of duties; 授經阿遮利 of the scriptures; 依止阿遮利 the master of the community.

阿遮羅 (or 阿遮攞); 阿奢羅 Acala, Immovable, the name of Āryācalanātha 不動明王, the one who executes the orders of Vairocana. Also, a stage in Bodhisattva development, the eighth in the ten stages towards Buddhahood.

阿遮樓 Name of a mountain.

阿避陀羯剌拏 Avidhakarṇa, unpierced ears, name of an ancient monastery near Benares; 'near Yodhapatipura'(Eitel).

阿那 āna, 安那 inhalation, v. 阿那波那.

阿那他 anātha, protector-less.

阿那他賓低 Anāthapiṇḍada, a wealthy elder of Śrāvastī, famous for liberality to the needy, and his gift of the Jetavana with its gardens and buildings to the Buddha, cf. 祇. His original name was 須達多 Sudatta and his wife's 毘舍佉 Viśākhā.

阿那含 (or 阿那鋡); 阿那伽迷 (or 阿那伽彌) anāgāmin, the 不來 non-coming, or 不還 non-returning arhat or saint, who will not be reborn in this world, but in the rūpa and arūpa heavens, where he will attain to nirvana.

阿那含向 One who is aiming at the above stage.

阿那含果 The third of the 四果 four fruits, i.e. the reward of the seeker after the above stage.

阿那婆婁吉低輸 Āryāvalokiteśvara, a title of Guanyin v. 阿縛.

阿那律 阿那律徒(or 阿那律陀); 阿?棲馱 (or 阿M045781棲馱); 阿尼盧豆 (or 阿莬盧豆) (or 阿尼律陀) Aniruddha, 'unrestrained,' tr. by 無滅 unceasing, i.e. the benefits resulting from his charity; or 如意無貪 able to gratify every wish and without desire. One of the ten chief disciples of Buddha; to reappear as the Buddha Samantaprabhāsa; he was considered supreme in 天眼 deva insight. Cf. 阿耨.

阿那波那 (阿那阿波那); 安般; 安那般那(or 阿那般那) ānāpāna, breathing, especially controlled breathing; āna is intp. as exhaling and apāna as inhaling, which is the opposite of the correct meaning; the process is for calming body and mind for contemplation by counting the breathing.

阿那耆智羅 A spell for healing sickness, or charm for preventing it; others of similar title are for other saving purposes.

阿那藪囉嚩 (or 阿那籬攞嚩) anāsrava, free from mortality and its delusions.

阿部曇 The Arbuda hell, cf. 頞.

阿鉢唎瞿陀尼 Aparagodāna; apara, west; godana, ox-exchange, where oxen are used as money; the western of the four continents of every world, circular in shape and with circular-faced people. Also 啞咓囉孤答尼耶. Cf. 瞿.

阿鉢底鉢喇底提舍那 āpatti-pratideśanā, confession, 懺悔.

阿鉢羅 M067463 訶諦apratihata, irresistible, unaffected by.

阿鉢唎市多 Aparājita, name of a yakṣa; also 阿跋唎爾多; 阿波羅實多; as a symbol of invincibility it is written 阿波羅質多.

阿鑁 avaṃ. 'a' is the Vairocana germ-word in the Garbhadhātu, 'Vaṃ' the same in the Vajradhātu, hence avaṃ includes both.

阿鑁覽唅缺 a-vam-ram-ham-kham is the highest formula of the 眞言 Shingon sect; it represents all the five elements, or composite parts of Vairocana in his corporeal nature, but also represents him in his 法身 or spiritual nature; cf. 阿卑, etc., and 阿羅 Arapacana.

阿閦 Akṣobhya, 阿閦鞞; 阿閦婆; 阿芻閦耶 unmoved, imperturbable; tr. 不動; 無動 also 無怒; 無瞋恚 free from anger, according to his Buddha-vow. One of the Five Buddhas, his realm Abhirata, Delightful, now being in the east, as Amitābha's is in the west. He is represented in the Lotus as the eldest son of Mahābhijñābhibhū 大通智勝, and was the Bodhisattva ? jñānākara 智積 before he became Buddha; he has other appearances. akṣobhya is also said to mean 100 vivara s, or 1 followed by 17 ciphers, and a 大通智勝 is ten times that figure.

阿闍世 Ajātaśatru, 阿闍貰; 阿闍多設咄路; 未生怨 'Enemy before birth'; a king of Magadha whose father, Bimbisāra, is said to have sought to kill him as ill-omened. When grown up he killed his father and ascended the throne. At first inimical to Śākyamuni, later he was converted and became noted for his liberality; died circa 519 B.C. Also called 'Broken fingers' and Kṣemadarśin. His son and successor was Udāyi; and a daughter was ? Aśu-dharā. According to a Tibetan legend an infant son of Ajātaśatru was kidnapped, or exposed, and finally became king of Tibet named ~Na-khri-btsan-po.

阿闍梨 ācārya, ācārin, v. 阿遮.

阿闡底 (阿闡底遮) anicchantika, without desire, averse from, i.e. undesirous of nirvana.

阿闥婆那 (or 阿達婆那) (or 阿達波陀 or 阿達波陀) ātharvaṇa, v, 阿他 the Atharva Veda.

阿陀 agada, v. 阿伽陀.

阿陀那 ādāna, intp. by 執持 holding on to, maintaining; holding together the karma, good or evil, maintaining the sentient organism, or the germ in the seed or plant. It is another name for the ālaya-vijñāna, and is known as the 阿陀那識 ādānavijñāna.

阿難陀 Ānanda, 阿難; intp. by 歡喜 Joy; son of Droṇodana-rāja, and younger brother of Devadatta; he was noted as the most learned disciple of Buddha and famed for hearing and remembering his teaching, hence is styled 多聞; after the Buddha's death he is said to have compiled the sutras in the Vaibhāra cave, v. 畢, where the disciples were assembled in Magadha. He is reckoned as the second patriarch. Ānandabhadra and Ānandasāgara are generally given as two other Ānandas, but this is uncertain.

阿難陀夜叉 A yakṣa, called White Teeth.

阿難陀補羅 Ānandapura, a place given by Eitel as north-east of Gujarat; 'the present Bārnagar, near Kurree,' which was 'one of the strongholds of the Jain sect.'

阿鞞跋致 avaivartika, avivartin, aparivartya, 不退轉 One who never recedes; a Bodhisattva who, in his progress towards Buddhahood, never retrogrades to a lower state than that to which he has attained. Also 阿毘跋致; 阿惟越致.

阿順那 arjuna, white, silvery; the tree terminalia arjuna; part of the name of 那伽閼剌樹那, Nāgārjuna. q.v. Also 阿闍那; 阿周陀那; 頞陀那; 夷離淳那.

阿顚底迦 ātyantika, final, endless, tr. by 畢竟 to or at the end, e.g. no mind for attaining Buddhahood; cf. 阿闡.

阿馱囉 ādara 阿陀囉 to salute with folded hands, palms together.

阿鳩羅加羅 ākulakara, disturbing, upsetting; name of a wind.

阿鼻 Avīci, 阿鼻旨; 阿鼻脂; 阿鼻至; the last and deepest of the eight hot hells, where the culprits suffer, die, and are instantly reborn to suffering, without interruption 無間. It is the 阿鼻地獄 (阿鼻旨地獄) or the 阿鼻焦熱地獄hell of unintermitted scorching; or the阿鼻喚地獄 hell of unintermitted wailing; its wall, out of which there is no escape, is the 阿鼻大城.

varṣa. Rain; to rain.

雨乞 To pray for rain.

雨安居 雨時; 雨期 varṣās; varṣavasāna; the rains, the rainy season, when was the summer retreat, v. 安居.

雨花, 雨華 To rain down (celestial) flowers.

雨衆 The disciples of 伐里沙 Vārṣya, i.e. Vārṣagaṇya, a leader of the Saṃkhyā school.

nīla, blue, dark-coloured; also green, black, or grey; clear.

靑心 An unperturbed mind.

靑提女 The mother of Maudgalyāyana in a former incarnation, noted for her meanness.

靑河 淸河 The blue, or clear river, Vanksu, Vaksu, the Oxus.

靑目 Blue-eyed.

靑蓮 utpala, v. 優鉢羅 Blue lotus.

靑面金剛 The blue-faced rāja, protector of Buddhism, king of the yaksas, with open mouth, dog's fangs, three eyes, four arms, wearing skulls on his head, serpents on his legs, etc.

靑頭 靑頸觀音 The blue-head, or blue-neck Guanyin, the former seated on a cliff, the latter with three faces, the front one of pity, the side ones of a tiger and a pig.

靑鬼 Blue (or green) demons who abuse the sufferers in Hades.

靑龍 Blue or Green dragon.

Not: un-: without, apart from; wrong.

非三非一 Neither three nor one; a Tiantai phrase, that the 空假中 or noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya or mean, are three aspects of absolute truth, but are not merely three nor merely one; idem the 三德 three powers, i.e. dharmmkāya, wisdom, and nirvana.

非二聚 Apart from the two categories of matter and mind; v. 非色非心.

非人 Not-men, not of the human race, i.e. devas, kinnaras, nāgas, māras, rakṣas, and all beings of darkness; sometimes applied to monks who have secluded themselves from the world and to beggars, i.e. not like ordinary men.

非六生 Not arising directly from the mind, which is the sixth sense, but from the other senses.

非喩 An imaginary and not factual metaphor, one of the eight forms of comparison 八喩.

非器 A vessel unfit for Buddha or Buddhism, e.g. a woman's body, which is unclean, v. Lotus Sutra 提襲 chapter 12.

非天 Not devas, i.e. asuras, v. 阿修羅.

非學者 Those who do not learn Buddha-truth, hence 非學世着 is a world of such.

非安立 The unestablished, or undetermined; that which is beyond terminology. 非安立諦 The doctrine of 非安立眞如 the bhūtatathatā, the absolute as it exists in itself, i.e. indefinable, contrasted with the absolute as expressible in words and thought, a distinction made by the 唯識論.

非常 anitya, 無常 impermanent, transient, illusory, as evidenced by old age, disease, and death.

非常苦空非我 Impermanent, suffering, empty, non-ego— such is life.

非心 Apart from mind, without mind, beyond mentation.

非心非佛 Apart from mind there is no Buddha; the positive statement is 是心是佛 this mind is Buddha.

非思量底 According to the orthodox or teaching sects, not to discriminate, or reason out; according to the Ch'an sect, to get rid of wrong thoughts (by freeing the mind from active operation).

非情 Non-sentient objects such as grass, wood; earth, stone.

非情成佛 The insentient become (or are) Buddha, a tenet of the 圓教, i.e. the doctrine of pan-Buddha.

非想 Beyond the condition of thinking or not-thinking, of active consciousness or unconsciousness; an abbrev. for 非想非非想天 or 非想非非想處.

非有想. The 定 or degree of meditation of this name leads to rebirth in the arūpa heaven; which is not entirely free from distress, of which it has 八苦 eight forms.

非所斷 Not to be cut off, i.e. active or passive nirvana (discipline); one of the 三所斷.

非時 Untimely; not the proper, or regulation time (for meals), which is: from dawn to noon; hence 非時食 to eat out of hours, i.e. after noon.

非時食 to eat out of hours, i.e. after noon.

非有 abhāva. Non-existent, not real.

非有想非無想天 (or非有想非無想天處) Nāivasaṃjñānāsṃjñāyatana. 非想非非想天 The heaven or place where there is neither thinking nor not-thinking; it is beyond thinking; the fourth of the 四 空 天 four immaterial heavens, known also as the 有頂天.

非有非空 Neither existing nor empty; neither material nor immaterial; the characterization of the bhūtatathatā (in the 唯識論), i.e. the ontological reality underlying all phenomena. In the light of this, though the phenomenal has no reality in itself 非有, the noumenal is not void 非空.

非業 Death by accident said not to be determined by previous karma; a sudden, unnatural, accidental death.

非滅 The Buddha's 'extinction' or death not considered as real, v. 非生非滅.

非生非滅 The doctrine that the Buddha was not really born and did not really die, for he is eternal; resembling Docetism.

非色 arūpa, formless, i.e. without rūpa, form, or shape, not composed of the four elements. Also the four skandhas, 非色四薀 excluding rūpa or form.

非色非心 Neither matter nor mind, neither phenomenal nor noumenal; the triple division of all things is into 色, 心, and 非色非心phenomenal, noumenal, and neither.

非菩薩 Not Bodhisattvas, those who have not yet inclined their hearts to Mahāyāna.

非道 Wrong ways, heterodox view, or doctrines.

非非想天 or 非非想處 v. 非有.

非食 Not to eat out of regulation hours, v. 非時食.

非黑非白業 Neither black nor white karma, karma which does not affect metempsychosis either for evil or good; negative or indifferent karma.

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