A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 3 - Three Strokes

Ten feet; an elder; a wife's parents; a husband.

丈六 Sixteen "feet", the normal height of a Buddha in his "transformation body" 化 身 nirmāṇa-kāya; said to be the height of the Buddha when he was on earth.

丈六金身 sixteen-foot diamond-body; also a metal or golden image of the Buddha 16 feet high mentioned in the 北史 Northern History.

丈夫 A virile, zealous disciple, a man who presses forward unceasingly.

丈夫志幹 A firm-willed man, especially used of a bodhisattva who dauntlessly presses forward.

丈夫國 The country of virile men, Puruṣapura 富婁沙富羅, ancient capital of Gandhāra, the modern Peshawar; birthplace of 天親 Vasubandhu.

hīna, adhara. Below, lower, inferior, low; to descend, let down, put down.

下三途 The three lower paths of the six destinations (gati) 六道, i.e. beings in hell, pretas, and animals.

下乘 The lower yāna, i.e. Hīnayāna; likened to an old worn-out horse. To alight from (a vehicle, horse, etc.).

下八地 The regions in the nine divisions of the trailokya below the 無所有處地 of the arūpadhātu, v. 九地.

下劣乘 The inferior, mean yāna, a scornful term for Hīnayāna.

下化 (下化衆生) Below, to transform all beings, one of the great vows of a bodhisattva. 上求菩提 above, to seek bodhi. Also 下濟衆生.

下口食 one of the 四邪命食 four heterodox means of living, i.e. for a monk to earn his livelihood by bending down to cultivate the land, collect herbs, etc.; opposite of 仰口食, i.e. making a heterodox living by looking up, as in astrology, fortune-telling, etc. 智度論 3.

下品 The three lowest of the nine classes born in the Amitābha Pure Land, v. 無量壽經. These three lowest grades are (1) 下品上生 The highest of the three lowest classes who enter the Pure Land of Amitābha, i.e. those who have committed all sins except dishonouring the sūtras. If at the end of life the sinner clasps hands and says "Namo Amitābha", such a one will be born in His precious lake. (2) 下品中生 The middle class consists of those who have broken all the commandments, even stolen from monks and abused the law. If at death such a one hears of the great power of Amitābha, and assents with but a thought, he will be received into paradise. (3) 下品下生 The lowest class, because of their sins, should have fallen into the lowest gati, but by invoking the name of Amitābha, they can escape countless ages of reincarnation and suffering and on dying will behold a lotus flower like the sun, and, by the response of a single thought, will enter the Pure Land of Amitābha.

下地 The lower regions of the 九地 q. v.; also the lower half of the 十地 in the fifty-two grades of bodhisattva development.

下地麤苦障 To see the lower grade out of which one has migrated, as rough, wretched, and a hindrance; a Brahman form of meditation.

下堂 To descend from the hall, especially after the morning congee.

下塵 The lower gati, the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

下根 Those (born) with base character, or of low capacity.

下棒 To lay on the cudgel, beat; syn. for the 德山 Te Shan monastery, whose Chan sect abbot instilled intelligence with his staff.

下火 下炬 To apply the torch; syn. for setting alight the funeral pyre of a monk.

下生經 idem 彌勤下生經.

下界 The lower, or human world 人界.

下種 To sow the seed; to preach, or teach. Tiantai defines three periods: (1) 種 when the seed of Buddha's teaching is sown in the heart; (2) 熟 when it ripens; (3) 脫 when it is stripped or harvested, i. e when one abandons all things.

下蠟 Inferior candles. The 上蠟 and 下蠟 superior and inferior candles are senior and junior monks; those of longer and shorter service; but see 上臈.

下衆 The seven lower orders of disciples, who with the monks and nuns in full orders make the 九衆.

下衣 The lowest order of a monk's robes, that of five patches; lower garments.

下語 To give instruction; to state a case (as at law).

下輩觀 A meditation of the Amitābha sect on the 下品 q. v.; it is the last of sixteen contemplations, and deals with those who have committed the five rebellious acts 五逆 and the ten evils 十惡, but who still can obtain salvation; v. 無量壽經. 下輩下生觀 idem.

下轉 The downward turn, in transmigration. Primal ignorance or unenlightenment 無明acting against the primal, true, or Buddha-nature causes transmigration. The opposite is上轉 when the good prevails over the evil. 下轉is sometimes used for 下化 to save those below.

下間 The inferior rooms of a monastery, on the left as one enters.

uttarā 嗢呾羅; above upper, superior; on; former. To ascend, offer to a superior.

上中下法 The three dharmas, systems, or vehicles, 菩薩, 緣覺, and 聲聞 bodhisattva, pratyeka-buddha, and śrāvaka.

上乘 Mahāyāna; also 上衍, 大乘 q. v.

上乘密宗 The Mahāyāna esoteric school, especially the 眞言 Shingon.

上乘瑜伽 Mahāyāna-yoga, chiefy associated with 上乘密宗.

上乘禪 The Mahāyāna Ch'an (Zen) School, which considers that it alone attains the highest realization of Mahāyāna truth. Hīnayāna philosophy is said only to realize the unreality of the ego and not the unreality of all things. The Mahāyāna realizes the unreality of the ego and of all things. But the Ch'an school is pure idealism, all being mind. This mind is Buddha, and is the universal fundamental mind.

上元燒燈 The lantern festival at the first full moon of the year.

上人 A man of superior wisdom, virtue, and conduct, a term applied to monks during the Tang dynasty.

上上人 A term used in the Pure Land sect for a worshipper of Amitābha.

上供 To offer up an offering to Buddha, or to ancestors.

上品 Superior order, grade, or class.

上品上生 上品中生; 上品下生 The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土.

上品蓮臺 The highest stages in the Pure Land where the best appear as lotus flowers on the pool of the seven precious things; when the lotuses open they are transformed into beings of the Pure Land.

上堂 To go into the hall to expound the doctrine; to go to a temple for the purpose of worship, or bearing presents to the monks; to go to the refectory for meals.

上堂牌 The tablet announcing the time of worship at a temple or monastery.

上士 The superior disciple, who becomes perfect in (spiritually) profiting himself and others. The 中士 profits self but not others; the 下士 neither.

上座 Sthavira; or Mahāsthavira. Old man, or elder; head monk, president, or abbot; the first Buddhist fathers; a title of Mahākāśyapa; also of monks of twenty to forty-nine years standing, as 中座 are from ten to nineteen and 下座 under ten. The 釋氏要覽 divides presiding elders into four classes, those presiding over monasteries, over assemblies of monks, over sects, and laymen presiding over feasts to monks.

上座部 他毘梨典部; 他鞞羅部 Sthavirāḥ; Sthaviranikāya; or Āryasthāvirāḥ. The school of the presiding elder, or elders. The two earliest sections of Buddhism were this (which developed into the Mahāsthavirāḥ) and the Mahāsānghikāḥ or 大衆部. At first they were not considered to be different schools, the 上座部 merely representing the intimate and older disciples of Śākyamuni and the 大衆 being the rest. It is said that a century later under Mahādeva 大天 a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions are named as resulting, viz. Mahāvihāravāsinaḥ, Jetavanīyāḥ, and Abhayagiri-vāsinaḥ. These were in Ceylon. In course of time the eighteen Hīnayāna sects were developed. From the time of Aśoka four principal schools are counted as prevailing: Mahāsāṅghika, Sthavira, Mūlasarvāstivda, and Saṁmitīya. The following is a list of the eleven sects reckoned as of the 上座部: 說一切有部; 雪山; 犢子; 法上; 賢冑; 正量; 密林山; 化地; 法藏; 飮光; and 經量部. The Sthaviravādin is reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agnostic system to a realistic philosophy.

上方 上手 An abbot 上方 originally meant a mountain monastery.

上根 A man of superior character or capacity, e.g. with superior organs of sight, hearing, etc.

上求本來 Similar to the first half of 上求菩提下化衆生 Above to seek bodhi, below to save all. 本來 means the original or Buddha-nature, which is the real nature of all beings.

上流 (上流般) ūrdhvasrotas. The flow upwards, or to go upwards against the stream of transmigration to parinirvāṇa. Also 上流般涅槃.

上煩惱 The severe fundamental trials arising out of the ten great delusions; also the trials or distresses of present delusions.

上界天 The devas of the regions of form and formlessness. v. 色.

上祭 To place offerings on an altar; also 下祭.

上綱 The 'higher bond' or superior, the 上座 or Sthavira, among the three directors of a monastery. v. 三綱.

上著衣 A monk's outer robe, uttarā-samghāṭī, worn over the shirt or antara-vāsaka.

上肩 Upper shoulder, i.e. the left or superior; one worthy of respect.

上肩順轉 Circumambulation with the superior shoulder to the image; the left was formerly considered the superior side; but this is uncertain.

上臈 The "la" is the end of a summer's retreat, which ends the monastic year, hence 上臈 are senior, 下臈 junior monks.

上茅城 (上茅宮城) Kuśāgrapura, 矩奢揭羅補羅 city of Kuśa-grass palaces, or山城 the mountain city. v. 吉祥茅國.

上行菩薩 Viśiṣṭa-cāritra Bodhisattva, who suddenly rose out of the earth as Buddha was concluding one of his Lotus sermons; v. Lotus sūtra 15 and 21. He is supposed to have been a convert of the Buddha in long past ages and to come to the world in its days of evil. Nichiren in Japan believed himself to be this Bodhisattva's reincarnation, and the Nichiren trinity is the Buddha, i.e. the eternal Śākyamuni Buddha; the Law, i.e. the Lotus Truth; and the Saṅgha, i.e. this Bodhisattva, in other words Nichiren himself as the head of all living beings, or eldest son of the Buddha.

上衍 Mahāyāna, 上乘; v. 大乘.

上衣 The superior or outer robe described as of twenty-five patches, and styled the uttarā saṁghātī.

上趣 The higher gati, directions, or transmigrations.

上足 A superior disciple or follower.

上輩 Superior, or highest class, idem 上品.

上輩觀 The fourteenth of the sixteen contemplations of the Amitābha school, with reference to those who seek the Pure Land with sincere, profound, and altruistic hearts.

上轉 The upward turn: (1) progress upward, especially in transmigration; (2) increase in enlightenment for self, while下轉 q.v. is for others.

上間 The superior rooms, i.e. on the right as one enters a monastery, the 下間 are on the left.

上首 President, or presiding elders.

Tri, trayas; three.

三一 Trinity; also 31.

三七日思惟 The twenty-one days spent by the Buddha, after his enlightenment, in walking round the bo-tree and considering how to carry his Mahāyāna way of salvation to the world; v. 法華經,方便品.

三三昧 (三三昧地) The three samādhis, or the samādhi on three subjects; 三三摩 (三三摩地); 三定, 三等持; 三空; 三治; 三解脫門; 三重三昧; 三重等持. There are two forms of such meditation, that of 有漏 reincarnational, or temporal, called 三三昧; and that of 無 漏 liberation, or nirvāṇa, called 三解脫. The three subjects and objects of the meditation are (1) 空 to empty the mind of the ideas of me and mine and suffering, which are unreal; (2) 無相to get rid of the idea of form, or externals, i.e. the 十相 which are the five senses, and male and female, and the three 有; (3) 無願 to get rid of all wish or desire, also termed無作 and 無起. A more advanced meditation is called the Double Three Samādhi 重三三昧 in which each term is doubled 空空, 無相無相, 無願無願. The esoteric sect has also a group of its own.

三不三信 This refers to the state of faith in the worshipper; the three 不 are impure, not single, not constant; the three 信 are the opposite.

三不善根 Three bad roots, or qualities — desire, anger, and stupidity 貪, 瞋, 痴, v. 三毒.

三不堅法 Three unstable things — the body, length of life, wealth.

三不失 The three never lost, idem 三不護.

三不淨肉 The three kinds of flesh unclean to a monk killed, or has doubt about it; v. 三淨肉.

三不能 v. 三能.

三不護 The three that need no guarding i.e. the 三業 of a Buddha, his body, mouth (or lips), and mind, which he does not need to guard as they are above error.

三不退 The three non-backslidings, i.e. from position attained, from line of action pursued, and in dhyāna.

三世 The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來or 過, 現, 未, past, present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like flowing stream. Also 未生, 巳生,後滅, or 未, 現, 過 unborn, born, dead The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Also 三際.

三世三千佛 The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas — of the past, called 莊嚴 kalpa, the present 賢, and the future 星宿. Their names are variously given in several sutra, with a complete list in the 三手佛名經.

三世不可得 Everything past, present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fleeting, and cannot be held; v. 三世心.

三世了達 A Buddha's perfect knowledge of past, present, and future.

三世佛 The Buddhas of the past, present, and future, i.e. Kāsyapa, Śākyamuni, and Maitreya.

三世假實 The reality or otherwise of things or events past, present, and future. Some Hīnayāna schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past 已有and the future 當有. Others take different views, all of which have been exhaustively discussed. See Vibhāśā śāstra 婆沙論 77 or 俱舍論 20.

三世實有法體恒有 The Sarvāstivadah school maintains that as the three states (past, present, future) are real, so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real, matter is eternal.

三世心 Mind, or thought, past, present or future, is momentary, always moving, unreal and cannot be laid hold of.

三世成佛 idem 三生.

三世智 One of a Tathāgata's ten kinds of wisdom, i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future.

三世無障礙智戒 The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments, past, present, and future. Also styled 三昧耶戒; 自性本源戒; 三平等戒; 菩提心戒; 無爲戒 and 眞法戒.

三世覺母 A name for Mañjuśrī 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future.

三世間 There are two definitions: (1) The realms of 器 matter, of 衆生 life, and 智正覺 mind, especially the Buddha's mind. (2) The 五陰 psychological realm (mind), 衆生 realm of life, and 國土 or 器material realm.

三乘 Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三乘家 The Dharmalakṣaṇa School of the Three Vehicles, led by the 法相宗.

三乘眞實一乘方便 The 三乘家 consider the Triyāna as real, and the "one vehicle" of the Lotus School as merely tactical, or an expedient form of expression.

事戒 The commands relating to body, speech, and mind 身, 口, 意.

三事練磨 v. 三退屈.

三事衲 (or 三事衣) A term for a monk's robe of five, seven, or nine patches.

三仙二天 The three ṛṣis or wise men and the two devas, i.e. 迦毘羅 Kapila, founder of the Sāṁkhya philosophy; 鵂鶹 or 優樓佉 Ulūka or Kaṇāda, founder of the 勝論宗 or Vaiśeṣika philosophy; and 勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, founder of the Nirgranthas; with Śiva and Viṣṇu as the two deities.

三伐持 Saṃvaji; the heretical people of Vṛji, an ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, south-east of Nepal. (Eitel.).

三佛 Trikāya, v. 三身. Also the三岐 or founders of the 楊岐 branch of the Chan (Zen) School, i.e. Huiqin 慧勤, Qingyuan 淸遠, and Keqin 克勤.

三佛土 The three Buddha-lands, realms, or environment, corresponding to the Trikāya; v. 三身 and 佛土.

三佛子 All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kinds—the commonalty are 外子 external sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles, 小and 中 乘, are 庶子 secondary sons (i.e. of concubines); the bodhisattvas, i.e. mahāyānists) are 子 true sons, or sons in the truth.

三佛性 The three kinds of Buddha-nature: (1) 自性住佛性 the Buddha-nature which is in all living beings, even those in the three evil paths (gati). (2) 引出佛性 the Buddha-nature developed by the right discipline. (3) 至得果佛性 the final or perfected Buddha-nature resulting from the development of the original potentiality.

三佛栗底 saṃvṛti, which means concealed, not apparent, is intp. as common ideas世俗諦 or phenomenal truth; it is also intp. as that which hides reality, or seems to be real, the seeming.

三佛菩提 The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikāya, 三身, i.e. that under the bodhi tree, that of parinirvāṇa, that of tathāgatagarbha in its eternal nirvāṇa aspect.

三佛語 The Buddha's three modes of discourse—unqualifed, i.e. out of the fullness of his nature; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers; and both.

三佛身idem 三身.

三佛陀 saṃbuddha; the truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment.

三使 The three (divine) messengers—birth, sickness, death; v. 使. Also 三天使 .

三修 The three ways of discipline, i.e. three śrāvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three śrāvaka ways are 無常修 no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 非樂修 joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvāṇa-joy; 無我修 non-ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these.

三倒 idem 三顚倒.

三條椽下 Under three rafters—the regulation space for a monk's bed or seat; in meditation.

三假 prajñāpti. The word 假 q.v. in Buddhist terminology means that everything is merely phenomenal, and consists of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existeme, but all is empty and unreal, 虛妄不實. The three 假 are 法 things, 受 sensations, and 名 names.

三假施設 三攝提The three fallacious postulates in regard to 法, 受, and 名.

三假觀 The meditations on the three false assumptions 三假.

三僧祇 idem 三阿僧祇劫.

三M067874 The three misleading things: 貪 desire, 瞋 ire, and 邪 perverted views. M067874= 愆.

三僞一眞 The three half-true, or partial revelations of the 小乘, 中乘 and 大乘, and the true one of the Lotus Sūtra.

三憶家 The 300,000 families of Śrāvastī city who had never heard of the Buddha's epiphany— though he was often among them.

三光 (三光天) Sun, moon, and stars. Also, in the second dhyāna of the form-world there are the two deva regions 少光天, 無量光天, and 光音天q.v. Also 觀音 Avalokiteśvara is styled 日天子sun-prince, or divine son of the sun, 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprapta is styled 月天子 divine son of the moon, and 虛空藏菩薩 the bodhisattva of the empyrean, is styled 明星天子 divine son of the bright stars.

三八日 The eighth, eighteenth, and twenty-eighth days of a moon.

三六 Eighteen, especially referring to the eighteen sects of Hīnayāna.

三六九 An esoteric objection to three, six, or nine persons worshipping together.

三具足 The three essential articles for worship: flower-vase, candlestick, and censer.

三力 The three powers, of which there are various groups: (1) (a) personal power; (6) tathāgata-power; (c) power of the Buddha-nature within. (2) (a) power of a wise eye to see the Buddha-medicine (for evil); (b) of diagnosis of the ailment; (c) of suiting and applying the medicine to the disease. (3) (a) the power of Buddha; (b) of samādhi; (c) of personal achievement or merit.

三力偈 The triple-power verse: 以我功德力 In the power of my virtue, 如來加持力. And the aiding power of the Tathāgata, 及與法界力 And the power of the spiritual realm, 周遍衆生界 I can go anywhere in the land of the living.

三分科經 The three divisions of a treatise on a sūtra, i. e. 序分introduction, 正宗分discussion of the subject, 流通分application.

The three asaṃkhyeya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattva's development; also the past 莊嚴劫, the present 賢劫, and the future 星宿劫 kalpas. There are other groups. 三劫三千佛 The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas.

tridaśa. Thirty; abbreviation for the thirty-three deities, heavens, etc.

十二 dvātriṃśa. Thirty-two. 三十二應 (or 三十二身) The thirty-two forms of Guanyin, and of Puxian, ranging from that of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a rakṣas; similar to the thirty-three forms named in the Lotus Sūtra. 三十二相三十二大人相 dvātriṃśadvaralakṣaṇa. The thirty-two lakṣaṇas, or physical marks of a cakravartī, or 'wheel-king', especially of the Buddha, i. e. level feet, thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hands reaching below the knees well-retracted male organ, height and stretch of arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured, body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the 七處, i. e. two soles, two palms, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-shaped body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the four canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and resonant, eyes deep blue, eyelashes like a royal bull, a white ūrnā or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an uṣṇīṣa or fleshy protuberance on the crown. These are from the 三藏法數 48, with which the 智度論 4, 涅盤經 28, 中阿含經, 三十ニ相經 generally agree. The 無量義經 has a different list. 三十二相經 The eleventh chapter of the 阿含經. 三十二相經願 The twenty-first of Amitābha's vows, v. 無量壽經. 三十三 trayastriṃśat. Thirty-three. 三十三天忉利天; 憺梨天, 多羅夜登陵舍; 憺利夜登陵奢; 憺利耶憺利奢 Trayastriṃśas. The Indra heaven, the second of the six heavens of form. Its capital is situated on the summit of Mt. Sumeru, where Indra rules over his thirty-two devas, who reside on thirty-two peaks of Sumeru, eight in each of the four directons. Indra's capital is called 殊勝 Sudarśana, 喜見城 Joy-view city. Its people are a yojana in height, each one's clothing weighs 六鐵 (1/4 oz. ), and they live 1, 000 years, a day and night being equal to 100 earthly years. Eitel says Indra's heaven 'tallies in all its details with the Svarga of Brahminic mythology' and suggests that 'the whole myth may have an astronomical meaning', or be connected, with 'the atmosphere with its phenomena, which strengthens Koeppen's hypothesis explaining the number thirty-three as referring to the eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Ādityas, and two Aśvins of Vedic mythology'. In his palace called Vaijayanta 'Indra is enthroned with 1, 000 eyes with four arms grasping the vajra. There he revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife Śacī... and with 119, 000 concubines with whom he associates by means of transformation'.

十三觀音 (三十三尊觀音) The thirty-three forms in which Guanyin is represented: with willow, dragon, sutra, halo, as strolling, with white robe, as lotus-sleeping, with fishing-creel, as medicine-bestowing, with folded hands, holding a lotus, pouring water, etc. 三十三過 The thirty-three possible fallacies in the statement of a syllogism, nine in the proposition 宗 pratijñā, fourteen in the reason 因 hetu, and ten in the example 喩 udāharaṇa.

十三身 The thirty-three forms in which Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin) is said to have presented himself, from that of a Buddha to that of a woman or a rakṣas. Cf. Lotus Sūtra 普門 chapter.

十五佛 The thirty-five Buddhas before whom those who have committed sins involving interminable suffering should heartily repent. There are different lists.

十六物 The thirty-six physical parts and excretions of the human body, all being unclean, i. e. the vile body.

三十六神 (三十六部神) The thirty-six departmental guardian divinities given in the 灌頂三歸五戒帶佩護身咒經. Each is styled 彌栗頭 mṛdu, benign, kindly, for which 善 is used. Their Sanskrit and Chinese names are given in Chinese as follows: (1) 不羅婆 or 善光 kindly light, has to do with attacks of disease; (2) 婆呵婆 or 善明 headaches; (3) 婆邏婆 or 善力 fevers; (4) 抗陀羅 or 善月 disorders of the stomach; (5) 陀利奢 or 善見 tumours; (6) 阿婁呵 or 善供 madness; (7) 伽婆帝 or 善捨 stupidity; (8) 悉抵哆 or 善寂 irascibility; (9) 菩堤薩 or善覺 lust; (10) 提婆羅 or 善天 devils; (11) 阿婆帝 or 善住 deadly injuries; (12) 不若羅 of 善福 graves; (13) 苾闍伽 or 善術 the four quarters; (14) 迦隸婆 or 善帝 enemies; (15) 羅闍遮 or 善主 robbers; (16) 須乾陀 or 善香 creditors; (17) 檀那波 or 善施 thieves; (18) 支多那 or 善意 pestilence; (19) 羅婆那 or 善吉 the five plagues (? typhoid); (20) 鉢婆馱 or 善山 corpse worms; (21) 三摩提 or 善調 continuous concentration; (22) 戾禘馱 or 善備 restlessness; (23) 波利陀 or 善敬 attraction; (24) 波利那 or 善淨 evil cabals; (25) 度伽地 or 善品 deadly poison; (26) 毘梨馱 or 善結 fear; (27) 支陀那 or 善壽 calamities; (28) 伽林摩 or 善逝 childbirth and nursing; (29) 阿留伽 or 善願 the district magistracy; (30) 闍利馱 or 善固 altercations; (31) 阿伽駄 or 善照 anxieties and distresses; (32) 阿訶婆 or 善生 uneasiness; (33) 婆和邏 or 善思 supernatural manifestations; (34) 波利那 or 善藏 jealousy; (35) 固陀那 or 善音 curses; (36) 韋陀羅 or 善妙 exorcism. They have innumerable assistants. He who writes their names and carries them with him can be free from all fear.

三十七道品 三十七分法, 三十七菩提分法, 三十七品 The thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi, or Buddhahood, i. e. 四念處 smṛtyupasthāna, four states of memory, or subjects of reflection; 四正勤 samyakprahāṇa, four proper lines of exertion; 四如意足 ṛddhipāda, four steps towards supernatural power; 五根 pañca indriyāṇi, five spiritual faculties; 五力pañca balāni, their five powers; 七覺支 sapta bodhyaṅga, seven degrees of enlightenment, or intelligence; and 八正道 aṣṭa-mārga, the eightfold noble path.

三十七尊 The thirty-seven heads in the Vajradhātu or Diamond-realm maṇḍala.

三十七尊四大輪 The four large circles in each of which the thirty-seven are represented, in one all hold the diamond-realm symbol, the vajra; in another, the symbol relating to the triple realm of time, past, present, future; in another, the Guanyin symbol; and in another, the symbol of infinite space.

三十捨墮 idem 尼薩耆波逸提.

三十生 In each of the 十地 ten states there are three conditions, 入, 住, 出, entry, stay, exit, hence the 'thirty lives'.

三千 trisahasra, three thousand; a term used by the Tiantai School for 一切諸法, i. e. all things, everything in a chiliocosm, or Buddhaworld; v. 三千大千世界.

三千佛 idem 三世.

三千塵點劫 The kalpa of the ancient Buddha Mahābhijñābhibhū (大通智; 勝佛), mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra, i. e. a kalpa of incalculable antiquity, e. g. surpassing the number of the particles of a chiliocosm which has been ground to powder, turned into ink, and dropped, drop by drop, at vast distances throughout boundless space.

三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu, a great chiliocosm; 三千; 三千界, 三千世界. Mt. Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm 小千世界; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1, 000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is the same as 大千世界, which is one Buddha-world.

三千實相 The reality at the basis of all things, a Tiantai doctrine, i. e. the 眞如 or 法性 idem 諸法實相.

三千年一現 The udumbara flower which flowers but once in 3, 000 years; v. 優.

三千威儀 A bhikṣu's regulations amount to about 250; these are multiplied by four for the conditions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1, 000; again multiplied by three for past, present, and future, they become 3, 000 regulations.

三千威儀經 The sūtra of the three thousand regulations.

三印 The three signs or proofs of a Hīnayāna sutra— non-permanence, non-personality, nirvāṇa; without these the sūtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Māra; the proof of a Mahāyāna sūtra is the doctrine of 一實 ultimate reality, q. v. Also 三法印.

三卽一 The three vehicles (Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna) are one, i. e. the three lead to bodhisattvaship and Buddhahood for all.

三受 The three states of Vedanā, i. e. sensation, are divided into painful, pleasurable, and freedom from both 苦, 樂, 捨. When things are opposed to desire, pain arises; when accordant, there is pleasure and a desire for their continuance; when neither, one is detached or free. 倶舍論 1.

三受業 The karma or results arising from the pursuit of courses that produce pain, pleasure, or freedom from both.

三句 Three cryptic questions of 雲門 Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: (1) 截斷衆流 What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the 起信論 is 一心, i. e. the realization of the oneness of mind, or that all is mind. (2) 函蓋乾坤 What contains and includes the universe? The 眞如. (3) 隨波逐浪 One wave following another— what is this? Birth and death 生死, or transmigration, phenomenal existence.

三味 The three flavours, or pleasant savours: the monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation.

三和 The union of the three, i.e. 根 indriya, 境 ālambana, and 識 vijñāna, i.e. organ, object, and cognition.

三品 The general meaning is 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, inferior.

三品悉地 The three esoteric kinds of siddhi, i.e. complete attainment, supreme felicity. They are 上 superior, to be born in the 密嚴國 Vairocana Pure-land; 中 in one of the other Pure-lands among which is the Western Paradise; and 下 in the 修羅宮 Sun Palaces among the devas. Also styled 三品成就.

三品沙彌 The three grades of śrāmaṇera, i.e. 7-13 years old styled 駈鳥沙彌; 14-19 應法沙彌; and 20 and upwards 名字沙彌.

三品聽法 The three grades of hearers, i.e. 上 with the 神 spirit; 中 with the 心 mind; 下 with the 耳 ear.

三善 idem 三時敎 and 三善根.

三善根 The three good "roots", the foundation of all moral development, i.e. 無貪, 無瞋, 無痴 no lust (or selfish desire), no ire, no stupidity (or unwillingness to learn). Also, 施, 慈, 慧 giving, kindness, moral wisdom; v. 三毒 the three poisons for which these are a cure.

三善知識 The three types of friends with whom to be intimate, i.e. a teacher (of the Way), a fellow-endeavourer and encourager, and a patron who supports by gifts (dānapati).

三善道 (or 三善趣) The three good or upward directions or states of existence: 天 the highest class of goodness rewarded with the deva life, or heaven; 人 the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; 阿修羅 the inferior class of goodness with the asura state. Cf. 三惡道; v. 智度論 30.

三因 The six "causes" of the Abhidharma Kośa 倶舍論 as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi śāstra 成實論, i.e. 生因 producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; 習因 habit cause, e.g. lust breeding lust; 依因 dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs 六根 and their objects 六境 causing the cognitions 六識.

三因三果 The three causes produce their three effects: (1) 異熟因異熟果 differently ripening causes produce differently ripening effects, i.e. every developed cause produces its developed effect, especially the effect of the present causes in the next transmigration; (2) 福因福報 blessed deeds produce blessed rewards, now and hereafter; (3) 智因智果 wisdom (now) produces wisdom-fruit (hereafter).

三國土 idem 四土 omitting 寂光土.

三土 idem 三佛土.

三垢 The three defilers—desire, hate, stupidity (or ignorance), idem 三毒.

三堅 The three sure or certain things are 身, 命 and 財, i.e. the reward of the true disciple is an infinite body or personality, an endless life, and boundless (spiritual) possessions, 無極之身, 無窮之命, 無盡之財, v. 能摩經:菩薩品.

三報 The three recompenses, i.e. 現報 in the present life for deeds now done; 生報 in the next rebirth for deeds now done; and 後報 in subsequent lives.

三境 v. 三類境.

三塗 The 塗 mire is interpreted by 途 a road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) 火塗 to the fires of hell; (b) 血塗 to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (c) 刀塗 the asipattra hell of swords, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords. Cf. 三惡趣.

三多 Much intercourse with good friends, much hearing of the Law, much meditation on the impure. Also, much worship, much service of good friends, much inquiry on important doctrines. There are other groups.

三大 The three great characteristics of the 眞如 in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (1) 體大 The greatness of the bhūtatathatā in its essence or substance; it is 衆生心之體性 the embodied nature of the mind of all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) 相大 the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement; (3) 用大 the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. There are other groups, e.g. 體, 宗, and 用.

三大部 Three authoritative works of the Tiantai School, i.e. the 玄義, 文句, and 止觀, each of ten juan.

三天 The trimūrti— Śiva, Viṣṇu, and Brahmā.

三天使 v. 三使.

三天四仙 v. 二天三仙 and add 鳩摩羅 Kuveradeva and 若提子 Nirgrahtha, son of Jñātṛ, i.e. of the Jñātṛ clan.

三契 Three repetitions (of a verse).

三妙行 A muni, recluse, or monk, who controls his body, mouth, and mind 身, 口, 意. Also 三牟尼.

三子 The three sons, one filial, wise, and competent; one unfilial but clever and competent; one unfilial stupid, and incompetent; types respectively of bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchahtikas, 涅槃經 33.

三季 The "three seasons" of an Indian year— spring, summer, and winter; a year.

三學 The "three studies" or vehicles of learning— discipline, meditation, wisdom: (a) 戒學 learning by the commandments, or prohibitions, so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth, body, or mind, i.e. word, deed, or thought; (b) 定學 learning by dhyāna, or quietist meditation; (c) 慧學 learning by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts. Also the Tripiṭaka; the 戒 being referred to the 律 vinaya, the 定 to the 經 sūtras, and the to the 論 śāstras.

三安居 The three months of summer retreat, varṣāḥ; v. 跋.

三字 The "three characters", a term for 阿彌陀 Amitābha.

三宗 The three Schools of 法相宗, 破相宗 , and 法性宗 q.v., representing the ideas of 空, 假, and 不空假, i.e. unreality, temporary reality, and neither; or absolute, relative, and neither.

三定聚 idem 三聚.

三密 The three mystic things: the body, mouth (i.e. voice), and mind of the Tathāgata, which are universal, all things being this mystic body, all sound this mystic voice, and all thought this mystic mind. All creatures in body, voice, and mind are only individualized parts of the Tathāgata, but illusion hides their Tathāgata nature from them. The esoterics seek to realize their Tathāgata nature by physical signs and postures, by voicing of 眞言 dhāraṇī and by meditations, so that 入我我入 He may enter me and I Him, which is the perfection of siddhi 悉地; v. 大日經疏 1. 菩提心論.

三密六大 The three mystic things associated with the six elements, i.e. the mystic body is associated with earth, water, and fire; the mystic words with wind and space; the mystic mind with 識 cognition.

三密栗底尼迦耶 v. 三彌底 sammitīyanikāya.

三密相應 The three mystic things, body, mouth, and mind, of the Tathāgata are identical with those of all the living, so that even the fleshly body born of parents is the dharmakāya, or body of Buddha: 父母所生之肉身卽爲佛身也.

三寳 Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHA Essential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical Bodhi Dhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī Buddha DharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāya PurityCompletenessTransformations 4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetra ArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.

三寶物 The things appertaining to the triratna, i.e. to the Buddha— temples and images, etc.; to the dharma— the scriptures; to the saṅgha— cassock, bowl, etc.

三寶藏 The tritratna as the treasury of all virtue and merit; also the tripiṭaka, sūtras 經 vinaya 律, abhidharma 論; also śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas.

三寶衣 idem 三衣.

三寶身 v. 三身.

三尊 The three honoured ones: Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or Order. Others are: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta, who, according to the Pure-land sect, come to welcome the dying invoker. Another group is Bhaiṣajya, Vairocana, and Candraprabha; and another, Śākyamunī, Mañjuśrī, and Samantabhadra.

三尊佛 The three honoured Buddhas of the West: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta. Though bodhisattvas, the two latter are called Buddhas when thus associated with Amitābha.

三尊來迎 Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, receive into the western paradise the believer who calls on Amitābha.

三帀 The thrice repeated procession around an image; there is dispute as to which shoulder should be next to the image, v. 右繞.

三師七證 The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.

三平等 The esoteric doctrine that the three— body, mouth, and mind— are one and universal. Thus in samādhi the Buddha "body" is found everywhere and in everything (pan-Buddha), every sound becomes a "true word", dhāraṇī or potent phrase, and these are summed up in mind, which being universal is my mind and my mind it, 入我我入 it in me and I in it. Other definitions of the three are 佛, 法, 儈 the triratna; and 心, 佛, 衆生 mind, Buddha, and the living. Also 三三昧. Cf. 三密. v. 大日經 1.

三平等地 The three universal positions or stages, i.e. the three states expressed by 空, 無相, and 無願; v. 三三昧地.

三平等戒 idem 三昧耶戒 and 世無障礙智戒.

三平等觀 idem 三三昧觀.

三平等護摩壇 The three equal essentials of the fire sacrifice, i.e. the individual as offerer, the object of worship, and the altar.

三彌叉 Samīkṣā, 觀察 investigation, i.e. the Sāṃkhya, a system of philosophy, wrongly ascribed by Buddhists to 闍提首那 Jātisena, or 闍耶犀那 Jayasena, who debated the twenty-five Sāṃkhya principles (tattvas) with Śākyamuni but succumbed, shaved his head and became a disciple, according to the 涅槃經 39.

三彌底 彌底; 彌離底; 三密 (or 蜜) 栗底尼迦耶; 三眉底與量弟子 Saṃmatīyanikāya, Saṃmata, or Saṃmitīyas. A Hīnayāna sect the 正量部 correctly commensurate or logical school, very numerous and widely spread during the early centuries of our era. The 三彌底部論 is in the Tripiṭaka. It taught "that a soul exists in the highest and truest sense", "that an arhat can fall from arhatship, that a god can enter the paths of the Order, and that even an unconverted man can get rid of all lust and ill-will" (Eliot, i, 260). It split into the three branches of Kaurukullakāḥ Āvantikāh, and Vātsīputrīyāḥ.

三彌提 Saṃmiti is a saint mentioned in the 阿含經.

三形 idem 三昧耶形.

三從 A woman's three subordinations, to father, husband, and son; stated in several sūtras, e.g. 四十華嚴經28.

三德 The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

三心 The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by (a) 至誠心 perfect sincerity; (b) 深 profound resolve for it; (c) 廻向接發願心 resolve on demitting one's merits to others. (2) (a) 根本心 The 8th or ālaya-vijñāna mind, the storehouse, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) 依本 the 7th or mano-vijñāna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) 起事心 the ṣaḍāyatana-vijñāna mind, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) (a) 入心 (b) 住心 (c) 出心 The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups.

三忍 The tree forms of kṣānti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred, under physical hardship, and in pursuit of the faith. Another is patience of the blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth they hear, patience in obeying the truth, patience in attaining absolute reality; v. 無量壽經. Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitābha, patience in meditation on his truth, and patience in constant faith in him. Another is the patience of submission, of faith, and of obedience.

三念住 (or 三念處). Whether all creatures believe, do not believe, or part believe and part do not believe, the Buddha neither rejoices, nor grieves, but rests in his proper mind and wisdom, i.e. though full of pity, his far-seeing wisdom 正念正智 keeps him above the disturbances of joy and sorrow. 倶舍論 27.

三性 The three types of character 善, 惡, 無記 good, bad and undefinable, or neutral; v. 唯識論 5. Also, 徧依圓三性 the three aspects of the nature of a thing— partial, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake; only partly reliable, i.e. incomplete inference, as when it is considered as mere hemp; all around, or perfect, when content, form, etc., are all considered.

三性分別 The differentiation of the three conditions of good, evil, and neutral.

三思 All action and speech have three mental conditions— reflection, judgment, decision.

三惑 A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality.

三惡 The three evil gati, or paths of transmigration; also 三惡道, 三惡趣 the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

三惡覺 The three evil mental states: 欲 desire, 瞋 hate (or anger), 害 malevolence.

三想 The three evil thoughts are the last, desire, hate, malevolence; the three good thoughts are 怨想 thoughts of (love to) enemies, 親想 the same to family and friends, 中人想 the same to those who are neither enemies nor friends, i.e. to all; v. 智度論 72.

三慕達羅 Samudra, the sea, an ocean; also 三母捺羅娑誐羅 samudra-sāgara. Samudra and sāgara are synonyms.

三慧 The three modes of attaining moral wisdom: 聞慧 from reading, hearing, instruction; 思慧 from reflection, etc.; 修慧 from practice (of abstract meditation).

三應供養 The three who should be served, or worshipped— a Buddha, an arhat, and a cakravartī king.

三懺 idem 三種悔法.

三戒 The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity.

三拔諦 idem 三跋致.

三摩 Sama, level, equal, same, etc.; cf. 三昧 (三昧耶) and 平等.

三摩半那 samāpanna, in the state of samādhi.

三摩呬多 samāhita; steadfast, tranquil. A degree of meditation.

三摩呾叱 Samataṭa, an ancient kingdom on the left bank of the Ganges, near its mouths, extending to the Hooghly, over 3,000 li in circuit, low and damp, with a hardy people, short and dark. Eitel says "close to the sea at the mouth of the Brahmaputra." Eliot says: "In the east of Bengal and not far from the modern Burmese frontier."

三摩地 (or 三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底) Samādhi; idem 三昧.

三摩地念誦 Silent or meditative repetition of the name of Buddha.

三摩娑 Samāsa. 煞三摩婆 Ṣaṭ-samāsa, v. 六離合釋.

三摩婆夜 Samavāya, coming together, combination; 利合 advantageous union.

三摩皮陀 縒摩吠陀; 沙磨; 平論; 歌詠 Sāma-veda-saṃhitā. A collection of verses sung at sacrifices, etc. The third of the three Vedas, or four if Atharva Veda is counted, as it was later; the verses are taken almost wholly from the Ṛgveda.

三摩竭 Sumāgadhā, said to be a daughter of Anāthapiṇḍada of Śrāvastī, who married the ruler of 難國 and converted the ruler and people.

三摩耶 (or 三摩曳) idem 三昧耶; but 三摩耶 is also explained as a short period, a season of the year.

三摩耶道 A term among the esoterics for the 三平等 q.v.

三摩若 sāmānya, generality; in common; inclusive; v. 共.

三摩越 idem 三摩鉢底.

三摩近離 The public gathering for a festival, lay and cleric, before parting at the end of the summer retreat.

三摩鉢底 (or 三摩鉢提); 三摩拔提 (or 三摩跋提); 三摩越 samāpatti, attainment, arrival; defined by 等至 and 等持 which is intp. as complete dhyāna; similar to 三摩半那 samāpanna, attainment. Eitel says: "a degree of abstract ecstatic meditation preparatory to the final attainment of samādhi." Clough speaks of eight samāpattis, i.e. attainments— "eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation." v. also 三摩越.

三摩難呾囉 samanantaram, immediately following or contiguous; 等無間緣緣 i.e. one of the four 緣q.v.; it means without interval, i.e. an immediate cause.

三攝提The three prajñapti, v. 三假施設; they are the 受 and 法 and 名假施設.

三支 (三支比量) Three members of a syllogism: pratijñā宗 the proposition, hetu 因 the reason, udāharaṇa 喩the example; cf. 因明.

三教 The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v.

三教法師 Master of the Tripiṭaka; a title of Xuanzang 玄奘.

三斷 The three cuttings off or excisions (of 惑 beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1) (a) 見所斷 to cut off delusions of view, of which Hīnayāna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) 修所斷in practice, eighty-one kinds; (c) 非所斷nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 倶舍論 2. (2) (a) 自性斷 to cut off the nature or root (of delusion); (b) 緣縛斷 to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) 不生斷 (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat.

三方便 A term of the esoterics for body, mouth (speech), and mind, their control, and the entry into the 三密 q.v. 大日經疏 1.

三施 The three forms of giving: (1) (a) one's goods; (b) the Law or Truth; (c) courage, or confidence: 智度論 11. (2) (a) goods; (b) worship; (c) preaching. (3) (a) food; (b) valuables; (c) life.

三日齋 The third day's ceremonies after a death to gain Yama's favour as the deceased appears before him.

三明 The three insights; also 三達. Applied to Buddhas they are called 三達, to arhats 三明. (a) 宿命明 Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) 天眼明 supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; (c) 漏盡明 nirvāṇa insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 倶舍論 27 the three are termed 住智識證明; 死生識證明 and 漏盡識證明. For 三明經 v. 長阿含16.

三明智 trividyā. The three clear conceptions that (1) all is impermanent 無常 anitya; (2) all is sorrowful 苦 duḥkha; (3) all is devoid of a self 無我 anātman.

三昧 (三昧地) Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by 定 or 正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyāna 定 represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.

三昧佛 Samādhi Buddha, one of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the 華嚴經.

三昧月輪相 月輪三昧 The candra-maṇḍala, i.e. moon-wheel or disc samādhi; Nāgārjuna is said to have entered it and taken his departure as a cicada after delivering the Law (or patriarchate) to Kāṇadeva.

三昧火 Fire of samādhi, the fire that consumed the body of Buddha when he entered nirvāṇa.

三昧相應 The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flower with a merciful or a white image.

三昧門 The different stages of a bodhisattva's samādhi; cf. 智度論 28.

三昧魔 samādhi-māra, one of the ten māras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in meditation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom.

三昧耶 samaya is variously defined as 會 coming together, meeting, convention; 時 timely; 宗 in agreement, of the same class; 平等 equal, equalized; 驚覺 aroused, warned; 除垢障 riddance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva.

三昧耶形 The distinguishing symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of Guanyin; also used for 三昧耶身 q. v.

三昧耶戒 samaya commandments: the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in the esoteric sects.

三昧耶曼荼羅 samaya-maṇḍala. One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are represented by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sword.

三昧耶智 samaya wisdom. In esoteric teaching, the characteristic of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's wisdom, as shown in the maṇḍala.

三昧耶會 The samaya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine maṇḍalas, consisting of seventy-three saints represented by the symbols of their power.

三昧耶界 Samaya world, a general name for the esoteric sect.

三昧耶身 (or 三昧耶形) The embodiment of samaya, a term of the esoteric sect; i.e. the symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stūpa as one of the symbols of Vairocana 大日; the lotus of Guanyin, etc. 身 is used for Buddha, 形 for a bodhisattva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the 報身 saṃbhogakāya.

三時 The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon, and evening; also the three periods, after his nirvāṇa, of every Buddha's teaching, viz., 正 correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, 像 semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and 末 end, the period of decline and termination.

三時坐禪 The thrice a day meditation— about 10 a.m. and 4 and 8 p.m.

三時年限 The three periods of Buddhism— 1,000 years of 正法 pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,000 years of 像法 resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of 末法 decay. Other definitions are 正 and 像 500 years each, or 正 1,000 and 像 500, or 正 500 and 像 1,000.

三時性 i.e. 徧依圓三性 v. 三性.

三時教 (三時教判) The three periods and characteristics of Buddha's teaching, as defined by the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗. They are: (1) 有, when he taught the 實有 reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common belief in 實我 real personality or a permanent soul; this period is represented by the four 阿含經 āgamas and other Hīnayāna sūtras. (2) 空 Śūnya, when he negatived the idea of 實法 the reality of things and advocated that all was 空 unreal; the period of the 般若經 prajñā sūtras. (3) 中 Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school's specific sūtra the 解深密經, also the 法華 and later sūtras. In the two earlier periods he is said to have 方便 adapted his teaching to the development of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doctrine. Another division by the 空宗 is (1) as above; (2) the early period of the Mahāyāna represented, by the 深密經; (3) the higher Mahāyāna as in the 般若經. v. also 三敎.

三時業 The three stages of karma— in the present life because of present deeds; in the next life because of present actions; and in future lives because of present actions.

三智 The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智.

三暮多 God of the wind, which is Vata in Sanskrit.

三曼多 samanta; tr. by 等, 普, 遍 universal, everywhere; also 三曼陀, 三滿多.

三曼陀犍陀 (or 三萬陀犍陀, or 三曼陀犍提) Samantagandha, 普熏 universally fragrant. A tree in Paradise; a title of a Buddha.

三曼陀颰陀羅 三曼颰陀, 三曼跋陀 Samantabhadra, 普賢 Puxian; v. 三滿.

三有 The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana.

三末多 sammata, intp. as 共許 'unanimously accorded'; i. e. name of the first king (elected) at the beginning of each world-kalpa.

三果 The third of the Hīnayāna 四果 four fruits or results, i. e. non-return to mortality.

三株 The three tree-trunks, or main stems—desire, hate, stupidity; v. 三毒.

三根 The three (evil) 'roots'— desire, hate, stupidity, idem 三毒. Another group is the three grades of good roots, or abilities 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, and inferior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness 三無漏根.

三梵 The three Brahma heavens of the first dhyāna: that of 梵衆 Brahma-pāriṣadya, the assembly of Brahma; 梵輔 Brahma-purohitas, his attendants; 大梵 Mahābrahmā, Great Brahma.

三極少 The three smallest things, i. e. an atom as the smallest particle of matter; a letter as the shortest possible name; a kṣaṇa, as the shortest period of time.

三業 trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three.

三業供養 三業相應 To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth and mind; the second form means that in worship an three correspond.

三樂 The three joys— the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvana.

三機 see 三聚.

三檀 The three kinds of dāna, i. e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearlessness. Idem 三施.

三權一實 The Tiantai division of the schools of Buddhism into four, three termed 權temporary, i. e. 藏, 通 and 別 q.v. v. e fourth is the 實 or圓real or perfect School of SaIvation by faith to Buddhahood, especially as revealed in the Lotus Sutra, see 一實.

三欲 three lusts, i. e. for 形貌 form, 姿態 carriage or beauty, and 細觸refinement, or softness to the touch.

三武 The three emperors Wu who persecuted Buddhism: 太武 of the Wei dynasty A.D. 424-452; 武帝 of the Zhou A.D. 561-578; 武宗 of the Tang A.D. 841-7.

三歸 Triśaraṇa, or Śaraṇa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or "formulas of refuge" in, the Three Precious Ones 三賓, i.e. to the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法, the Saṅgha 僧. The three formulas are 歸依佛 Buddham śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依法 Dharmaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依僧 Saṅghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. It is "the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists". The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher 師, the Law as medicine 藥, the Ecclesia as friends 友. These are known as the 三歸依.

三歸受法 The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the three refuges 三歸.

三歸五戒 (三歸戒) The ceremony which makes the recipient a 優婆塞 or 優婆夷 upasaka or upāsikā male or female disciple, accepting the five commandments. There are 五種三歸 five stages of sangui; the first two are as above, at the third the eight commandments are accepted, at the fourth the ten, at the fifth an the commandments. 三歸 is also a general term for a Buddhist.

三毒 The three poisons, also styled 三根; 三株; they are 貪 concupiscence, or wrong desire, 瞋 anger, hate, or resentment, and 痴 stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia. v. 智度論 19, 31.

三毒尸利 The Śrī (i.e. goddess of Fortune) of the three poisons, a title of Mañjuśrī.

三治 idem 三三昧門 v. 三解脫.

三法 The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa.

三法印 idem 三印.

三法忍 idem 三忍.

三法妙 v. 三軌.

三法無差 idem 三無差別 q.v.

三法輪 The three law-wheels, or periods of the Buddha's preaching, according to Paramārtha, to 嘉祥 Jiaxiang of the 三論 school, and to 玄奘 Xuanzang of the 法相 school.

三波多 samāpta; finished, ended, perfect; a term used at the conclusion of Homa or Fire-worship.

三波羅聶提 The three prajñāpti, 三假 q.v.

三波訶 Sampaha, according to Eitel, Malasa, a valley in the upper Punjab; but perhaps Śāmbī, a state north of Citral in the Hindukush.

三涅槃門 The three gates to the city of nirvāṇa, i.e. 空, 無相, and 無作 the void (or the immaterial), formlessness, and inactivity; idem 三解脫門.

三淨肉 The three kinds of "clean" flesh—when a monk has not seen the creature killed, has not heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon.

三滿多跋捺囉 Samantabhadra, interpreted 普賢 Puxian, pervading goodness, or "all gracious", Eliot; also 徧吉 universal fortune; also styled Viśvabhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of Emei shan. He is the special patron of followers of the Lotus Sūtra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school. v. 三曼.

三漸 The three progressive developments of the Buddha's teaching according to the Prajñā school: (a) the 鹿苑 initial stage in the Lumbinī deer park; (b) the 方等 period of the eight succeeding years; (c) the 般若 Prajñā or wisdom period which succeeded.

三漏 The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transmigration: 欲 desire; 有 (material, or phenomenal) existence; 無明 ignorance (of the way of escape). 涅槃經 22.

三火 The three fires—desire, hate, and stupidity; v. 三毒.

三災 The three calamities; they are of two kinds, minor and major. The minor, appearing during a decadent world-period, are sword, pestilence, and famine; the major, for world-destruction, are fire, water, and wind. 倶舍諭 12.

三煩惱 v. 三惑.

三熱The three distresses of which dragons and dragon-kings are afraid— fiery heat, fierce wind, and the garuḍa bird which preys on them for food.

三無差(三無差別) The three that are without (essential) difference, i.e. are of the same nature: (a) 心 The nature of mind is the same in Buddhas, and men, and all the living; (b) 佛 the nature and enlightenment of all Buddhas is the same; (c) 衆生 the nature and enlightenment of all the living is the same. The 華嚴經 says 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別.

三無性 The three things without a nature or separate existence of their own: (a) 相無性 form, appearance or seeming, is unreal, e.g. a rope appearing like a snake; (b) 生無性 life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived from constituent materials; (c) 勝義無性 the 勝義, concept of the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā, is unreal, e.g. the hemp of which the rope is made; the bhūtatathatā is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and unreal. The three are also known as 相無性, 無自然性, 法無性; v. 唯識論 9.

三無漏學 The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration: (a) 戒 Moral discipline; (b) 定 meditation, or trance; (c) 慧 the resulting wisdom.

三無漏根 The three roots for the passionless life and final escape from transmigration, i.e. the last three of the 二十二根 q.v. An older group was 未知欲知根; 知根; 如巳根 v. 倶舍論 3. 智度論 23.

三無盡莊嚴藏 The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories, i.e. the 身, 口, 意, deeds, words, and thoughts of a Buddha.

三照 The three shinings; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to Tiantai teaching of the Huayan sūtra, the Buddha's doctrine had three periods of such shining: (a) first, he taught the Huayan sūtra, transforming his chief disciples into bodhisattvas; (b) second, the Hīnayāna sūtras in general to śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas in the Lumbinī garden; (c) third, the 方等 sūtras down to the 涅槃經 for all the living. See the 六十華嚴經 35, where the order is five, i.e. bodhisattvas, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, lay disciples, and all creatures.

三牟提耶 samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the 聚 or 集諦, i.e. the second of the Four Truths, the aggregation of suffering.

三猿 The three monkeys, one guarding its eyes, another its ears, a third its mouth.

三獸 The three animals— hare, horse, elephant— crossing a stream. The śrāvaka is like the hare who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka-buddha is like the horse who crosses deeper than the hare; the bodhisattva is like the elephant who walks across on the bottom. Also likened to the triyāna. 涅槃經 23, 27.

三甜 The three sweet things— cream, honey, curd.

三生 The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.

三田 The three "fields" of varying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchantis, respectively producing a hundred-fold, fifty-fold, onefold. 涅槃經 33.

三界 Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.

三界九地 v. 九地.

三界唯一心 The triple world is but one mind; from a verse of the 華嚴 sūtra; it proceeds 心外無別法, 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 "outside mind there is no other thing; mind, Buddha, and all the living, these three are not different"; in other words, there is no differentiating between these three, for all is mind.

三界尊 The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha.

三界慈父 The kindly father of the triple world— Buddha.

三界火宅 The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus Sūtra parable.

三界牀 The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering.

三界眼 The trailokya eye, i.e. Buddha, who sees all the realms and the way of universal escape.

三界萬靈牌 The tablet used at the annual ceremonial offerings to "all souls", v. 孟蘭.

三界藏 The trailokya-garbha, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational.

三界雄 The hero of the trailokya—Buddha.

三疑 The three doubts— of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.

三病 The three ailments: (1) (a) 貪 lust, for which the 不淨觀 meditation on uncleanness is the remedy; (b) 瞋 anger, or hate, remedy 慈悲觀 meditation on kindness and pity; (c) 癡 stupidity, or ignorance, remedy 因緣觀 meditation on causality. (2) (a) 謗 Slander of Mahāyāna; (b) 五逆罪 the five gross sins; (c) to be a "heathen" or outsider; the forms recorded seem to be icchantika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. 三毒.

三發心 The three resolves of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (a) 信成就發心 to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of faith; (b) 解行發心 to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) 證發心 the realization, or proof of or union with bodhi.

三白食 The three white foods— milk, cream (or curd), and rice (especially upland rice).

三白法 is the rule of the three white foods 三白食.

三百四十八戒 (or 三百四十一戒) The 348 (or 341) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.

三百四十一戒 (or 三百四十八戒) The 341 (or 348) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.

三百六十會 The reputed and disputed number (360) of Śākyamuni's assemblies for preaching.

三百由旬 The 300 yojanas parable of the Magic City, erected by a leader who feared that his people would become weary and return; i.e. Hīnayāna nirvāṇa, a temporary rest on the way to the real land of precious things, or true nirvāṇa; v. 法華化城品.

三皈 idem 三歸.

三監 idem 三從.

三目 The three-eyed, a term for Śiva, i.e Maheśvara; simile for the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, prajñā, or wisdom, and nirvāṇa emancipation.

三相 The three forms or positions: 解脫相 nirvāṇa; 離相 no nirvāṇa; 滅和 or 非有非無之中道 absence of both, or the "middle way" of neither.

三相續 The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings, who arise out of the five skandhas; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of moral karma causes.

三眞如 Three aspects of the bhūtatathatā, implying that it is above the limitations of form, creation, or a soul. (1) (a) 無相眞如 without form; (b) 無生眞如 without creation; (c) 無性眞如 without anything that can be called a nature for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) 善法眞如 The bhūtatathatā as good; (b) 不善法眞如 as evil; (c) 無記法眞如 as neutral, or neither good nor evil.

三眉底與部 Saṃmatiīya, v. 三彌底.

三祗百劫 (三祗百大劫) The period necessary for a bodhisattva to become a Buddha, i.e. three asaṃkhyeyas 阿僧祗 to attain the 六度, and 100 kalpas to acquire the thirty-two 相 or characteristic marks of a Buddha; cf. 三阿.

三福 The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The 無量壽經 has the felicity of (a) 世福 filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) 戒福 of keeping the other commandments; (c) 行福 of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The 倶舍論 18, has the blessedness of (a) 施類福 almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth; (b) 戒類福 observance of the 性戒 (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the 遮戒 (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) 修類福 observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. 三種淨業.

三福業 The three things that bring a happy lot— almsgiving, impartial kindness and Iove, pondering over the demands of the life beyond.

三禪 The third dhyāna heaven of form, the highest paradise of form.

三禮 Worship with 身, 口, 意, body, mouth, and mind.

三科 The three categories of 五蘊, 十二處 or 入, and eighteen 界.

三祕密 The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for 身, 口, and 意; i.e. the symbol; the mystic word or sound; the meditation of the mind.

三祕密身 A term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol, and the image.

三種 Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc.

三種三世 Three kinds of past, present, and future as intp. according to 道理, 神通, and 唯識.

三種三觀 The three types of meditation on the principles of the 三諦 q.v., i.e. the dogmas of 空, 假, 中.

三種世間 v. 三世間.

三種供養 Three modes of serving (the Buddha, etc.): (a) offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.; (b) of praise and reverence; (c) of right conduct.

三種光明 The three kinds of light: (a) extemal— sun, moon, stars, lamps, etc.; (b) dharma, or the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitted by Buddhas, bodhisattvas, devas.

三種善根 The three kinds of good roots— almsgiving, mercy, and wisdom.

三種圓融 Three kinds of unity or identity of (a) 事理 phenomena with "substance", e.g. waves and the water; (b) 事事 phenomena with phenomena, e.g. wave with wave; (c) 理理 substance with substance, e.g. water with water.

三種地獄 The three kinds of hells— hot, cold and solitary.

三種大智 The three major kinds of wisdom: (a) self-acquired, no master needed; (b) unacquired and natural; (c) universal.

三種天 Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heaven, etc.; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods; (c) the pure Buddha-land.

三種常 A Buddha in his three eternal qualities: (a) 本性常 in his nature or dharmakāya; (b) 不斷常 in his unbroken eternity, saṃbhogakāya; (c) 相續常 in his continuous and eternally varied forms, nirmāṇakāya.

三種心苦 The three kinds of mental distress: desire, anger, stupidity, idem 三毒.

三種忍行 Patience or forbearance of body, mouth, and mind.

三種悔法 (or 三種懺法) Three modes of repentance: (a) 無生悔 to meditate on the way to prevent wrong thoughts and delusions; (b) 取相悔 to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts and passions; (c) 作法懺 in proper form to confess one's breach of the rules before the Buddha and seek remission.

三種慈悲 (or 三種緣慈) The three reasons of bodhisattva's pity — because all beings are like helpless infants; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences; without external cause, i.e. because of his own nature.

三種教相 The three modes of the Buddha's teaching of the Southern Sects: 頓 immediate, 漸 gradual or progressive, and 不定 indeterminate.

三種斷 The three kinds of uccheda— cutting-off, excision, or bringing to an end: (1) (a) 自性斷 with the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) 不生斷 with realization of the doctrine that all is 空 unreal, evil karma ceases to arise; (c) 緣縛斷 illusion being ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappears and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three śrāvaka or ascetic stages are (a) 見所斷 ending the condition of false views; (b) 修行斷 getting rid of desire and illusion in practice; (c) 非所斷 no more illusion or desire to be cut off.

三種智 The wisdom of common men, of the heterodox, and of Buddhism; i.e. (a) 世間智 normal, worldly knowledge or ideas; (b) 出世間智 other worldly wisdom, e.g. of Hīnayāna; (c) 出世間上上智 the highest other-worldly wisdom, of Mahāyāna; cf. 三種波羅蜜.

三種有 Three kinds of existence: (a) 相待有 that of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length and shortness; (b) 假名有 that of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a man; (c) 法有 that of the noumenal, or imaginary, understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a "hare's horns" or a "turtle's fur".

三種欲 Three kinds of desire— food, sleep, sex.

三種止觀 Three Tiantai modes of entering dhyāna: (a) 漸次 gradual, from the shallow to the deep, the simple to the complex; (b) 不定 irregular, simple, and complex mixed; (c) 圓頓 immediate and whole.

三種法輪 v. 三輪教.

三種波羅蜜 The three kinds of pāramitā ideals, or methods of perfection: (a) 世間波羅蜜 that of people in general relating to this world; (b) 出世間波羅蜜 that of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas relating to the future life for themselves; (c) 出世間上上波羅蜜 the supreme one of bodhisattvas, relating to the future life for all; cf. 三種智.

三種淨業 The threefold way of obtaining pure karma, idem 三福.

三種淸淨 The three purities of a bodhisattva— a mind free from all impurity, a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance 相 perfectly pure and adorned.

三種灌頂 Three kinds of baptism: (1) (a) 摩頂灌頂 Every Buddha baptizes a disciple by laying a hand on his head; (b) 授記灌頂 by predicting Buddhahood to him; (c) 放光灌頂 by revealing his glory to him to his profit. (2) Shingon has (a) baptism on acquiring the mystic word; (b) on remission of sin and prayer for blessing and protection; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life.

三種生 The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions: (a) 想生 the mind, or active thought; (b) 相生 the objective world; (c) 流注生 their constant interaction, or the continuous stream of latent predispositions.

三種相 The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts: (a) 標相 inferential, as fire is inferred from smoke; (b) 形相 formal or spatial, as length, breadth, etc.; (c) 體相 qualitative, as heat is in fire, etc. (2) (a) 假名相 names, which are merely indications of the temporal; (b) 法相 dharmas, or "things"; (c) 無相相 the formless— all three are incorrect positions.

三種示導 Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering the pains of hell, i.e. 身 physically, by supernatural powers, change of form, etc.; 意 mentally, through powers of memory and enlightenment; 口 orally, by moral exhortation.

三種色 Three kinds of rūpa, i.e. appearance or object: (1) (a) visible objects; (b) invisible objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or abstract objects. (2) (a) colour, (b) shape, (c) quality.

三種見惑 Three classes of delusive views, or illusions — those common to humanity; those of the inquiring mind; and those of the learned and settled mind.

三種身 The Tiantai School has a definition of 色身 the physical body of the Buddha; 法門身 his psychological body with its vast variety; 實相身 his real body, or dharmakāya. The esoteric sect ascribes a trikāya to each of its honoured ones. v. 三身.

三種身苦 The three duḥkha or afflictions of the body — old age, sickness, death.

三種闡提 The three kinds of icchantika: (a) 一闡提迦 the wicked; (b) 阿闡提迦 called 大悲闡提 bodhisattvas who become icchantika to save all beings; (c) 阿顚底迦 otherwise 無性闡提 those without a nature for final nirvāṇa. Cf. 三病.

三種香 Three kinds of scent, or incense, i.e. from root, branch, or flower.

三空 The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) 空, (b) 無相, (c) 無願, v. 三三昧. The second, (a) 我空 , (b) 法空 , (c) 倶空 the self, things, all phenomena as "empty" or immaterial. The third relates to charity: (a) giver, (b) receiver, (c) gift, all are "empty".

三空門 (三空觀門) idem 三解脫門.

三等 The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathāgata, an esoteric definition: (1) (a) his 身 body, (b) 語 discourse, (c) 意 mind. (2) (a) his life or works 修行; (b) spiritual body 法身; (c) salvation 度生; in their equal values and universality.

三等流 Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. 眞等流 the certain consequences that follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; 假等流 the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous life's ill deeds, e.g. shortened life from taking life; 分位等流 each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind.

三篋 idem 三藏 tripiṭaka.

三節 The three divisions of the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two; (b) present— the next eight; (c) future— the last two.

三精氣 The three auras of earth, of the animate, and of the inanimate invoked against demon influences.

三細 The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with the 六麤 cruder or common concepts, in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The three are 無明業相 "ignorance", or the unenlightened condition, considered as in primal action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty; 能見相 ability to perceive phenomena; perceptive faculties; 境界相 the object perceived, or the empirical world. The first is associated with the 體corpus or substance, the second and third with function, but both must have co-existence, e.g. water and waves. v. 六麤.

三結 The three ties: (a) 見結 , the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego; (b) 戒取結 of discipline; (c) 疑結 of doubt. The three are also parts of見惑 used for it.

三經一論 The three sūtras and one śāstra on which the Pure Land sect bases its teaching: 佛說無量壽經; 佛說觀無量壽經; 佛說阿彌陀經; 天親淨土論.

三綱 The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) 上座 sthavira, elder, president; (b) 寺主vihārasvāmin, v. 毘 the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) 維那 karmadāna, v. 羯 who directs the monks. Another meaning: (a) 上座; (b) 維那; (c) 典座 vihārapāla, v. 毘director of worship. The three vary in different countries.

三練磨 v. 三退屈.

三縛 The three bonds— desire, anger, stupidity; idem 三毒.

三緣 The three nidānas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure Land sect: (a) 親緣 that he hears those who call his name, sees their worship, knows their hearts and is one with them; (b) 近緣 that he shows himself to those who desire to see him; (c) 增上緣 that at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a disciple at death.

三罰業 The three things that work for punishment — body, mouth, and mind.

三耶三佛 (檀) v. 三藐三佛陀.

三耶三菩 v. 三藐三菩提.

三聖 The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The 華嚴Huayan have Vairocana in the center with Mañjuśrī on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The 彌陀 Mituo or Pure-land sect, have Amitābha in the center, with Avalokiteśvara on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. The Tiantai use the term for the 藏, 別, and 圓教v. 三教.

三聚 The three groups, i.e. 正定聚 Those decided for the truth; 邪定聚 those who are decided for heresy; 不定聚 the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools.

三聚戒 (三聚淨戒) The three cumulative commandments: (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the rest; (b) whatever works for goodness; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings. 三聚圓戒interprets the above three as implicit in each of the ten commandments e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation.

三能三不能 The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect knowledge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affairs of countless ages; (c) save countless beings. But he cannot (a) annihilate causality, i.e. karma; (b) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living.

三脫門 V. 三解脫 (三解脫門), but the former is only associated with無漏, or nirvāṇa.

三自 Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third 自調 self-control, the fourth and fifth 自淨 self-purification, the last three 自度 self-development in the religious life and in wisdom. Also 自體, 自相, 自用 substance, form, and function.

三舉 The three exposures, i,e. the three sins of a monk each entailing his unfrocking— willful non-confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine.

三舟觀月 v. 一月三舟.

三般若 The three prajñās, or perfect enlightenments: (a) 實相般若 wisdom in its essence or reality; (b) 觀照般若 the wisdom of perceiving the real meaning of the last; (c) 方便般若 or 文字般若 the wisdom of knowing things in their temporary and changing condition.

三色 The three kinds of rūpa or form-realms: the five organs (of sense), their objects, and invisible perceptions, or ideas. Cf. 三種色.

三苦 The three kinds of duḥkha, pain, or suffering: 苦苦 that produced by direct causes; 壞苦 by loss or deprivation; 行苦 by the passing or impermanency of all things.

三草二木 A parable in the Lotus Sutra; the small plants representing ordinary men and devas, medium sized plants śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas, and 大草, 小樹 and 大樹 tall plants and small and large trees three grades of bodhisattvas. Another definition applies the term to the 五乘 five "vehicles". There are also others.

三莊嚴 The three adornments, or glories, of a country: material attractions; religion and learning; men, i.e. religious men and bodhisattvas.

三菩伽 Saṃbhoga or Saṃbhūta. An ancient ṛṣi of Mathurā.

三菩伽迦耶 saṃbhogakāya. (1) The "body of enjoyment " or recompense-body of a Buddha; his 報身 or reward-body, one of the Trikāya, 三身. (2) The third of the buddhakṣetra 佛土, the domain in which all respond perfectly to their Buddha.

三菩提 saṃbodhi, 糝帽地 intp. 正等覺. Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened; v. 菩提.

三落叉 The three lakṣa; a lakṣa is a mark, sign, token, aim, object; it is also 100,000, i.e. an 億. The three lakṣa of the esoteric sects are the 字 or magic word, the 印 symbol and the 本尊 object worshipped. Other such threes are body, mouth, and mind; morning, noon, and evening; cold, heat, and rain, etc.

三藏 v. 藏.

三藏教 A Tiantai name for Hīnayāna, whose tripiṭaka is ascribed to Mahākāśyapa.

三藏學者 A student of Hīnayāna.

三藏法師 A teacher of the Law; especially 玄奘 Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty; and cf. 般若.

三藐三佛陀 saṃyaksaṃbuddha 三耶三佛 (檀). The third of the ten titles of a Buddha, defined as 正徧知 (or 覺), or 正等覺 etc., one who has perfect universal knowledge or understanding; omniscient.

三藐三菩提 三貌糝帽地; 三耶三菩 saṃyak-saṃbodhi. Correct universal intelligence, 正徧知 (道). Correct equal or universal enlightenment (正等覺). Correct universal perfect enlightenment (正等正覺). An epithet of every Buddha. The full term is anuttarā-saṃyak-saṃbodhi, perfect universal enlightenment, knowledge, or understanding; omniscience.

三蘊 The three kinds of skandhas, aggregations, or combinations, into which all life may be expressed according to the 化地 or Mahīśāsakāh school: 一念蘊 combination for a moment, momentary existence; 一期蘊 combination for a period, e.g. a single human lifetime; 窮生死蘊 the total existence of all beings.

三處傳心 The three places where Śākyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought direct and without speech to Kāśyapa: at the 靈山 by a smile when plucking a flower; at the 多子塔 when he shared his seat with him; finally by putting his foot out of his coffin.

三處木叉 The mokṣa of the three places, i.e. moral control over body, mouth, and mind.

三處阿蘭若 Three classes of āraṇyakāḥ or ascetics distinguished by their three kinds of abode— those who dwell in retired places, as in forests; among tombs; in deserts; v. 阿蘭若.

三行 Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. the ten good deeds that cause happy karma; the ten evil deeds that cause unhappy karma; 不動業 or 無動行 karma arising without activity, e.g. meditation on error and its remedy.

三衍 The three yāna, or vehicles to nirvāṇa, i.e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, v. 三乘.

三術 Three devices in meditation for getting rid of Māra-hindrances: within, to get rid of passion and delusion; without, to refuse or to withdraw from external temptation.

三衣 The three regulation garments of a monk, 袈裟 kaāṣāya, i.e. 僧伽梨 saṅghāṭī, assembly robe; 鬱多羅僧 uttarāsaṅga, upper garment worn over the 安陀會 antarvāsaka, vest or shirt.

單三衣 The only proper garments of a monk.

三衰 The three deteriorators, idem 三毒.

三補吒 saṃpuṭa. One of the twelve ways of putting the hands together in worship, i.e. bringing the hands together without the palms touching.

三覆八校 The three reports 三覆 and eight investigations 八校. Two angels, 同生 and 同名, observe each individual, the first a female at his right shoulder noting the evil deeds; the second, a male, at his left shoulder noting the good deeds; both report on high and in hades six times a month. Thus in each month there are 六齋 and in each year 三覆 and 八校.

三覆 denote a day in each of the first, fifth, and ninth months when the recording angels of the four Lokapālas report on the conduct of each individual. See also 三覆八校.

八校 are the opening days of the four seasons and the two solstices and two equinoxes during which similar investigations are made. See also 三覆八校.

三覺 The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) 自覺 Enlightenment for self; (b) 覺他 for others; (c) 覺行圓 (or 窮) 滿 perfect enlightenment and accomplishment; the first is an arhat's, the first and second a bodhisattva's, all three a Buddha's. (2) From the Awakening of Faith 起信論 (a) 本覺 inherent, potential enlightenment or intelligence of every being; (b) 始覺 , initial, or early stages of such enlightenment, brought about through the external perfuming or influence of teaching, working on the internal perfuming of subconscious intelligence; (c) 究竟覺 completion of enlightenment, the subjective mind in perfect accord with the subconscious (or superconscious) mind, or the inherent intelligence.

三觀 The three studies, meditations, or insights. The most general group is that of Tiantai: (a) 空觀 study of all as void, or immaterial; (b) 假觀 of all as unreal, transient, or temporal; (c) 中觀 as the via media inclusive of both. The Huayan group is 眞空觀, 理事無礙觀 and 周遍含容觀, see 華嚴經:法界觀. The 南山 group is 性空觀, 相空觀, and 唯識觀. The 慈恩 group is 有觀, 空觀 and 中觀.

三角壇 A three-cornered altar in the fire worship of Shingon, connected with exorcism.

三解脫 (三解脫門) The three emancipations, idem 三空 and 三三昧 q.v. They are 空解脫, 無相解脫 and 無作解脫. Cf. 三涅槃門.

三語 Buddha's three modes of discourse, i.e. without reserve, or the whole truth; tactical or partial, adapting truth to the capacity of his hearers; and a combination of both.

三論 The three śāstras translated by Kumārajīva, on which the 三論宗 Three śāstra School (Mādhyamika) bases its doctrines, i.e. 中論 Madhyamaka-śāstra, on "the Mean", A.D. 409; 十二門論 Dvādaśanikāya-śāstra, on the twelve points, A.D. 408; 百論 Sata-śāstra, the hundred verses, A.D. 404.

三論宗 The Sanlun, Mādhyamika, or Middle School, founded in India by Nāgārjuna, in China by 嘉祥 Jiaxiang during the reign of 安帝 An Di, Eastern Jin, A.D. 397-419. It flourished up to the latter part of the Tang dynasty. In 625 it was carried to Japan as Sanron. After the death of Jiaxiang, who wrote the 三論玄義, a northern and southern division took place. While the Mādhyamika denied the reality of all phenomenal existence, and defined the noumenal world in negative terms, its aim seems not to have been nihilistic, but the advocacy of a reality beyond human conception and expression, which in our terminology may be termed a spiritual realm.

三請 A request thrice repeated— implying earnest desire.

三諦 The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says 卽空, 卽假. 卽中 i.e. 就是空, 假, 中; (a) by 空śūnya is meant that things causally produced are in their essential nature unreal (or immaterial) 實空無; (b) 假, though things are unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) 中; but both are one, being of the one 如 reality. These three dogmas arefounded on a verse of Nāgārjuna's— 因緣所生法, 我說卽是空 亦爲是假名, 亦是中道義 "All causally produced phenomena, I say, are unreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are other explanations— the 圓教 interprets the 空 and 假 as 中; the 別教 makes 中 independent. 空 is the all, i.e. the totality of all things, and is spoken of as the 眞 or 實 true, or real; 假 is the differentiation of all things and is spoken of as 俗 common, i.e. things as commonly named; 中 is the connecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts of one stupendous whole." The 中 makes all and the all into one whole, unifying the whole and its parts. 空 may be taken as the immaterial, the undifferentiated all, the sum of existences, by some as the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏; 假as the unreal, or impermanent, the material or transient form, the temporal that can be named, the relative or discrete; 中 as the unifier, which places each in the other and all in all. The "shallower" 山外 school associated 空 and 中 with the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusory existence represented by 假. The "profounder" 山内 school teaches that all three are aspects of the same.

三諦相卽 The unity of 空, 假, 中, three aspects of the same reality, taught by the 圓教as distinguished from the 別教which separates them.

三識 The three states of mind or consciousness: 眞識 the original unsullied consciousness or Mind, the tathāgatagarbha, the eighth or ālaya 阿賴耶識 ; 現識 mind or consciousness diversified in contact with or producing phenomena, good and evil; 分別識 consciousness discriminating and evolving the objects of the five senses. Also 意識 manas, 心識 ālaya, and 無垢識 amala, v. 識.

三變 (土田) The three transformations of his Buddha-realm made by Śākyamuni on the Vulture peak—- first, his revelation of this world, then its vast extension, and again its still vaster extension. See Lotus Sutra.

三賢十聖 (or三賢十地). The three virtuous positions, or states, of a bodhisattva are 十住, 十行 and 十廻向. The ten excellent characteristics of a 聖 saint or holy one are the whole of the 十地.

三跋致 (or 諦) saṃpatti. To turn out well, prosper, be on the path of success.

三跋羅 saṃvara. 三婆 (or 三嚩) To hinder, ward off, protect from falling into the three inferior transmigrations; a divine being that fills this office worshipped by the Tantra School. The sixth vijñāna, v. 八識.

三身 trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.

三身三德 The 三身 are the 法, 報, and 應; the 三德 are 法, 般, and 解, i.e. the virtue, or merit, of the (a) 法身 being absolute independence, reality; of (b) 報身, being 般若 prajñā or wisdom; and of (c) 應身, being 解脫德 liberation, or Nirvāṇa.

三身佛性 v. 三身.

三身如來 v. 三身.

三身業 The three physical wrong deeds— killing, robbing, adultery.

三車 triyāna. 三乘 or 三乘法門 (1) The three vehicles across saṃsāra into nirvāṇa, i.e. the carts offered by the father in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing śrāvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism— Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna.

三車家 idem 三乘家.

三軌 The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 眞性軌 The absolute and real, the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the Lotus Sutra and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌 , patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 眞性軌 .

三輩 The three ranks of those who reach the Pure Land of Amitābha: superior i.e. monks and nuns who become enlightened and devote themselves to invocation of the Buddha of boundless age; medium, i.e. laymen of similar character who do pious deeds; inferior, i.e. laymen less perfect than the last.

三輪 The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) 身 body or deeds; (b) 口 mouth, or discourse; (c) 意 mind or ideas. (2) (a) 神通 (or 變) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) self-transformation, associated with 身 body; (b) 記心輪 his discriminating understanding of others, associated with 意 mind; (c) 敎誡輪 or 正敎輪 his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with 口. (3) Similarly (a) 神足輪 ; (b) 說法輪 ; (c) 憶念輪 . (4) 惑, 業, and 苦. The wheel of illusion produces karma, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. 三道.

三輪世界 The three-wheel world, i.e. 風, 水, and 金輪. Every world is founded on a wheel of whirling wind; above this is one of water; above this is one of metal, on which its nine mountains and eight seas are formed.

三輪化導 idem 三種示導.

三輪教 The three periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Paramārtha: (a) 轉法輪 the first rolling onwards of the Law-wheel, the first seven years' teaching of Hīnayāna, i.e. the 四諦 four axioms and 空 unreality; (b) 照法輪 illuminating or explaining the law-wheel, the thirty years' teaching of the 般若 prajñā or wisdom sūtras, illuminating 空 and by 空 illuminating 有 reality; (c) 持法輪 maintaining the law-wheel, i.e. the remaining years of teaching of the deeper truths of 空有 both unreality and reality. Also the three-fold group of the Lotus School: (a) 根本法輪 radical, or fundamental, as found in the 華嚴經 sūtra; (b) 枝末法輪 branch and leaf, i.e. all other teaching; until (c) 攝末歸本法輪 branches and leaves are reunited with the root in the Lotus Sutra, 法華經.

三輪相 The three-wheel condition— giver, receiver, gift.

三轉 (三轉法輪) The three turns of the law-wheel when the Buddha preached in the Deer Park: (a) 示轉 indicative, i.e. postulation and definition of the 四諦; (b) 勸轉 hortative, e.g. 苦當知 suffering should be diagnosed; (c) 證轉 evidential, e.g. I have overcome suffering, etc.

三轉法輪十二行 (三轉法輪十二行相) The twelve 行 processes are the application of the above 示, 勸, and 證 within the three turns of the wheel of the law (三轉法輪) to each of the four postulates. The three "turns" are also applied to the four kinds of knowledge, i.e. 眼, 智, 明, and 覺.

三迦葉 Three brothers Kāsyapa, all three said to be disciples of the Buddha.

三逆 The three unpardonable sins of Devadatta, which sent him to the Avici hell— schism, stoning the Buddha to the shedding of his blood, killing a nun.

三迷 Sama, 等, equal, like, same as.

三退屈 The three feelings of oppression that make for a bodhisattva's recreancy— the vastness of bodhi; the unlimited call to sacrifice; the uncertainty of final perseverance. There are 三事練磨 three modes of training against them.

三通力 idem 三達 and 三明.

三道 (1) The three paths all have to tread; 輪廻三道, 三輪, i.e. (a) 煩惱道 ; 惑道 ; the path of misery, illusion, mortality; (b) 業道 the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma; (c) 苦道 the resultant path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) 聾, 緣, 菩 śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, cf. 三乘.

三道眞言 Three magical "true words" or terms of Shingon for self-purification, i.e. 吽M004603 M067153 which is the "true word" for 身 the body; 訶囉鶴 for 語 the mouth or speech; and M004603 M067153 for 意 the mind.

三達 Three aspects of the omniscience of Buddha: knowledge of future karma, of past karma, of present illusion and liberation; v. 三明.

三那三佛 idem 三藐三佛陀.

三部 Three divisions. Included under this category are such terms as 三部大法, 三部主色, 三部經, etc.

三部大法 (l) The Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, or pantheon, has the three divisions of 佛, 蓮, 金, i.e. Vairocana, Lotus, and Diamond or Vajra. (2) The teaching of the 胎藏界, 金剛界 and 蘇悉地法 is said to cover the whole of esoteric Buddhism.

三部主色 the colors of the three divisions of the great pantheon (三部大法): Vairocana, white; 觀世音 (as representing) Amitābha, yellow; and the Diamond Ruler Śākyamuni, a ruddy yellow.

三部經 There are several groups: (1) The Amitābha group, also styled 淨土三部, is 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經 and 阿彌陀經. (2) The Vairocana group is 大日經, 金剛頂經 and 蘇悉地經; also called 三部祕經. (3) The Lotus group is the 無量義經, 妙法蓮經 and 觀普賢菩薩行法經. (4) The Maitreya group is 觀彌勤菩薩上生兜率天經, 彌勒下生經 and 彌勒大成佛經.

三醫 The three modes of diagnosis: the superior, 聽聲 listening to the voice; the medium, 相色 observing the external appearance; the inferior 診脈 testing the pulse.

三重三昧 (or 三重等持) idem 三三昧.

三重法界 The three meditations, on the relationship of the noumenal and phenomenal, of the 華嚴宗 Huayan School: (a) 理法界 the universe as law or mind, that all things are 眞如, i.e. all things or phenomena are of the same Buddha-nature, or the Absolute; (b) 理事無礙法界 that the Buddha-nature and the thing, or the Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive; (c) 事事無礙法界 that phenomena are not mutually exclusive, but in a common harmony as parts of the whole.

三金 The three metals, gold, silver, copper. The esoterics have (a) earth, water, fire, representing the 身密 mystic body; (b) space and wind, the 語密 mystic mouth or speech; (c) 識 cognition, the 意密 mystic mind.

三鉢羅佉哆 saṃprāpta, intp. by 善至, 正至, or 時至 well, properly, or timely arrived. Also written 僧跋 intp. 等施 bestowed equally or universally. It is a word spoken authoritatively some say before, some say after a common meal; a "blessing" to ward off evil from the food.

三鈷 A trident; emblem of the Garbhadhātu 三部; and of the 三智, 三觀等, and三軌. Also written 三古 ; 三胡; 三股.

三銖 Three twenty-fourths of a tael, the weight of a deva's garments, e.g. featherweight.

三長齋月 (三長月) The three whole months of abstinence, the first, fifth, and ninth months, when no food should be taken after noon. The four deva-kings are on tours of inspection during these months.

三門 trividha-dvāra, the three gates; a monastery; purity of body, speech, and thought; idem 三解脫門 also 三業.

三門三大侍者 The three officiators in a monastery— for incense, for writing, and for acting as host.

三阿僧祇劫 The three great asaṃkhyeya (i.e. beyond number) kalpas— the three timeless periods of a bodhisattva's progress to Buddhahood.

三陀羅尼 The three dhāraṇī, which word from dhāra, " maintaining," "preserving," is defined as the power maintaining wisdom or knowledge. Dhāraṇī are "spells chiefly for personal use" (Eliot), as compared with mantra, which are associated with religious services. The Tiantai School interprets the "three dhāraṇī" of the Lotus Sutra on the lines of the三諦, i.e. 空, 假and中. Another group is聞持陀羅尼 the power to retain all the teaching one hears; 分別陀羅尼 unerring powers of discrimination; 入音聲陀羅尼 power to rise superior to external praise or blame.

三階法 (三階佛法) The Three Stages School founded by the monk信行Xinxing in the Sui dynasty; it was proscribed in A.D. 600 and again finally in A.D. 725; also styled 三階院; 三階敎.

三際 Past, present, future, idem 三世.

三際時 The three Indian seasons, spring, summer, and winter, also styled熱, 雨, 寒時, the hot, rainy, and cold seasons.

三障 The three vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers, of which three groups are given: (1) (a) 煩惱障 the passions, i.e. 三毒 desire, hate, stupidity; (b) 業障 the deeds done; (c) 報障 the retributions. (2) (a) 皮煩惱障 ; (b) 肉煩惱障 ; (c) 心煩惱障 skin, flesh, and heart (or mind) troublers, i.e. delusions from external objects: internal views, and mental ignorance. (3) 三重障 the three weighty obstructions: (a) self-importance, 我慢; (b) envy, 嫉妬; (c) desire, 貧欲.

雜染 The three kaṣāya, i.e. "mixed dyes" or infections: the passions; their karma; reincarnation; or illusion, karma, and suffering.

三難 The three hardships, or sufferings in the three lower paths of transmigration, v. 三惡道.

三面大黑 The three-faced great black deva, Mahākāla v. 摩, with angry mien, a form of Maheśvara, or Śiva, as destroyer. Another interpretation says he is a union of Mahākāla, Vaiśravaṇa, and a Gandharva.

三顚倒 The three subversions or subverters: (evil) thoughts, (false) views, and (a deluded) mind.

三餘 The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences, of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who mistakenly think they are going to 無餘涅槃final nirvāṇa, but will still find 煩惱餘 further passion and illusion, 業餘 further karma, and 果餘 continued rebirth, in realms beyond the 三界trailokya.

三馬 The three horses, one young, strong, and tractable; another similar but not tractable; a third old and intractable, i.e. bodhisattvas (or bodhisattva-monks), śrāvakas and icchantis.

三魔 The three kinds of evil spirits, of which three groups are given: (1) 煩惱魔 , 陰魔 and他化自在天子魔 ; (2) 煩惱魔 , 天魔 and 死魔 ; (3) 善知識魔 , 三昧魔 , and善提心魔 .

三默堂 Thee three halls of silence where talk and laughter are prohibited: the bathroom, the sleeping apartment, the privy.

三點 See伊字三點.

三齋月 See 三長齋月.

丸香 Incense balls made of various kinds of ingredients; typifying the aggregation of mortal suffering, and its destruction by the, fires of wisdom.

Long, for long, long ago; also 久遠.

久住者 One who has spent many years in monastic life, or in a particular monastery.

久成正覺 Perfect enlightenment long acquired; Śākya-Tathāgata in ancient kalpas having achieved complete bodhi, transmitted it to Mañjuśrī Avalokiteśvara, and others, i.e., their enlightenment is the fruit of his enlightenment. 法華經:壽量品.

久遠實成 The perfect enlightenment achieved by the Buddha in remote kalpas.

To beg.

乞丐 a beggar.

乞士 A bhikṣu, mendicant monk, or almsman.

乞M004101雙提贊Khri-srong-lde-btsan, king of Tibet (A.D. 743-798). In 747 he brought to Tibet "the real founder of Lamaism" (Eliot), Padmasaṃbhava蓮華生上師, a Buddhist of Swat (Urgyan), who introduced a system of magic and mysticism (saturated with Śivaism) which found its way into Mongolia and China. The king was converted to Buddhism by his mother, a Chinese princess, and became a powerful supporter of it. He encouraged the translation of the Buddhist canon which was completed by his successors. He is worshipped as an incarnation of Mañjuśrī.

乞灑 乞察; 乞叉; 吃灑; 葛叉; 差; 叉; 刹; kṣaya, used in the sense of omega, implying finality, or nirvāṇa.

乞眼婆羅門 The Brahman who begged one of Śāriputra's eyes in a former incarnation, then trampled on it, causing Śāriputra to give up his efforts to become a bodhisattva and turn back to the Hīnayāna.

乞食 To beg for food, one of the twelve dhūtas prescribing outward conduct of the monk; mendicancy is the 正命 right livelihood of a monk, to work for a living is 邪命 an improper life: mendicancy keeps a monk humble, frees him from the cares of life, and offers the donors a field of blessedness; but he may not ask for food.

乞食四分 The four divisions of the mendicant's dole; to provide for (1) fellow religionists, (2) the poor, (3) the spirits, (4) self.

Yu, a preposition, in, at, etc. , similar to 於.

于遮那摩羅 Used in error for 干遮那摩羅.

干遮那摩羅 Kāñcana-mālā, a hair circlet or ornament of pure gold; name of the wife of Kuṇālā, noted for fidelity to her husband when he had been disgraced.

于闍那 Kuñjara. Name of a tree.

于闍羅 Kuñjara. Name of a tree.

于闐 于遁; 于殿; 于塡; 谿丹; 屈丹; 和闐; 澳那; 瞿薩憺那 Kustana, or Khotan, in Turkestan, the principal centre of Central Asian Buddhism until the Moslem invasion. Buddhism was introduced there about 200 B.C. or earlier. It was the centre from which is credited the spread of Mahayanism, v. 西城記 12.

Gone, lost, dead, ruined; not.

亡五衆物 The things left behind at death by any one of the five orders of monks or nuns; clothing, etc., being divided among the other monks or nuns; valuables and land, etc., going to the establishment.

亡者 Dead; the dead.

亡魂 The soul of the dead.

All, everybody, common, ordinary.

凡僧 The ordinary practising monk as contrasted with the 聖僧 the holy monk who has achieved higher merit.

凡夫 波羅; 婆羅必栗託仡那; 婆羅必利他伽闍那 bālapṛthagjana. Everyman, the worldly man, the sinner. Explained by 異生 or 愚異生 one who is born different, or outside the Law of the Buddha, because of his karma.

凡夫十重妄 The serious misfortunes of the sinful man in whom the Ālaya-vijñāna, the fundamental intelligence, or life force, of everyman, is still unenlightened; they are compared to ten progressive stages of a dream in which a rich man sees himself become poor and in prison.

凡夫性 凡性The common underlying nature of all men; also called 異生性.

凡小 Common men, or sinners, also believers in Hīnayāna; also the unenlightened in general.

凡小八倒 The eight subverted views of common men and Hinayanists―counting the impermanent as permanent, the non-joy as joy, the non-ego as ego, the impure as pure; the really permanent as impermanent, the real joy, the true ego, the real purity as non-joy, non-ego, impurity; cf. 四德.

凡師 Ordinary, or worldly teachers unenlightened by Buddhist truth.

凡情 Desires or passions of the unconverted.

凡愚 Common, ignorant, or unconverted men.

凡慮 The anxieties of common or unconverted men.

凡福 The ordinary blessedness of devas and men as compared with that of the converted.

凡種 Common seed, ordinary people.

凡習 The practices, good and evil, of commom ,or unconverted men.

凡聖 Sinners and saints.

凡聖一如 Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature.

凡聖不二 Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature.

凡聖同居土 This world, where saints and sinners dwell together; one of the Tiantai 四土.

凡識 Ordinary knowledge, worldly knowledge, that of the unenlightened by Buddha.

凡身 The common mortal body, the ordinary individual.

A blade, a sword; to kill.

刃葉林 Asipattravana; the forest of swords, where every leaf is a sharp sword, v. 地獄.

sahasra. A thousand.

千二百五十人 The 1,250, i.e. the immediate disciples of Buddha's disciples, all former heretics converted to Buddha's truth.

千二百舌功德 The 1,200 merits of tongue in the Lotus Sutra.

二百耳功德 The 1,200 merits of ear in the Lotus Sutra.

千二百意功德 The 1,200 merits of mind in the Lotus Sutra.

千佛 The thousand Buddhas. Each of the past, present, and future kalpas has a thousand Buddhas; Śākyamuni is the "fourth" Buddha in the present kalpa.

千佛名經 professes to give their names. A scripture which lists the names of the thousand buddhas.

千化 The thousand-petalled lotus on which sits Locana Buddha, each petal a transformation of Śākyamuni; Locana represents also the Saṃgha, as Vairocana represents the Dharma.

千如是 The thousand "suchnesses" or characteristics, a term of the Tiantai sect. In each of the ten realms 十界, from Buddha to purgatory, the ten are present, totaling one hundred. These multiplied by the ten categories of existence make a thousand, and multiplied by the three categories of group existence make 3,000.

千手 (千手千眼); 千手千眼大慈大悲觀音菩薩 The thousand-hand Guanyin, see below. There are various sutras associated with this title, e.g. 千手經 an abbreviation of 手千眼觀世音菩薩大廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經; also 千手軌 or 軌經 an abbreviation of 金剛頂瑜伽千手千眼觀自在菩薩修行儀軌經; it is also called 千手陀羅尼 and 千手千眼儀軌經; there are many others, e.g. 千手千眼觀世音菩藤姥陀羅尼身經 and 千手千眼廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經 both idem 千手千臂陀羅尼神咒 which is the Avalokiteśvara-padma-jāla-mūla-tantra‐nāma-dhāraṇī.

千手觀音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes.

千手千眼觀音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes.

千眼千臂觀世音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes. The image usually has forty arms, one eye in each hand; and forty multiplied by twenty-five is the number of regions in this universe. For the 二十八部 or retinue, the maṇḍala and signs v. 千手經.

千法明門 The gate of understanding of the thousand laws―the second stage of a bodhisattva's study and attainment.

千泉 Bingheul 屛律 Mingbulak. A lake country 30 li E. of Talas.

千百億身 The Buddha Locana seated on a lotus of a thousand petals, each containing myriads of worlds in each world is, Śākyamuni seated under a bodhi tree, all such worlds attaining bodhi at the same instant.

千眼天 The Deva with 1,000 of a thousand petals, i.e. that of Locana Buddha.

千輻輪相 Sahasrara; the thousand-spoked wheel sign, i.e. the wrinkles on the soles of a cakravarti, or Buddha.

千部論師 (or 千部論主) Master of a thousand śāstras―a title of Nāgārjuna and of Vasubandhu.

千里駒 The thousand-li colt, a name for Xuanzang.

A fork, forked; to fold, folded.

叉手 The palms of the hands together with the fingers crossed forming ten. Also, the palms together with the middle fingers crossing each other, an old Indian form of greeting. In China anciently the left hand was folded over the right, but with women the right hand was over the left. In mourning salutations the order was reversed.

叉拏 kṣaṇa, an instant, a moment; also 刹拏.

叉磨 kṣamā, v. 懺悔.

叉耶 kṣaya, diminish, decay, end; v. 乞.

mukha, the mouth, especially as the organ of speech. 身, 口, 意 are the three media of corruption, body or deed , mouth or word, and mind or thought.

口傳 Oral transmission.

口授 Oral transmission.

口力外道 One of the eleven heretical sects of India. which is said to have compared the mouth to the great void out of which all things were produced. The great void produced the four elements, these produced herbs, and these in turn all the living; or more in detail the void produced wind, wind fire, fire warmth, warmth water, water congealed and formed earth which produced herbs, herbs cereals and life, hence life is food; ultimately all returns to the void, which is nirvana.

因力論師 Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道.

口力論師 Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道.

口印 The mouth sign, one of the fourteen symbols of 不重尊 q.v.

口和 Harmony of mouths or voices, unanimous approval.

口四 The four evils of the mouth, lying, double tongue, ill words, and exaggeration; cf. 十惡.

口密 語密 One of the 三密. Secret or magical words, either definite formulas of the Buddha or secret words from his dharma, kaya, or spirit.

口忍 Patience of the mouth, uttering no rebuke under insult or persecution; there are similarly 身忍 and 意忍.

口業 語業 One of the 三業. (1) The work of the mouth, i.e. talk, speech. (2) The evil karma produced by the mouth, especially from lying, double-tongue, ill words, and exaggeration.

口業供養 The offering of the praise or worship of the lips; also 身業供養 and 意業供養.

口疏 奥疏 Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated.

奥疏 Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated.

口稱 Invocation.

口稱三昧 The samādhi in which with a quiet heart the individual repeats the name of Buddha, or the samādhi attained by such repetition.

口訣 Orally transmitted decisions or instructions.

口輪 正教輪 One of the 三輪. The wheel of the mouth. or the wheel of the true teaching; Buddha's teaching rolling on everywhere, like a chariot-wheel, destroying misery.

口頭禪 Mouth meditation, i.e. dependence on the leading of others, inability to enter into personal meditation.

Bhū; bhūmi; pṛthivī. Earth, locality, local, vulgar.

土地神 The local guardian deity of the soil or locality, deus loci; in the classics and government sacrifices known as 社; as guardian deity of the grave 后土. The 土地堂 is the shrine of this deity as ruler of the site of a monastery, and is usually east of the main hall. On the 2nd and 16th of each month a 土地諷經 or reading of a sutra should be done at the shrine.

土星 賒乃以室折羅 Śanaiścara. Saturn. Śani, the Hindu ruler of the planet, was "identified with the planet itself ".[Eitel.]

土波 Tibet.

土砂供養 土砂加持 The putting of earth on the grave 108 times by the Shingon sect; they also put it on the deceased's body, and even on the sick, as a kind of baptism for sin, to save the deceased from the hells and base reincarnations, and bring them to the Pure Land.

土羅遮 偸蘭遮 sthūlātyaya. Serious sin.

土饅頭 An earthen loaf, i.e. a grave; but v. 士饅頭.

土麨 Aśoka is said to have become king as a reward for offering, when a child in a previous incarnation, a double-handful of sand as wheat or food to the Buddha.

A gentleman, scholar, officer.

士夫 v. 補盧沙 puruṣa.

士夫見 One of the eight heterodox views, i.e. the pride arising from belief in a puruṣa, 補慮沙 q.v.

士饅頭 śmaśāna. A crematory; a burial place for remains from cremation. A grave; v. 土饅頭. The form is doubtful.


夕座 The evening service.

朝座 The morning service.

Maha. 摩訶; 麼賀. Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous 多; surpassing ; mysterious 妙; beyond comprehension 不可思議; omnipresent 體無不在. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) 三大 The three all-pervasive qualities of the 眞如 q.v. : its 體, 相 , 用 substance, form, and functions, v. 起信論 . (b) 四大 The four tanmātra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the 倶舍論. (c)五大 The five, i.e. the last four and space 空, v. 大日經. (d) 六大 The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind 識. Hīnayāna, emphasizing impersonality 人空, considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahāyāna, emphasizing the unreality of all things 法空, counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind 識 dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation, regards them as universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) 七大 The 楞嚴經 adds 見 perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs 根.

大三末多 Mahāsaṃmata. The first of the five kings of the Vivarta kalpa (成劫五王 ), one of the ancestors of the Śākya clan.

大不可棄子部 Āvantikās. The great school of the son who "could not be abandoned" (a subdivision of the Saṃmatiyas 三彌底), whose founder when a newborn babe was abandoned by his parents.

大不善地法 The two great characteristics of the evil state, 無慚無愧 no sense of shame or disgrace, shameless.

大乘 Mahāyāna; also called 上乘; 妙乘; 勝乘; 無上乘; 無上上乘; 不惡乘; 無等乘, 無等等乘; 摩訶衍 The great yāna, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the 小乘 Hīnayāna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddha and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism. It is interpreted as 大教 the greater teaching as compared with 小教 the smaller, or inferior. Hīnayāna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahāyāna, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas 菩薩 , i.e. beings who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hīnayāna is sometimes described as 自利 self-benefiting, and Mahāyāna as 自利利他 self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahāyāna. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas: the trīyāna may be śrāvaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yāna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according to the capacity of his hearers, v. 方便. Though Mahāyāna tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahāyāna has been attributed to Nāgārjuna 龍樹. "The characteristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samādhi and Dhyāna) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hīnayāna school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 起信論and the 妙法蓮華經 but a larnge numberof Mahāyāna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha。.

大乘二種成佛 The two Mahāyāna kinds of Buddhahood: (1) that of natural purity, for every one has the inherent nature; (2) that attained by practice.

大乘善根界 The Mahāyāna good roots realm, a name for the Amitābha Pure-land of the West.

大乘四果The four fruits, or bodhisattva stages in Mahāyāna, the fourth being that of a Buddha: 須陀洹 srota-āpanna, 斯陀含 sakṛdāgāmin, 。阿理那含 anāgāmin, and 阿羅漢 arhan. This is a 通教 category.

大乘因 Mahāyāna "cause" is variously described as the mind of enlightenment 菩提心; or the reality behind all things 諸法實相.

大乘基 "Mahāyāna‐fundament", title of 窺基 Kuiji, a noted disciple of Xuanzang 玄奘; known also as 大乘法師.

大乘妙經 idem 法華經 the Lotus Sutra.

大乘天 "Mahāyāna-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang, who was also styled 木叉提婆 Moksa-deva.

木叉提婆 "Mokṣa-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang.

大乘宗 The school of Mahāyāna, attributed to the rise in India of the Mādhyamika, i.e. the 中觀 or 三論 school ascribed to Nāgārjuna, and the Yoga 瑜伽 or Dharmalakṣaṇa 法相 school, the other schools being Hīnayāna. In China and Japan the 倶舍 and 成實 are classed as Hīnayāna, the rest being Mahāyāna , of which the principal schools are 律, 法相 , 三論, 華嚴, 天台, 眞言 , 淨土 , 禪 q.v.

大乘心 The mind or heart of the Mahāyāna; seeking the mind of Buddha by means of Mahāyāna.

大乘戒 The commands or prohibitions for bodhisattvas and monks, also styled 菩薩; 三聚淨戒; 圓頓戒 and other titles according to the school. The 梵網經 gives ten weighty prohibitions and forty-eight lighter ones; v. also 大乘戒經.

大乘教 v. 大乘; for 大乘教九部 v. 九部.

大乘方等經典 The sutra and scriptures of the Mahāyāna, their doctrines being 方正 square and correct and 平等 for all equally, or universal.

大乘楞伽經唯識論 Viṃśatikā-vijñaptimātratā-siddhi-śāstra. A title of one of three treatises by Vasubandhu, tr. A.D. 508-535, 大乘唯識論 tr. 557-569, and 唯識二十論 tr. by Xuanzang in 661 being the other two.

大乘法師 a title for 窺基 v. 大乘基.

大乘法相教 and 大乘破相敎 v. 法相敎.

大乘無上法 The supreme Mahāyāna truth, according to the 楞伽經, is that of ultimate reality in contrast with the temporary and apparent; also reliance on the power of the vow of the bodhisattva.

大乘無作大戒 The Mahāyāna great moral law involving no external action; a Tiantai expression for the inner change which occurs in the recipient of ordination; it is the activity within; also 大乘無作圓頓戒; 無表大戒.

大乘純界 The lands wholly devoted to Mahāyāna, i.e. China and Japan, where in practice there is no Hīnayāna.

大乘經 Mahāyāna sutras, the sūtra-piṭaka. Discourses ascribed to the Buddha, presumed to be written in India and translated into Chinese. These are divided into five classes corresponding to the Mahāyāna theory of the Buddha's life: (1) Avataṃsaka, 華嚴 the sermons first preached by Śākyamuni after enlightenment; (2) Vaipulya, 方等; (3) Prajñā Pāramitā, 般若; (4) Saddharma Puṇḍarīka, 法華; and last (5) Mahāparinirvāṇa, 涅槃. Another list of Mahāyāna sutras is 般若; 寳積; 大集; 華嚴 and 涅槃. The sutras of Hīnayāna are given as the Agamas 阿含, etc.

大乘莊嚴經論 Mahāyānasūtra-laṃkāra-ṭīkā. An exposition of the teachings of the Vijñāna-vāda School, by Asaṅga, tr. A.D. 630-3 by Prabhākaramitra. 13 chuan.

大乘起信論 Mahāyāna- śraddhotpāda-śāstra, attributed to Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴 (without sufficient evidence), tr. by Paramārtha A.D. 553 and Śikṣānanda between 695-700; there are nineteen commentaries on it. It is described as the foundation work of the Mahāyāna. Tr. into English by Timothy Richard and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith.

大乘論 Abhidharma of the Mahāyāna, the collection of discourses on metaphysics and doctrines.

大乘頂王經 Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, (維摩經) is the Sanskrit title of a work of which there exist six translations, one made by Upaśūnya A.D. 502-557.

大事(因緣) For the sake of a great cause, or because of a great matter―the Buddha appeared, i.e. for changing illusion into enlightenment. The Lotus interprets it as enlightenment; the Nirvana as the Buddha-nature; the 無量壽經 as the joy of Paradise.

人相印 Sealed with the sign of manhood, i.e. of the religious life. 大仙 Maharsi. Great sages, applied to Buddhist saints as superior to ordinary "immortals"; also to sravakas, and especially to Buddha; | | 戒 are the Buddha's laws or commands. Vasistha 婆私瑟侘 was one of the seven rsis 大仙 of Brahmanic mythology.

佛頂 A title of the esoteric sect for their form of Buddha, or Buddhas, especially of Vairocana of the Vajradhātu and Śākyamuni of the Garbhadhātu groups. Also, an abbreviation of a dhāraṇī as is | | | 經 of a sutra, and there are other | | | scriptures.

休歇底 Ended, finished; dead to the world; also | 死底.

信心 Great or firm faith in, or surrender to Buddha, especially to Amitabha.

信心海 A heart of faith great as the ocean.

A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhikṣu as contrasted with the śramaņa.

僧正 The Director or Pope of monks; an office under Wudi, A.D. 502‐550, of the Liang dynasty, for the control of the monks. Wendi, 560-7, of the Ch'en dynasty appointed a 大僧統 or Director over the monks in his capital.

大元帥明王 The great commander, one of the sixteen 明王 q.v., named Atavika 阿吒薄迦 (or 倶 or 皆). There are four sutras, chiefly spells connected with his cult.

大光明王 The Great-Light Ming-wang, Śākyamuni in a previous existence, when king of Jambudvīpa, at Benares. There his white elephant, stirred by the sight of a female elephant, ran away with him into the forest, where he rebuked his mahout, who replied, "I can only control the body not the mind, only a Buddha can control the mind." Thereupon the royal rider made his resolve to attain bodhi and become a Buddha. Later, he gave to all that asked, finally even his own head to a Brahman who demanded it, at the instigation of an enemy king.

大光音天 ābhāsvara. The third of the celestial regions in the second dhyāna heaven of the form realm; v. 四禪天.

大光普照 The great light shining everywhere, especially the ray of light that streamed from between the Buddha's eyebrows, referred to in the Lotus Sutra.

大光普照觀音 One of the six forms of Guanyin.

大准提 Mahā-cundī, a form of Guanyin. There are dhāraṇīs beginning with the name Cundī.

大刧 mahākalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed and another begins in its place. It has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta 成刧 the creation period; vivarta‐siddha 住刧 the appearance of sun and moon, i.e. light, and the period of life, human and general; saṃvarta 壤刧 or 滅刧 destruction first by fire, then water, then fire, then deluge, then a great wind, i.e. water during seven small kalpas, fire during 56 and wind one, in all 64; saṃvartatthāhi 増滅刧 total destruction gradually reaching the void. A great kalpa is calculated as eighty small kalpas and to last 1,347,000,000 years.

大刧賓寧 Kapphiṇa or Mahakapphiṇa v. 劫賓那.

大力王 King Powerful, noted for his unstinted generosity. Indra to test him appeared as a Brahman and asked for his flesh; the king ungrudgingly cut of and gave him his arm. Indra was then Devadatta, King Powerful was Śākyamuni; v. 菩薩藏經 (下).

大力金剛 The mighty "diamond" or Vajra-mahārāja in the Garbhadhātu group, a fierce guardian and servant of Buddhism, see below.

大勇 Āryaśūra. Also 聖勇 The great brave, or ārya the brave. An Indian Buddhist author of several works.

大勇猛菩薩 A guardian ruler in the Garbhadhātu group called Mahānīla, the Great Blue Pearl, or perhaps sapphire, which in some way is associated with him.

大勝金剛 Another name for 金輪佛頂, one of the incarnations of Vairocana represented with twelve arms, each hand holding one of his symbols. Also 大轉輪王; 金剛手 .

大勢 See 大勢至菩薩.

勢至 See 大勢至菩薩.

大勢至菩薩 Mahāsthāma or Mahāsthāmaprāpta 摩訶那鉢. A Bodhisattva representing the Buddha-wisdom of Amitābha; he is on Amitābha's right, with Avalokiteśvara on the left. They are called the three holy ones of the western region. He has been doubtfully identified with Maudgalyāyana. Also 勢至.

大勢佛 The Buddha of mighty power (to heal and save), a Buddha's title.

大勤勇 Greatly zealous and bold― a title of Vairocana.

大化 The transforming teaching and work of a Buddha in one lifetime.

大千 (世界) A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千.

大千世界 A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千.

大召 A temple and its great bell in Lhasa Tibet, styled 老木郞, built when the T'ang princess became the wife of the Tibetan king Ts'ah-po and converted Tibet to Buddhism.

大吉祥天 The good-fortune devīs, and also devas, also called 功德天, concerning whom there are several sutras.

大吉祥金剛 idem 金剛手.

大吉祥明菩薩 The sixth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大吉大明菩薩 The fifth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group..

大吉變菩薩 The sixth bodhisattva in the third row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大叫喚地獄 mahāraurava. The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells. Also 大呌 ; 大號呌 ; 大呼.

大和尚 Great monk, senior monk, abbot ; a monk of great virtue and old age. Buddhoṣingha, (Fotu cheng 佛圖澄), who came to China A.D. 310, was so styled by his Chinese disciple 石子龍 Shizi long.

大和竭羅 Dīpaṃkara. The Buddha of burning light, the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni, a disciple of Varaprabha ; v. 燃 and 提. In the Lotus Sutra he appears from his nirvana on the Vulture Peak with Śākyamuni, manifesting that the nirvana state is one of continued existence.

大命 The great order, command, destiny, or fate, i.e. life-and-death, mortality, reincarnation.

大周刋定衆經目錄 The catalogue in 14 juan of the Buddhist scripture made under the Empress Wu of the Tang dynasty, the name of which she changed to Zhou.

大品 The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the next. | | 般若經 ; 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahaprajnaparamita sutra as tr. by Kumarajiva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition.

大品經 The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the 大品般若經.

大品般若經 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra as tr. by Kumārajīva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition.

大哉解脱服 Great! the robe of deliverance―verses in praise of the cassock, from the 善見論, sung on initiation into the order.

大唐内典錄 A catalogue of the Buddhist library in the Tang dynasty A.D. 664.

大唐西域記 The Record of Western Countries by Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty ; v. 西域記.

大善利 The great benefit that results from goodness, also expressed as 大善大利 implying the better one is the greater the resulting benefit.

大善地法 The ten mental conditions for cultivation of goodness, being a part of the forty-six methods mentioned in the 倶舍論 4 ; faith, zeal, renunciation, shame (for one's own sin), shame (for another's sin), no desire, no dislike, no harm, calmness, self-control. v. 大地法.

大善知識 Well acquainted with the good ; great friends.

大嚫 dakṣiṇā, v. 達嚫.

大因陀羅座 The throne of Indra, whose throne is four-square to the universe ; also 金剛輪座.

大因陀羅壇 Indra-altar of square shape. He is worshipped as the mind-king of the universe, all things depending on him.

大圓覺 Great and perfect enlightenment, Buddha-wisdom.

大圓鏡智 Great perfect mirror wisdom, i.e. perfect all-reflecting Buddha-wisdom.

大圓鏡智觀 A meditation on the reflection of the perfect Buddha-wisdom in every being, that as an image may enter into any number of reflectors, so the Buddha can enter into me and I into him 入我我入.

大地 Great earth, the whole earth, everywhere, all the land, etc.

大地法 Ten bodhisattva bhūmi, or stages above that of 見道 in the 倶舍論 4, and the mental conditions connected with them. 大地 is also defined as good and evil, the association of mind with them being by the ten methods of 受, 想, 思, 觸, 欲, 慧, 念, 作意, 勝解, 三摩地.

大域龍 Dignāga, or Mahā-Dignāga, also known as 陳那 Jina, founder of the medieval school of Buddhist logic about the fifth century A.D. His works are known only in Tibetan translations. [Winternitz.]

大壇 A great altar, the chief altar.

大士 Mahasattva. 開士 A great being, noble, a leader of men, a bodhisattva; also a śrāvaka, a Buddha; especially one who 自利利他 benefits himself to help others.

大士籤 Bamboo slips used before Kuan-yin when the latter is consulted as an oracle. '

大夜 The great night, i.e. that before the funeral pyre of a monk is lighted; also 迨夜; 宿夜.

大夢 The great dream, "the dream of life," this life, the world.

大天 Mahādeva. 摩訶提婆. (1) A former incarnation of Śākyamuni as a Cakravartī. (2) A title of Maheśvara. (3) An able supporter of the Mahāsāṃghikaḥ, whose date is given as about a hundred years after the Buddha's death, but he is also described as a favorite of Aśoka, with whom he is associated as persecutor of the Sthavirāḥ, the head of which escaped into Kashmir. If from the latter school sprang the Mahāyāna, it may account for the detestation in which Mahādeva is held by the Mahāyānists. An account of his wickedness and heresies is given in 西域記 3 and in 婆沙論 99.

大秦寺 (1) A monastery of the Manichaean sect, erected in Changan during the Tang dynasty by order of the emperor Taizong C.E. 627-650; also 波斯寺 (2) A Nestorian monastery mentioned in the Christian monument at Sianfu.

大姊 Elder sister, a courtesy title for a lay female devotee, or a nun.

大威德 Mahātejas. Of awe-inspiring power, or virtue, able to suppress evildoers and protect the good. A king of garuḍas, v. 迦. Title of a 明王 protector of Buddhism styled 大威德者; 大威德尊; 大威德明王; 百光扁照王; there are symbols, spells, esoteric words, sutras, etc., connected with this title.

大婆羅門 The great brāhmaṇa, applied to the Buddha, who though not of Brahman caste was the embodiment of Brahman virtues.

大婆羅門經 A sutra dealing with 大婆羅門.

大堅固婆羅門 The great reliable Brāhmaṇa, i.e., Śākyamuni in a previous life when minister of a country; there is sutra of this name.

大孔雀王 The mayūra, or "peacock" 明王 ,v. 孔雀王There are seven sets of spells connected with him.

大安達羅 Mahendra, or Mahendrī, or Rāja mahendrī. A city near the mouth of the Godavery, the present Rājamundry.

大安慰 The great comforter, or pacifier―a Buddha's title.

大定智悲 Great insight, great wisdom, great pity, the three virtues 三德for Buddha by which he achieves enlightenment and wisdom and saves all beings.

大寂定 The samādhi which the Tathāgata enters, of perfect tranquility and concentration with total absence of any perturbing element; also parinirvāṇa. Also 大寂三昧; 大寂靜摩地.

大寂王 The great tranquil or nirvana dharma‐king, i.e. Vairocana.

大寂滅 Parinirvāṇa; the great nirvana.

大寒林 The grove of great cold, sitavana, i.e., burial stūpas, the graveyard.

大寶 Great Jewel, most precious thing, i.e. the Dharma or Buddha-law; the bodhisattva; the fire-altar of the esoteric cult.

大寶坊 The "great precious region" described in the 大集 sutra as situated between the world of desire and the world of form.

大寶摩尼 The great precious maṇi, or pure pearl, the Buddha-truth.

大寶法王 Mahāratna-dharma-rāja. Title of the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow sect, b. A.D. 1417 ,worshipped as an incarnation of Amitābha, now incarnate in every Bogdo gegen Hutuktu reigning in Mongolia. He received this title in A. D. 1426. See 宗客巴 Tsong-kha-Pa.

大寶海 The "great precious ocean," (of the merit of Amitabha).

大寶積經 Mahāratnakūṭa-sūtra. Collection of forty-nine sutras, of which thirty-six were translated by Bodhiruci and collated by him with various previous translations.

大寶華 The great precious flower, a lotus made of pearls.

大寶華王 King of jewel-lotuses, i.e., the finest of the gem-flowers 大寶華.

大寶華王座 A throne for the 大寶華王.

大寶藏 The great precious treasury, containing the gems of the Buddha-truth.

大寺 Mahāvihāra. The Great Monastery, especially that in Ceylon visited by Faxian about A.D. 400 when it had 3,000 inmates; v. 毘訶羅.

大導師 The great guide, i.e. Buddha, or a Bodhisattva.

大小二乘 The two vehicles, Mahāyāna and Hinayana; v. 大乘 and 小乘.

大師 Great teacher, or leader, one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

大幻師 Great magician, a title given to a Buddha.

大度師 Great leader across mortality to nirvana, i.e. Buddha, or Bodhisattva.

大廣智三藏 He of great, wide wisdom in the Tripiṭaka, a title of Amogha 阿目佉.

大德 bhadanta. 婆檀陀 Most virtuous, a title of honor of a Buddha; in the Vinaya applied to monks.

大心力 The great mind and power, or wisdom and activity of Buddha.

大心海 Great mind ocean, i.e. omniscience.

大念 (大念佛) Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration.

大念佛 Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration.

大志焚身 The monk Ta-chin who sacrificed himself on the pyre, and thus caused Yang Ti of the Sui dynasty to withdraw his order for dispersing the monks.

大忍法界 The great realm for learning patience, i.e. the present world.

大恩教主 The Lord of great grace and teacher of men, Buddha.

大惡象 The great wild elephant, i.e. the untamed heart.

大悲 mahākaruṇā, "great pity"; i.e. greatly pitiful, a heart that seeks to save the suffering; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas; especially to Guanyin.

大悲三昧 The samādhi of great pity, in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas develop their great pity.

大悲代受苦 Vicarious suffering (in purgatory) for all beings, the work of bodhisattvas. The same idea in regard to Guanyin is conveyed in大悲千手獄.

大悲咒 Another name of the 千手經 or 千手陀羅尼 containing a spell against lust.

大悲壇 The altar of pity, a term for the garbhadhātu maṇḍala , or for the Sakyamumi group.

大悲弓 The bow of great pity. Pity, a bow in the left hand; wisdom 智, an arrow in the right hand.

大悲四八之應 The thirty-two or thirty-three manifestations of the All-pitiful Guanyin responding to every need.

大悲普現 Great pity universally manifested, i.e. Guanyin, who in thirty-three manifestations meets every need.

大悲生心三昧耶 The samadhi of Maitreya.

大悲經 Mahākaruṇā-puṇḍarīka-sūtra, tr. by Narendrayaśas and Dharmaprajñā A.D. 552, five books.

大悲者 The great pitiful one, Kuan-yin.

大悲胎藏 The womb―store of great pity, the fundamental heart of bodhi in all: this womb is likened to a heart opening as an eight-leaved lotus, in the center being Vairocana, the source of pity.

大悲胎藏曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of the 大悲胎藏.

大悲胎藏三昧 The samādhi in which Vairocana evolves the group, and it is described as the "mother of all Buddha-sons".

大悲菩薩 Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of great pity.

大悲觀世 Guanyin, the greatly pitiful regarder of (earth's) cries.

大悲鎧冑門 A degree of samādhi in which Vairocana produced the Bodhisattva Vajrapāla 金剛護菩薩 who protects men like a helmet and surrounds them like mail by his great pity.

大悲闡提 The greatly pitiful icchantikah, who cannot become a Buddha till his saving work is done, i.e. Guanyin, Dizang.

大慈 Great mercy,or compassion.

大慈大悲 Great mercy and great pity, characteristics of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, i.e. kindness in giving joy and compassion in saving from suffering. It is especially applied to Guanyin.

大慈尊 The honored one of great kindness, Maitreya.

大慈恩寺 The monastery of "Great Kindness and Grace", built in Changan by the crown prince of Taizong C.E. 648, where Xuanzang lived and worked and to which in 652 he added its pagoda, said to be 200 feet high, for storing the scriptures and relics he had brought from India.

大慈恩三藏 "Tripitaka of the Ta Cien T'zu En Si" is one of Xuanzang's 玄奘 titles.

慈生菩薩 The director or fosterer of pity among all the living, i.e. the fifth in the 除蓋障 court of the Garbhadhātu group. Also 大慈起; 慈發生; 慈愍慧; 慈念金剛. His Sanskrit name is translit. 昧憺利也毘廋拏糵多.

大意 The general meaning or summary of a sutra or śāstra. Also, the name of a youth, a former incarnation of the Buddha : to save his nation from their poverty, he plunged into the sea to obtain a valuable pearl from the sea-god who, alarmed by the aid rendered by Indra, gave up the pearl ; v. 大意經.

大意經 tr. by Gunabhadra of the Liu Sung dynasty, 1 chuan.

大愛道 Mahā prajāpatī, 摩訶波闍波提 Gautama's aunt and foster-mother, also styled Gotami or Gautami, the first woman received into the order. There are sutras known by her name. 大愛 is also a name for the sea-god.

大應供 The great worshipful―one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

大會 A general assembly.

大會衆 The general assembly (of the saints).

大愚 The "greatly ignorant", name of a monastery and title of its patriarch, of the Ch'an (Zen) or intuitive school.

大慧 Mahāmati 摩訶摩底 (1) Great wisdom, the leading bodhisattva of the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. (2) Name of a Hangchow master of the Chan school, Zonggao 宗杲 of the Song dynasty, whose works are the 大慧書. (3) Posthumous title of 一行Yixing, a master of the Chan school in the Tang dynasty.

大慧刀印 The sign of the great wisdom sword, the same esoteric sign as the 寳甁印 and 塔印 There are two books, the abbreviated titles of which are 大慧語錄 and its supplement the 大慧武庫.

大成 Mahāsaṃmbhava. Great completion. The imaginary realm in which (in turn) appeared 20,000 koṭīs of Buddhas all of the same title, Bhīṣmagarjita-ghoṣasvararāja.

大戒 The complete commandments of Hīnayāna and Mahayana, especially of the latter.

大我 The greater self, or the true personality 眞我. Hīnayāna is accused of only knowing and denying the common idea of a self, or soul, whereas there is a greater self, which is a nirvana self. It especially refers to the Great Ego, the Buddha, but also to any Buddha ;v.大目經1, etc., and 涅槃經 23.

大拘絺那 Mahākauṣṭhila, 摩訶倶絺羅, 摩訶倶祉羅 an eminent disciple of Śākyamuni, maternal uncle of Śāriputra, reputed author of the Saṃgītiparyāya-śāstra.

大拏 sudana, 須達拏, 須大拏, 蘇達拏 ; i.e. Sakyamuni as a prince in a former life, when he forfeited the throne by his generosity.

大攝受 The great all-embracing receiver―a title of a Buddha, especially Amitābha.

大教 The great teaching. (1) That of the Buddha. (2) Tantrayāna. The mahātantra, yoga, yogacarya, or tantra school which claims Samantabhadra as its founder. It aims at ecstatic union of the individual soul with the world soul, Iśvara. From this result the eight great powers of Siddhi (aṣṭa-mahāsiddhi), namely, ability to (1) make one's body lighter (laghiman); (2) heavier (gaiman); (3) smaller (aṇiman); (4) larger (mahiman) than anything in the world ; (5) reach any place (prāpti) ; (6) assume any shape (prākāmya) ; (7) control all natural laws (īśitva) ; (8) make everything depend upon oneself; all at will (v.如意身 and 神足). By means of mystic formulas (Tantras or dhāraṇīs), or spells (mantras), accompanied by music and manipulation of the hands (mūdra), a state of mental fixity characterized neither by thought nor the annihilation of thought, can be reached. This consists of six-fold bodily and mental happiness (yoga), and from this results power to work miracles. Asaṅga compiled his mystic doctrines circa A.D. 500. The system was introduced into China A.D. 647 by Xuanzang's translation of the Yogācārya-bhūmi-śāstra 瑜伽師地論 ; v. 瑜. On the basis of this, Amoghavajra established the Chinese branch of the school A.D. 720 ; v. 阿目. This was popularized by the labours of Vajrabodhi A.D. 732 ; v. 金剛智.

大教經 idem 大金剛頂經.

大教網 The net of the great teaching, which saves men from the sea of mortal life.

大方便 mahopāya; the great appropriate means, or expedient method of teaching by buddhas and bodhisattvas ; v. 方便 .

大方廣 mahāvaipulya ; cf. 大方等 The great Vaipulyas, or sutras of Mahāyāna. 方廣 and 方等 are similar in meaning. Vaipulya is extension, spaciousness, widespread, and this is the idea expressed both in 廣 broad, widespread, as opposed to narrow, restricted, and in 等 levelled up, equal everywhere, universal. These terms suggest the broadening of the basis of Buddhism, as is found in Mahāyāna. The Vaipulya works are styled sutras, for the broad doctrine of universalism, very different from the traditional account of his discourses, is put into the mouth of the Buddha in wider, or universal aspect. These sutras are those of universalism, of which the Lotus 法華 is an outstanding example. The form Vaitulya instead of Vaipulya is found in some Kashgar MSS. of the Lotus, suggesting that in the Vetulla sect lies the origin of the Vaipulyas, and with them of Mahāyāna, but the evidence is inadequate.

大方廣佛 The 本尊 fundamental honoured one of the 華嚴經, described as the Buddha who has realized the universal law.

大方廣佛華嚴經 Buddhāvataṃsaka-mahāvaipulya-sūtra ; the Avataṃsaka, Hua-yen, or Kegon sutra ; tr. by Buddhabhadra and others A.D. 418-420. The various translations are in 60, 80, and 40 chuan, v. 華嚴經.

大方廣如來祕密藏經 Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, tr. A.D.350-431, idem 大方等如來藏經, tr. by Buddhabhadra A.D. 417-420, 1 chuan.

大方等 Mahāvaipulya or vaipulya 大方廣; 毗佛畧. They are called 無量義經 sutras of infinite meaning, or of the infinite; first introduced into China by Dharmarakṣa (A.D.266―317). The name is common to Hīnayāna and Mahayana, but chiefly claimed by the latter for its special sutras as extending and universalizing the Buddha's earlier preliminary teaching. v. 大方廣 and 方等.

大方等大集經 Mahāvaipulya-mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, tr. A.D. 397―439, said to have been preached by the Buddha "from the age of 45 to 49 ...to Buddhas and bodhisattvas assembled from every region, by a great staircase made between the world of desire and that of form". B.N. Another version was made by Jñānagupta and others in A.D. 594 called 大方等大集賢護經.

大方等頂王説經 Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D.265―316.

大族王 Mihirakula 摩醯羅矩羅, an ancient Huna king in the Punjab circa A.D. 520 who persecuted Buddhism; v. 西域記 4.

大施太子 (or 善薩). The great princely almsgiver, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous life; also 能施太子 (or 太子).

大施會 無遮大會 mokṣa-mahā-pariṣad; a great gathering for almsgiving to all, rich and poor, nominally quinquennial.

大日 Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of dharmakāya 法身 and dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his transformations. Also, a śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a monastery for him.

大日供 A meeting for the worship of Vairocana.

大日宗 The cult of Vairocana especially associated with the 胎藏界 Garbhakośadhātu, or phenomenal world. The cult has its chief vogue in Japan.

大日經 The Vairocana sutra, styled in full 毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經, tr. in the Tang dynasty by Śubhākarasiṃha 善無畏 in 7 chuan, of which the first six are the text and the seventh instructions for worship. It is one of the three sutras of the esoteric school. Its teaching pairs with that of the 金剛頂經. There are two versions of notes and comments on the text, the 大日經疏 20 chuan, and 大日經義疏 14 chuan; and other works, e.g. 大日經義釋; 大日經不思議疏; 大日經義軌 in four versions with different titles.

大日覺王 Vairocana, the king of bodhi.

大明王 The angels or messengers of Vairocana, v. 明王.

大明三藏聖敎目錄 The"Great Ming"dynasty catalogue of the Tripitaka, made during the reign of the emperor Yung Lo; it is the catalogue of the northern collection.

大明白身菩薩 The great bright white-bodied bodhisattva, sixth in the first row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大明續入藏諸集 Supplementary miscellaneous collection of Buddhist books, made under the Ming dynasty A.D. 1368-1644.

大智 Mahāmati; cf. 大慧; Great Wisdom, Buddha-wisdom, omniscience; a title of Mañjuśrī, as the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom.

大智度論 A śāstra ascribed to Nāgārjuna on the greater Prajna-paramita sutra; the sastra was tr. by Kumārajīva, A.D. 397―415, in 100 chuan.

大智慧門 The Buddha-door of great wisdom, as contrasted with that of his 大悲 great compassion.

大智灌頂地 The stage of the Great Wisdom chrism, or anointing of a Buddha, as having attained to the Great Wisdom, or omniscience; it is the eleventh stage.

大智藏 The Buddha-wisdom store.

大曼荼羅 (大曼) The great maṇḍala; one of four groups of Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the esoteric school. The esoteric word 阿 "a " is styled the great maṇḍala-king.

大本 The great, chief, or fundamental book or text. Tiantai takes the 無量壽經 as the major of the three Pure Land sutras, and the 阿彌陀經 as the 小本 minor.

大林寺 Mānavana-saṃghārāma 摩訶伐那伽藍摩 "The monastery of the great forest", S. of Mongali.

大林精舍 The Veṇuvana monastery, called 竹林精舍 or 寺 , and 竹苑, Venuvana vihāra, in the Karanda veṇuvana, near Rājagṛha, a favourite resort of Sakyamuni.

大相 mahārūpa; great form. The kalpa of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu, who is to appear as Buddha in a realm called Saṃbhava.

大染法 The great taint, or dharma of defilement, sex-attraction, associated with 愛染明王 Eros, the god of love.

大梵 Mahābrāhmaṇas; the third Brahmaloka, the third region of the first dhyāna. Mahābrahman; the great Brahma, 大梵天; it is also a title of one of the six Guanyin of the Tiantai sect.

大梵天 Mahābrahman; Brahma; 跋羅吸摩; 波羅賀磨; 梵覽摩; 梵天王; 梵王; 梵. Eitel says: "The first person of the Brahminical Trimūrti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon not as Creator, but as a transitory devatā whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodhi. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka calls Brahma 'the father of all living beings'" 一切衆生之父. Mahābrahman is the unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially according to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over these heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b) Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-pāriṣadyāh (people). His heavens are also known as the middle dhyāna heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhyānas. He is often represented on the right of the Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Nārāyaṇa, from Brahma's mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms the kṣatriyas, from his thighs the vaiśyas, and from his feet the śūdras; (2) as born from Viṣṇu; (3) as a trimūrti, evidently that of Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, but Buddhists define Mahābrahma's dharmakāya as Maheśvara (Śiva), his saṃbhogakāya as Nārāyaṇa, and his nirmāṇakāya as Brahmā. He is depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans.

大梵如意天 idem 大梵天 The term is incorrectly said by Chinese interpreters to mean freedom from sexual desire. He is associated with Vairocana, and with fire. v. also 尸棄.

大梵天王 Mahābrahma deva rāja, king of the eighteen Brahmalokas.

大樂説 Mahāpratibhāna. A bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra, noted for pleasant discourse.

大樂不空 大樂金剛 (薩埵) "Unceasing great joy ", a Shingon name for the second of its eight patriarchs, Puxian, v. 金剛薩埵. There are works under this title.

大樓炭經 A sutra, also called 起世 by 法立 Fali and others; 樓炭 is a Sanskrit term meaning 成敗 creation and destruction.

大機 The great opportunity, or Mahāyāna method of becoming a bodhisattva.

大樹 Great trees, i.e. bodhisattvas, cf. 三草.

大樹仙人 Mahāvṛkṣa ṛṣi, the ascetic Vāyu, who meditated so long that a big tree grew out of his shoulders. Seeing a hundred beautiful princesses he desired them; being spurned, he was filled with hatred, and with a spell turned them into hunchbacks; hence Kanyākubja, v. 羯 or 罽 the city of hump-backed maidens; its king was ? Brahmadatta. v. 西域記 5.

大樹緊那羅 The King of the mahādruma Kinnaras, Indra's musicians, who lives on Gandha-mādana. His sutra is 大樹緊那羅王所門經, 4 chuan, tr. by Kumārajīva.

大權 The great potentiality; or the great power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transform themselves into others, by which e.g. Māyā becomes the mother of 1,000 Buddhas, Rāhula the son of 1,000 Buddhas, and all beings are within the potency of the dharmakāya.

大權善經 An abbreviation of 慧上菩薩問大權善經.

大權修利菩薩 A bodhisattva―protector of monasteries, depicted as shading his eyes with his hand and looking afar, said to have been a Warden of the Coast under the emperor Aśoka.

大死底人 One who has swept away completely all illusions, or all consciousness; also 大休歇底.

大比丘 Great bhikṣu, i.e. one of virtue and old age; similar to 大和尚.

大毘盧遮那 Mahāvairocana, v. 大日.

大水火 (大水災) mahāpralaya; the final and utter destruction of a universe by (wind), flood, and fire.

大紅蓮 Great red lotuses―name of a cold hell where the skin is covered with chaps like lotuses.

大沙門 mahāśramaņa. The great shaman, i.e. Buddha; also any bhikṣu in full orders.

大沙門統 A director of the order appointed by Wendi of the Sui dynasty, A.D. 581-618.

大法 The great Dharma, or Law (of Mahāyāna salvation).

大法慢 Intellectual pride, arrogance through possession of the Truth.

大法王 Sudharmarāja, King of the Sudharma Kinnaras, the horse-headed human-bodied musicians of Kuvera.

大法螺 The Great Law conch, or Mahāyāna bugle.

大法鼓 The Great Law drum; v. 大法鼓經 Mahābherīhāraka-parivarta; tr. by Gunabhadra A.D. 420‐479.

大法雨 The raining, i.e. preaching, of the Mahāyāna.

大波羅密 The great pāramitās, or perfections, of bodhisattvas, i.e. the ten pāramitās above the 八地.

大洲 A great continent; one of the four great continents of a world; v. 四洲.

大海 mahāsamudra-sāgara 摩訶三母捺羅婆誐羅 The Ocean.

大海八不思議 The eight marvellous characteristics of the ocean―its gradually increasing depth, its unfathomableness, its universal saltness, its punctual tides, its stores of precious things, its enormous creatures, its objection to corpses, its unvarying level despite all that pours into it.

大海十相 The ten aspects of the ocean, the Huayan sutra adds two more to the eight 大海八不思議, i.e. all other waters lose their names in it; its vastness of expanse.

大海印 The ocean symbol, i.e. as the face of the sea reflects all forms, so the samādhi of a bodhisattva reflects to him all truths; it is also termed 海印三昧.

大海衆 The great ocean congregation; as all waters flowing into the sea become salty, so all ranks flowing into the sangha become of one flavour and lose old differentiations.

大滅諦金剛智 The first two of the 三德 three Buddha-powers; they are (a) his principle of nirvana, i.e. the extinotion of suffering, and (b) his supreme or vajra wisdom.

大滿 Great, full, or complete; tr. of mahā-pūrṇa, king of monster birds or garuḍas who are enemies of the nāgas or serpents; he is the vehicle of Viṣṇu in Brahmanism.

大滿願義 One of the sixteen bodhisattvas of the southern quarter, born by the will of Vairocana.

大灌頂 The greater baptism, used on special occasions by the Shingon sect, for washing way sin and evil and entering into virtue; v. 灌頂經.

大炎熱 Pratāpana or Mahātāpana; the hell of great heat, the seventh of the eight hot hells.

大無量壽經 idem 大經 q.v.

大煩惱地法 The six things or mental conditions producing passion and delusion: stupidity, excess, laziness, unbelief, confusion, discontent (or ambition); v. 倶舍論 4.

大燒炙獄 v. 大炎熱 Pratāpana.

大熾盛光 The great blazing perfect light, a title of 金輪佛頂尊.

大牛車 The great ox cart in the Lotus Sutra 法華經 parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna.

大牛音 krośa; the distance of the lowing of a great ox, the "eighth" (more correctly fourth.) part of a yojana; v. 拘盧.

大王 mahārāja 摩賀羅惹. Applied to the four guardians of the universe, 四大天王.

大生主 Mahāprajāpatī 摩訶波闍婆提, great "lady of the living", the older translation being 大愛道 the great way (or exemplar) of love; also 衆主 head of the community (of nuns), i.e. Gautami the aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni, the first nun. She is to be reborn as a Buddha named Sarvasattvapriyadarśanā.

大界 The area of a vihāra or monastic establishment.

大界外相 Four characters often placed on the boundary stones of monasterial grounds.

大白傘蓋佛母 The "mother of Buddhas" with her great snow-white (radiant) umbrella, emblem of her protection of all beings; there are two dhāraṇī-sūtras that bear this name and give her description, the 佛頂傘蓋佛母 and 佛說傘蓋佛母總持陀羅尼經.

大白光神 鬱多羅迦神 ? Uttaraka. The deva of the Himālayas, one of the retinue of the 十二神.

大白牛車 The great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, the Mahāyāna, as contrasted with the deer-cart and goat-cart of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. of Hīnayāna.

大白華 The great mandāra 曼陀羅 flower, also called 大白團華 .

大白衣 Pāṇḍaravāsinī, the great white-robed one, a form of Guanyin all in white, with white lotus, throne, etc., also called 白衣 or 白處觀音.

大目乾連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana; v. 摩訶目犍連.

大相國寺 The great aid-the-dynasty monastery at Kaifeng, Henan, founded in A.D. 555, first named 建國, changed circa 700 to the above; rebuilt 996, repaired by the Jin, the Yuan, and Ming emperors, swept away in a Yellow River flood, rebuilt under Shun Zhi, restored under Qian Long.

大相看 The reception by an abbot of all his monks on the first day of the tenth moon.

大神力 Supernatural or magical powers.

大神咒 dhāraṇī spells or magical formulae connected with supernatural powers 大神力.

大神王 The great deva king, Mahākāla, the great black one, (1) title of Maheśvara, i.e. Śiva; (2) a guardian of monasteries, with black face, in the dining hall; he is said to have been a disciple of Mahādeva, a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.

大祥忌 The great propitious anniversary, i.e. a sacrifice every third year.

大種 The four great seeds, or elements (四大) which enter into all things, i.e. earth, water, fire, and wind, from which, as from seed, all things spring.

大空 The great void, or the Mahāyāna parinirvāṇa, as being more complete and final than the nirvāṇa of Hīnayāna. It is used in the Shingon sect for the great immaterial or spiritual wisdom, with its esoteric symbols; its weapons, such as the vajra; its samādhis; its sacred circles, or maṇḍalas, etc. It is used also for space, in which there is neither east, west, north, nor south.

大笑明王 ? Vajrahāsa 跋折羅吒訶婆 The great laughing Mingwang, v. 明王.

大弟子 sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church; an elder; an abbot; a priest licensed to preach and become an abbot; also 上坐.

大精進菩薩 Śūra, a hero bodhisattva, one of the sixteen in the southern external part of the 金剛界 group.

大統 The head of the order, an office instituted by Wen Di of the Sui dynasty; cf. 大僧正.

大經 The great sūtra, i.e. the 2 juan 佛說無量壽經, so-called by the Pure-land sect and by Tiantai, the Amida sūtra being the小本 smaller sūtra; cf. 大本 and大日經 .

大經卷 A term for the heart.

大綱 The main principles of Buddhism, likened to the great ropes of a net.

大總法門 The bhūtatathatā as the totality of things, and Mind 心眞如 as the Absolute, 起信論.

大義王 (or 大義城) The king, or city, of all ideas, or aims, i.e. the heart as mind.

大聖 The great sage or saint, a title of a Buddha or a bodhisattva of high rank; as also are 大聖世尊 and 大聖主 the great holy honored one, or lord.

大聖天 idem 大聖歡喜天 v. 歡喜天, on whom there are three works.

大聖金剛夜叉 one of the five 大明王.

大聖妙吉祥 see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊.

大聖曼殊室利 see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊.

大自在 Īśvara, self-existent, sovereign, independent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

大自在天 Maheśvara, 摩醯首濕伐羅 or Śiva, lord of the present chiliocosm, or universe; he is described under two forms, one as the prince of demons, the other as divine, i.e. 毘舍闍 Piśācamaheśvara and 淨居 Śuddhāvāsa- or Śuddhodanamaheśvara. As Piśāca, head of the demons, he is represented with three eyes and eight arms, and riding on a white bull; a bull or a linga being his symbol. The esoteric school takes him for the transformation body of Vairocana, and as appearing in many forms, e.g. Viṣṇu, Nārāyana (i.e. Brahmā), etc. His wife (śakti) is Bhīmā, or 大自在天婦. As Śuddhāvāsa, or Pure dwelling, he is described as a bodhisattva of the tenth or highest degree, on the point of entering Buddhahood. There is dispute as to whether both are the same being, or entirely different. The term also means the sixth or highest of the six desire heavens.

大自在宮 The abode of Maheśvara at the apex of the form realm. Also, the condition or place from which the highest type of bodhisattva proceeds to Buddhahood, whence it is also styled 淨居天 the pure abode heaven.

大興善寺 The great goodness-promoting monastery, one of the ten great Tang monasteries at Changan, commenced in the Sui dynasty.

大船 The great ship of salvation — Mahāyāna.

大船師 The captain of the great ship of salvation, Buddha.

大般涅槃 mahāparinirvāṇa, explained by 大入滅息 the great, or final entrance into extinction and cessation; or 大圓寂入 great entrance into perfect rest; 大滅度 great extinction and passing over (from mortality). It is interpreted in Mahāyāna as meaning the cessation or extinction of passion and delusion, of mortality, and of all activities, and deliverance into a state beyond these concepts. In Mahāyāna it is not understood as the annihilation, or cessation of existence; the reappearance of Dīpaṃkara 然燈 (who had long entered nirvāṇa) along with Śākyamuni on the Vulture Peak supports this view. It is a state above all terms of human expression. See the Lotus Sutra and the Nirvāṇa sūtra.

大般涅槃經 The Mahā-parinirvāṇa sūtras, commonly called the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa sūtras, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni just before his death. The two Hīnayāna versions are found in the 長阿含遊行經. The Mahāyāna has two Chinese versions, the northern in 40 juan, and the southern, a revision of the northern version in 36 juan. Faxian's version is styled 大般泥洹經 6 juan. Treatises on the sūtra are 大般涅槃經後分 2 juan tr. by Jñānabhadra; 大般涅槃經疏 33 juan; 大般涅槃經論 1 juan by Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhidharma.

大般若經 The Mahā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra.

大般若供養 The worship of a new copy of the sūtra when finished, an act first attributed to Xuanzang.

大般若波羅蜜多經 Mahā-prajñāpāramitā sūtra, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni in four places at sixteen assemblies, i.e. Gṛidhrakūṭa near Rājagṛha (Vulture Peak); Śrāvastī; Paranirmitavaśavartin, and Veluvana near Rājagṛha (Bamboo Garden). It consists of 600 juan as translated by Xuanzang. Parts of it were translated by others under various titles and considerable differences are found in them. It is the fundamental philosophical work of the Mahāyāna school, the formulation of wisdom, which is the sixth pāramitā.

大苦海 The great bitter sea, or great sea of suffering i.e. of mortality in the six gati, or ways of incarnate existence.

大莊嚴 Mahāvyūha; great fabric; greatly adorned, the kalpa or Buddha-aeon of Mahākāśyapa.

大莊嚴世界 The great ornate world; i.e. the universe of Akāśagarbha Bodhisattva 虛空藏菩薩; it is placed in the west by the sūtra of that name, in the east by the 大隻經 12.

大莊嚴經 Vaipulya-mahāvyūha-sūtra, tr. by Divākara, Tang dynasty, 12 juan; in which the Buddha describes his life in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to save the world.

大莊嚴經論 or 大莊嚴論經 Sūtrālaṃkāra-śāstra. A work by Aśvaghoṣa, tr. by Kumārajīva A.D. 405, 15 juan.

大菩提心 The great bodhi, i.e. Mahāyāna or Buddha-enlightenment, as contrasted with the inferior bodhi of the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha.

大菩提幢 The banner of great bodhi, an esoteric symbol of Buddha-enlightenment.

大菩薩 bodhisattva-mahāsattva, a great Bodhisattva.

大蓮華 puṇḍarīka, 分陀利; 芬利; 奔茶 the great white lotus; the last of the eight cold hells is so called.

大蓮華法藏界 The great Lotus heaven in the Paradise of the West.

大蓮華智慧三摩地智 The wisdom of the great lotus, samādhi-wisdom, the penetrating wisdom of Amitābha.

大薩遮尼犍子 Mahāsatya-nirgrantha. An ascetic who is said to have become a disciple of the Buddha.

大藏經 The Tripiṭaka; the Buddhist canon.

大藏一覽 "The Tripitaka at a Glance" in 10 juan by 陳實 Chen Shi of the Ming dynasty.

大藏目錄 A catalogue of the Korean canon in 3 juan.

大號呌 Mahāraurava 大呌; 大呼 The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells.

大衆 mahāsaṅgha. The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody.

大衆印 The seal of a monastery.

大衆威德畏 Stage-struck, awed by an assembly, one of the five 怖畏.

大衆部 摩調僧祇部 Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, the school of the community, or majority; one of the chief early divisions, cf. 上坐部 Mahāsthavirāḥ or Sthavirāḥ, i.e. the elders. There are two usages of the term, first, when the sthavira, or older disciples assembled in the cave after the Buddha's death, and the others, the 大衆, assembled outside. As sects, the principal division was that which took place later. The Chinese attribute this division to the influence of 大天 Mahādeva, a century after the Nirvāṇa, and its subsequent five subdivisions are also associated with his name: they are Pūrvasailāḥ, Avaraśailāḥ, Haimavatāḥ, Lokottara-vādinaḥ, and Prajñapti-vādinaḥ; v. 小乘.

大衣 The monk's patch-robe, made in varying grades from nine to twenty-five patches.

大覺 The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and the enlightening power of a Buddha.

大覺世尊 The World-honored One of the great enlightenment, an appellation of the Buddha.

大覺母 The mother of the great enlightenment, an appellation of Mañjuśrī.

大覺金仙 The great enlightened golden ṛṣi, a name given to Buddha in the Song dynasty.

大論 idem 大智度論.

大論師 Mahāvādin, Doctor of the Śāstras, a title given to eminent teachers, especially of the Sāṅkhya and Vaiseṣika schools.

大辯天 Sarasvatī 大辯才天 (大辯才女); 大辯功德天 (大辯才功德天); 薩羅婆縛底; 薩羅酸底 A river, 'the modern Sursooty'; the goddess of it, who 'was persuaded to descend from heaven and confer her invention of language and letters on the human race by the sage Bhārata, whence one of her names is Bharatī'; sometimes assumes the form of a swan; eloquence, or literary elegance is associated with her. Cf. M. W. Known as the mother of speech, eloquence, letters, and music. Chinese texts describe this deity sometimes as male, but generally as female, and under several forms. As 'goddess of music and poetry' she is styled 妙 (or 美 ) 音天; 妙音樂天; 妙音佛母. She is represented in two forms, one with two arms and a lute, another with eight arms. Sister of Yama. 'A consort of both Brahmā and Mañjuśrī,' Getty. In Japan, when with a lute, Benten is a form of Saravastī, colour white, and riding a peacock. Tib. sbyaṅs-can-ma, or ṅag-gi-lha-mo; M. kele-yin iikin tegri; J. ben-zai-ten, or benten.

大護印 The great protective sign, a manual sign, accompanied with a transliterated repetition of 'Namaḥ sarva-tathāgatebhyaḥ; Sarvathā Haṃ Khaṃ Rākṣasī mahābali; Sarva-Tathāgata-puṇyo nirjāti; Hūṃ Hūṃ Trāta Trāta apratihati svāhā'.

大象藏 Great elephant (or nāga) treasure, an incense supposed to be produced by nāgas or dragons fighting.

大賢 Daxian (Jap. Daiken), a Korean monk who lived in China during the Tang dynasty, of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, noted for his annotations on the sūtras and styled 古迹記 the archaeologist.

大寶積經 大寳積經 The sūtra of this name (Mahāratnakūṭa) tr. by Bodhiruci (in abridged form) and others.

大赤華 mahāmañjūṣaka 摩訶曼珠沙 or rubia cordifolia, from which madder is made.

大路邊生 Born by the highway side, v. 周那 Cunda; also 純陀.

大身 The great body, i.e. the nirmāṇakāya, or transformable body 化身 of a Buddha. Also, Mahākāya, a king of garuḍas.

大車 The great bullock-cart in the parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sutra.

大輪金剛 One of the thirty-three bodhisattvas in the 金剛手 court of the Garbhadhātu group, destroyer of delusion. Also 大輪明王.

大轉輪王 v. 大勝金剛.

大轉輪佛頂 idem 佛頂尊.

大迦多衍那 Mahākātyāyana or Kātyāyana 摩訶迦旃延; 迦延, v. 摩 and 迦. (1) A disciple of Śākyamuni. (2) Name of many persons.

大迦葉 Mahākāśyapa, v. 摩訶迦葉.

大通 大通智勝 Mahābhijñā Jñānābhibhu. The great Buddha of supreme penetraton and wisdom. "A fabulous Buddha whose realm was Sambhava, his kalpa Mahārūpa. Having spent ten middling kalpas in ecstatic meditation he became a Buddha, and retired again in meditation for 84,000 kalpas, during which his sixteen sons continued (as Buddhas) his preaching. Incarnations of his sons are," Akṣobhya, Merukūṭa, Siṃhaghoṣa, Siṃhadhvaja, Ākāśapratiṣṭhita, Nityapaṛvrtta, Indradhvaja, Brahmadhvaja, Amitābha, Sarvalokadhātū- padravodvegapratyuttīrna, Tamāla-patra-candanagandha, Merukalpa, Meghasvara, Meghasvararāja, Sarvaloka-bhayastambhitatva- vidhvaṃsanakāra, and Śākyamuni; v. Eitel. He is said to have lived in a kalpa earlier than the present by kalpas as numerous as the atoms of a chiliocosm. Amitābha is his ninth son. Śākyamuni his sixteenth, and the present 大衆 or assembly of believers are said to be the reincarnation of those who were his disciples in that former aeon; v. Lotus Sutra, chapter 7.

大通和尚 Title of 神秀 Shenxiu, a disciple of the fifth patriarch.

大道心 One who has the mind of or for supreme enlightenment, e.g. a bodhisattva-mahāsattva.

大醫王 Great Lord of healing, an epithet of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

大鐘 The great bell in the bell tower of a large monastery.

大鐵圍山 (大鐵圍) Mahācakravāla. The great circular 'iron' enclosure; the higher of the double circle of mountains forming the outer periphery of every world, concentric to the seven circles around Sumeru.

大鑑禪師 The great mirror, posthumous title of the sixth 禪 Chan (Zen) patriarch, 慧能 Huineng, imperially bestowed in A.D. 815.

大陰界入 Four fundamentals, i.e. the 四大, 五陰, 十八界, and 十二入 q. v.

大雄 The great hero— a Buddha's title, indicating his power over demons.

大雄峯 Great cock peak, any outstanding peak.

大集經 Mahāsaṃghata-sūtra 大方等大集經 The sūtra of the great assembly of Bodhisattvas from 十方 every direction, and of the apocalpytic sermons delivered to them by the Buddha; 60 juan, tr. in parts at various times by various translators. There are several works connected with it and others independent, e.g. 大集須彌藏經, 大集日藏經 (and 大集月藏經) , 大集經賢 護, 大集會正法經, 大集譬喩王經, etc.

大集部 Mahāsaṃnipāta. A division of the sūtrapiṭaka containing avadānas, i.e. comparisons, metaphors, parables, and stories illustrating the doctrines.

大雲光明寺 A monastery for Uigur Manichaeans, ordered to be built by 代宗 A.D. 765.

大靑珠 mahānīla. 摩訶尼羅 A precious stone, large and blue, perhaps identical with Indra-nīla-muktā, i.e. the Indra of precious stones, a 'sapphire' (M. W.).

大願 The great vow, of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to save all the living and bring them to Buddhahood.

大願業力 The forty-eight vows and the great meritorious power of Amitābha, or the efficacy of his vows.

大願淸淨報土 The Pure Reward-Land of Amitābha, the reward resulting from his vows.

大願船 The great vow boat, i.e. that of Amitābha, which ferries the believer over the sea of mortality to the Pure Land.

大顚 Da Dian, the appellation of a famous monk and writer, named 寶通 Baotong, whom tigers followed; he died at 93 years of age in A. D. 824; author of 般若波羅蜜多心經 and 金剛經釋義.

大風災 Great Storms, the third of the three destructive calamities to end the world.

大飮光 Mahākāśyapa q. v., he who "drank in light" (with his mother's milk), she having become radiant with golden-colored pearl, a relic of Vipaśyin, the first of the seven former Buddhas; it is a false etymology.

大高王 Abhyudgata-rāja. Great august monarch, name of the kalpa in which Śubha-vyūha 妙莊嚴王, who is not known in the older literature, is to be reborn as a Buddha.

大魚 makara 摩竭羅 a monster fish.

大黑天 Mahākāla 摩訶迦 (or 謌) 羅 the great black deva 大黑神. Two interpretations are given. The esoteric cult describes the deva as the masculine form of Kālī, i.e. Durgā, the wife of Śiva; with one face and eight arms, or three faces and six arms, a necklace of skulls, etc. He is worshipped as giving warlike power, and fierceness; said also to be an incarnation of Vairocana for the purpose of destroying the demons; and is described as 大時 the "great time" (-keeper) which seems to indicate Vairocana, the sun. The exoteric cult interprets him as a beneficent deva, a Pluto, or god of wealth. Consequently he is represented in two forms, by the one school as a fierce deva, by the other as a kindly happy deva. He is shown as one of the eight fierce guardians with trident, generally blue-black but sometimes white; he may have two elephants underfoot. Six arms and hands hold jewel, skull cup, chopper, drum, trident, elephant-goad. He is the tutelary god of Mongolian Buddhism. Six forms of Mahākāla are noted: (1) 比丘大黑 A black-faced disciple of the Buddha, said to be the Buddha as Mahādeva in a previous incarnation, now guardian of the refectory. (2) 摩訶迦羅大黑女 Kālī, the wife of Śiva. (3) 王子迦羅大黑 The son of Śiva. (4) 眞陀大黑 Cintāmaṇi, with the talismanic pearl, symbol of bestowing fortune. (5) 夜叉大黑 Subduer of demons. (6) 摩迦羅大黑 Mahākāla, who carries a bag on his back and holds a hammer in his right hand. J., Daikoku; M., Yeke-gara; T., Nag-po c'en-po.

大黑飛礫法 The black deva's flying shard magic: take the twig of a 榎 jia tree (Catalpa Bungei), the twig pointing north-west; twist it to the shape of a buckwheat grain, write the Sanskrit letter भ on each of its three faces, place it before the deva, recite his spell a thousand times then cast the charm into the house of a prosperous person, saying may his wealth come to me.

大齋 (大齋會) A feast given to monks.

大龍權現 The Bodhisattva who, having attained the 大地 stage, by the power of his vow transformed himself into a dragon-king, 西域記 1.

Women, female; u. f. 汝 thou, you.

女人 Woman, described in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 浬槃經 9 as the "abode of all evil", 一切女人皆是衆惡之所住處 The 智度論 14 says: 大火燒人是猶可近, 淸風無形是亦可捉, 蚖蛇含毒猶亦可觸, 女人之心不可得實 "Fierce fire that would burn men may yet be approached, clear breezes without form may yet be grasped, cobras that harbour poison may yet be touched, but a woman's heart is never to be relied upon." The Buddha ordered Ānanda: "Do not Look at a woman; if you must, then do not talk with her; if you must, then call on the Buddha with all your mind"— an evidently apocryphal statement of 文句 8.

女人六欲 The six feminine attractions; eight are given, but the sixth and eighth are considered to be included in the others: color, looks, style, carriage, talk, voice, refinement, and appearance.

女人定 v. 女子出定.

女人往生願 The thirty-fifth vow of Amitābha that he will refuse to enter into his final joy until every woman who calls on his name rejoices in enlightenment and who, hating her woman's body, has ceased to be reborn as a woman; also 女人成佛願.

女人拜 A woman's salutation, greeting, or obeisance, performed by standing and bending the knees, or putting hands together before the breast and bending the body.

女人禁制 " Women forbidden to approach," a sign placed on certain altars.

女人眷屬論師 One of the twenty heretical sects, who held that Maheśvara created the first woman, who begot all creatures.

女僧 A nun, or 此丘尼 bhikṣuṇī, which is abbreviated to 尼. The first nunnery in China is said to have been established in the Han dynasty.

女國 The woman-kingdom, where matriarchal government is said to have prevailed, e.g. Brahmapura, v. 婆, and Suvarṇagotra, v. 蘇.

女天 Female devas in the desire-realm. In and above the Brahmalokas 色界 they do not exist.

女子出定 The story of a woman named Liyi 離意 who was so deeply in samādhi before the Buddha that Mañjuśrī 文殊 could not arouse her; she could only be aroused by a bodhisattva who has sloughed off the skandhas and attained enlightenment.

女居士 A lay woman who devotes herself to Buddhism.

女德 A woman of virtue, i.e. a nun, or bhikṣuṇī. The emperor Hui Zong of the Song dynasty (A.D. 1101-1126) changed the term 尼 to 女德.

女情 Sexual desire.

女根 Yoni. The female sex-organ.

女犯 The woman offence, i.e. sexual immorality on the part of a monk.

女病 Woman as a disease; feminine disease.

女色 Female beauty— is a chain, a serious delusion, a grievous calamity. The 智度論 14 says it is better to burn out the eyes with a red-hot iron than behold woman with unsteady heart.

女賊 Woman the robber, as the cause of sexual passion, stealing away the riches of religion, v. 智度論 14.

女鏁 Woman as chain, or lock, the binding power of sex. 智度論 14.

kumāra; son; seed; sir; 11-1 midnight.

子合國 Kukyar, Kokyar, or Kukejar, a country west of Khotan, 1,000 li from Kashgar, perhaps Yarkand.

子斷 The seed 種子 cut off, i.e. the seed which produces the miseries of transmigration.

子果 Seed and fruit; seed-produced fruit is 子果, fruit-produced seed is 果子. The fruit produced by illusion in former incarnation is 子果, which the Hīnayāna arhat has not yet finally cut off. It is necessary to enter Nirvāṇa without remnant of mortality to be free from its "fruit", or karma.

子滿果 The fruit full of seeds, the pomegranate.

子璿 A famous learned monk Zixuan, of the Song dynasty whose style was 長水 Changshui, the name of his district; he had a large following; at first he specialized on the Śūraṃgama 楞嚴經; later he adopted the teaching of 賢首 Xianshou of the 華嚴宗 Huayan school.

子縛 The seed bond, or delusion of the mind, which keeps men in bondage.

子院 Small courts and buildings attached to central monastery.

An inch.

寸絲不掛 Questioned as to what he did with his day, 陸亙日 Lu Xuanri replied "one does not hang things on an inch of thread".

Small, little; mean, petty; inferior.

小乘 Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.

小乘三印 The three characteristic marks of all Hīnayāna sūtras: the impermanence of phenomena, the unreality of the ego, and nirvāṇa.

小乘九部 The nine classes of works belonging to the Hīnayāna, i.e. the whole of the twelve discourses; the Vaipulya, or broader teaching; and the Vyākaraṇa, or prophesies.

小乘二部 The 上座部 Sthaviravādin, School of Presbyters, and 大衆部 Sarvāstivādin, q.v.

小乘偏漸戒 The Hīnayāna partial and gradual method of obeying laws and commandments, as compared with the full and immediate salvation of Mahāyāna.

小乘十八部 A Chinese list of the "eighteen" sects of the Hīnayāna, omitting Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, Sthavira, and Sarvāstivādah as generic schools: I. 大衆部 The Mahāsāṅghikāḥ is divided into eight schools as follows: (1) 一說部 Ekavyavahārikāḥ; (2) 說出世部 Lokottaravādinaḥ; (3) 雞胤部 Kaukkuṭikāḥ (Gokulikā); (4) 多聞部 Bahuśrutīyāḥ; (5) 說假部 Prajñāptivadinaḥ; (6) 制多山部 Jetavaniyāḥ, or Caityaśailāḥ; (7) 西山住部 Aparaśailāḥ; (8) 北山住部 Uttaraśailāḥ. II. 上坐部 Āryasthavirāḥ, or Sthāviravādin, divided into eight schools: (1) 雪山部 Haimavatāḥ. The 說一切有部 Sarvāstivādaḥ gave rise to (2) 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ, which gave rise to (3) 法上部 Dharmottarīyāḥ; (4) 賢冑部 Bhadrayānīyāḥ; (5) 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ; and (6) 密林山 Saṇṇagarikāḥ; (7) 化地部 Mahīśāsakāḥ produced (8) 法藏部 Dharmaguptāḥ. From the Sarvāstivādins arose also (9) 飮光部 Kāśyaḥpīyā and (10) 經量部 Sautrāntikāḥ. v. 宗輪論. Cf Keith, 149-150. The division of the two schools is ascribed to Mahādeva a century after the Nirvāṇa. Under I the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvāṇa, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable. Under II, the Haimavatāḥ and the Sarvāstivādaḥ are dated some 200 years after the Nirvāṇa; from the Sarvāstivādins soon arose the Vātsīputrīyas, from whom soon sprang the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth; then from the Sarvāstivādins there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, nearing the 400th year, the Sarvāstivādins gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth. In the list of eighteen the Sarvāstivādah is not counted, as it split into all the rest.

小乘四門 Tiantai's division of Hīnayāna into four schools or doctrines: (1) 有門 Of reality, the existence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being (cf. 發智六足論, etc.); (2) 空門 of unreality, or non-existence (cf. 成實論); (3) 亦有亦空門 of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence (cf. 毘勒論); (4) 非有非空 of neither, or transcending existence and non-existence (cf. 迦旃延經).

小乘外道 Hīnayāna and the heretical sects; also, Hīnayāna is a heretical sect.

小乘戒 The commandments of the Hīnayāna, also recognized by the Mahāyāna: the five, eight, and ten commandments, the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns.

小乘經 The Hīnayāna sūtras, the four sections of the Āgamas 阿含經 v. 小乘九部.

小乘論 The Hīnayāna śāstras or Abhidharma.

小乘阿毗達磨 The philosophical canon of the Hīnayāna, now supposed to consist of some thirty-seven works, the earliest of which is said to be the Guṇanirdeśa śāstra, tr. as 分別功德論 before A.D. 220. "The date of the Abhidharma" is "unknown to us" (Keith).

小五條 The robe of five patches worn by some monks in China and by the 淨土宗 Jōdo sect of Japan; v. 掛.

小使 To urinate; also 小行. Buddhist monks are enjoined to urinate only in one fixed spot.

小劫 antarā-kalpa, or intermediate kalpa; according to the 倶舍論 it is the period in which human life increases by one year a century till it reaches 84,000 with men 8,400 feet high; then it is reduced at the same rate till the life-period reaches ten years with men a foot high; these two are each a small kalpa; the 智度論 reckons the two together as one kalpa; and there are other definitions.

小千世界 (小千) A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds each with its Mt. Sumeru, continents, seas, and ring of iron mountains; v. 三千大千世界.

小參 Small group, a class for instruction outside the regular morning or evening services; also a class in a household.

小參頭 The leader of a small group.

小品 A summarized version.

小品般若波羅蜜經 (小品經) Kumārajīva's abbreviated version, in ten juan, of the Mahā-prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra.

小宗 The sects of Hīnayāna.

小師 A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy title for a disciple; and a self-depreciatory title of any monk; v. 鐸 dahara.

小律儀 The rules and regulations for monks and nuns in Hīnayāna.

小念 To repeat Buddha's name in a quiet voice, opposite of 大 |.

小本 A small volume; Tiantai's term for the (小) 阿彌陀經; the large sūtra being the 無量壽經.

小根 小機 Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.

小機 小根; Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.

小樹 Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower stages, v. 三草二木.

小水穿石 A little water or "dripping water penetrates stone"; the reward of the religious life, though difficult to attain, yields to persistent effort.

小法 The laws or methods of Hīnayāna.

小煩惱地法 upakleśabhūmikāh. The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations, one of the five groups of mental conditions of the seventy-five Hīnayāna elements. They are the minor moral defects arising from 無明 unenlightenment; i.e. 忿 anger, 覆 hidden sin, 慳 stinginess, 嫉 envy, 惱 vexation, 害 ill-will, 恨 hate, 謟 adulation, 誑 deceit, 憍 pride.

小王 The small rājās, called 粟散王 millet scattering kings.

小界 A small assembly of monks for ceremonial purposes.

小白華 One of the four divine flowers, the mandāra-flower, v. 曼.

小目連 The small Maudgalyāyana, one of six of that name, v. 目.

小祥忌 An anniversary (sacrifice).

小空 The Hīnayāna doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahāyāna.

小經 v. 小本; also styled 小彌經.

小聖 The Hīnayāna saint, or arhat. The inferior saint, or bodhisattva, as compared with the Buddha.

小草 Smaller herbs, those who keep the five commandments and do the ten good deeds, thereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas, v. 三草二木.

小行 The practice, or discipline of Hīnayāna; also, urination.

小赤華 Mañjūṣaka. 量殊沙華; 量殊顏 Explained by 柔軟 pliable. Rubia cordifolia, yielding the madder (munjeeth) of Bengal.

小遠 The monk 慧遠 Huiyuan of the Sui dynasty. There was a 晉 Chin dynasty monk of the same name.

小阿師 A junior monk ordained less than ten years.

小院 A junior teacher.

小食 The small meal, breakfast, also called 點心.

A corpse: to manage: u. f. 尸羅.

尸利 Sri. 師利; 室利; 室離; 室哩; 修利; 昔哩; 悉利 (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, success, good fortune, virtues, these four are named as its connotation. (2) The wife of Viṣṇu. (3) An honorifc prefix or affix to names of gods, great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of liturgies. (5) An abbreviation for Mañjuśrī.

尸利佛逝 Śrībhuja, i. e. Mālaya.

尸利夜 Śrīyaśas , a god who bestows good luck.

尸利沙 尸利灑; 舍利沙; 夜合樹 śirīṣa. acacia sirissa. The marriage tree 合婚樹. The 尸利沙 is described as with large leaves and fruit; another kind the 尸利駛 with small leaves and fruit. Also called 沙羅樹.

尸利沙迦 Śirīṣaka. Name of a monk.

尸利毱多 尸利崛多; 室利毱多 Śrīgupta, an elder in Rājagṛha, who tried to kill the Buddha with fire and poison; v. 尸利毱多長者經.

尸利蜜多羅 屍黎密 Śrīmitra, an Indian prince who resigned his throne to his younger brother, became a monk, came to China, translated the 灌頂 and other books.

尸半尸 To kill a person by the 毘陀羅 vetala method of obtaining magic power by incantations on a dead body; when a headless corpse, or some part of the body, is used it is 半尸; when the whole corpse it is 尸.

尸城 Kuśinagara or Kuśigramaka. 拘尸那城; 拘尸那揭羅; 拘夷那竭; 拘尸城 Explained by 九土生地 the birthplace of nine scholars. An ancient kingdom and city, near Kasiah, 180 miles north of Patna; the place where Śākyamuni died.

尸多婆那 Śītavana, see 尸陀林.

尸摩舍那 (or 尸摩賖那) śmaśāna, aśmaśāyma, a cemetery, idem 尸陀林.

尸梨伽那 Śrīguṇa, 厚德 abundantly virtuous, a title of a Buddha.

尸棄 Śikhin, 式棄; 式詰; 尸棄那 (or 尸棄佛); 罽那尸棄; crested, or a fame; explained by 火 fire; 刺那尸棄 Ratnaśikhin occurs in the Abhidharma. In the 本行經 it is 螺髻 a shell like tuft of hair. (1) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, whom Śākyamuni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, born in Prabhadvaja 光相城 as a Kṣatriya. (3) A Maha-brahma, whose name Śikhin is defined as 頂髻 or 火災頂 having a flaming tuft on his head; connected with the world-destruction by fire. The Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 describes Śikhin as 火 or 火首 fame, or a flaming head and as the god of fire, styled also 樹提 Suddha, pure; he observed the 火定 Fire Dhyāna, broke the lures of the realm of desire, and followed virtue.

尸棄毘 A deva of music located in the East.

尸毘迦 Śivi, 尸毘伽; 尸毘略; also wrongly 濕鞞; one of Śākyamuni's former incarnations, when to save the life of a dove he cut off and gave his own flesh to an eagle which pursued it, which eagle was Śiva transformed in order to test him. 智度論 35.

尸羅 Sila, 尸; 尸怛羅 intp. by 淸凉 pure and cool, i.e. chaste; also by 戒 restraint, or keeping the commandments; also by 性善 of good disposition. It is the second pāramitā, moral purity, i. e. of thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of śīla are chaste, calm, quiet, extinguished, i. e. no longer perturbed by the passions. Also, perhaps śīla, a stone, i. e. a precious stone, pearl, or coral. For the ten śīlas or commandments v. 十戒, the first five, or pañca-śīla 五戒, are for all Buddhists.

尸羅不淸淨 If the śīla, or moral state, is not pure, none can enter samādhi.

尸羅婆羅蜜 śīla-pāramitā. Morality, the second of the pāramitās.

尸羅幢 A curtain made of chaste precious stones.

尸羅拔陀提 戒賢 Śīlabhadra, a prince mentioned in 賢 愚 經 6.

尸羅淸淨 Moral purity, essential to enter into samadhi.

尸羅跋提 Sravasti, idem 舍衞.

尸羅跋陀羅 Śīlabhadra. A learned monk of Nalanda, teacher of Hsumzang, A. D. 625.

尸羅達磨 Śīladharma, a śramaṇa of Khotan.

尸羅鉢頗 Śīlaprabha. the Sanskrit name of a learned monk.

||阿迭多 Śīladitya, son of Pratapaditya and brother of Rajyavardhana. Under thc spiritual auspices of Avalokiteśvara, he became king of Kanyakubja A. D. 606 and conquered India and the Punjab. He was merciful to all creatures, strained drinking water for horses and elephants, was a most liberal patron of Buddhism, re-established the great quinquennial assembly, built many stūpas, showed special favour to Śīlabhadra and Xuanzang, and composed the 八大靈塔梵讚 Aṣṭama-hāśrī -caitya-saṃskṛta-stotra. He reigned about forty years.

尸棄尼 Also 識 (or 瑟 or 式) 匿. Chavames accepts the identification with Chighnan, a region of the Pamirs (Documents sur les Tou-kiue Occidentaux, p. 162).

尸賴底 Hiranyavati, M003296 離刺拏伐底; 阿利羅伐底; the gold river, a river of Nepal, now called the Gandaki, near which Śākyamuni is said to have entered nirvāṇa. The river is identifed with the Ajitavati.

尸迦羅 越 said to be Sujāta, son of an elder of Rājagṛha and the same as 須闍陀.

尸陀 (林) Śītavana, 尸林; 尸陀婆; 尸多婆那; 屍陀 cold grove 寒林, i. e. a place for exposing corpses, a cemetery. It is also styled 恐毘林, 安陀林, 晝暗林; also v. 尸摩賖那 or 深摩舍那 śmaśāna.

A hill, mountain; a monastery.

山世 'Mountain world' i. e. monasteries.

山僧 (1) 'Hill monk', self-deprecatory term used by monks. (2) A monk dwelling apart from monasteries.

山外 A branch of the Tiantai School founded by 晤恩 Wu En (d. A. D. 986) giving the 'shallower' interpretation of the teaching of this sect; called Shan-wai because it was developed in temples away from the Tiantai mountain. The 'Profounder' sect was developed at Tien-tai and is known as 山家宗 'the sect of the mountain family ' or home sect.

山家 The 'mountain school', the ' profounder ' interpretation of Tiantai doctrines developed by 四明 Ssu-ming; v. last entry.

山斤 The weight of a mountain, or of Sumeru— may be more readily ascertained than the eternity of the Buddha.

山毫 Writing brushes as numerous as mountains, or as the trees on the mountains (and ink as vast as the ocean).

山水衲 ' Mountain and water robe, ' the name of a monastic garment during the Sung dynasty; later this was the name given to a richly embroidered dress.

山海如來 Sāgara-varadhara-buddhi-vikiditā-bhijñā. 山海慧 (or 惠) 自在通王如來. The name under which Ānanda is to reappear as Buddha, in Anavanamita-vaijayanta, during the kalpa Manojna-sabdabhigarjita, v. 法華經.

山海空市 'Mountains, seas, the sky, the (busy) market place' cannot conceal one from the eye of 無常 Impermanence, the messenger of death, a phrase summing up a story of four brothers who tried to use their miraculous power to escape death by hiding in the mountains, seas, sky, and market places. The one in the market place was the first to be reported as dead, 法句經 2.

山王 The king of the mountains, i. e. the highest peak.

山門 The gate of a monastery; a monastery.

A stream, a mountain stream; Ssu-ch'uan province.

川施餓鬼 Making offerings at the streams to the ghosts of the drowned.

Work, a period of work, a job.

工夫 Time, work, a term for meditation; also 功夫.

工巧明 Śilpasthana-vidyā. 巧業明 One of the five departments of knowledge dealing with the arts, e. g. the various crafts, mechanics, natural science (yin-yang), calculations (especially for the calendar and astrology), etc.

工伎鬼 Nata, a dancer; the skilful or wily one, i. e. the heart or mind.

Self, personal, own.

己利 Personal advantage, or profit.

己心 One's own heart.

己心法門 己心中所行法門 The method of the self-realization of truth, the intuitive method of meditation, 止觀 1.

己界 The buddha-kāya, or realm of Buddha in contrast with the realm of ordinary beings.

己證, 自證 Self-attained assurance of the truth, such as that of the Buddha.

己身彌陀唯心淨土 Myself (is) Amitābha, my mind (is) the Pure Land. All things are but the one Mind, so that outside existing beings there is no Buddha and no Pure Land. Thus Amitābha is the Amitābha within and the Pure Land is the Pure Land of the mind. It is an expression of Buddhist pantheism— that all is Buddha and Buddha is all.

Already, past; end, cease.

已今當 Past, present, future, 過去, 現在, 未來.

已今當往生 Those born into the 'future life, ' (of the Pure Land) in the past, in the present, and to be born in the future.

已生 部多 bhūta. Become, the moment just come into existence, the present moment; being, existing; a being, ghost, demon; a fact; an element, of which the Hindus have five— earth, water, fire, air, ether; the past.

已知根 ājñendriya. The second of the 三無漏根 q. v. One who already knows the indriya or roots that arise from the practical stage associated with the Four Dogmas, i. e. purpose, joy, pleasure, renunciation, faith, zeal, memory, abstract meditation, wisdom.

已過大德 A monk far advanced in religion; an arhat.

已還 Already returned, or, begun again, e. g. the recommencement of a cycle, or course.

已離欲者 Those who have abandoned the desire-realm; divided into two classes, 異生 ordinary people who have left desire, but will be born into the six gati; 聖者 the saints, who will not be reborn into the desire-realm; e. g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists.

A shield; a stem, or pole; to offend; to concern; to seek.

干栗馱 干栗太; 乾栗馱; 訖利多 hṛd, hṛdaya, the physical heart.

干闍那 建折那 kāñcana, golden; i. e. a tree, a shrub of the same type, with golden hue, described as of the leguminous order; perhaps the Kunjara. Wrongly written 于 (or 那) 于闍羅 and 千闍那.

Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat 麥 make 1 finger-joint 指節; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit 肘; 4 cubits make 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits make 1 bow; 300 bows make 1 li; but the measures are variously given.

弓槃茶 Kumbhāṇḍa demons, v. 鳩.

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