A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 4 - Four Strokes

No, not, none. (Sanskrit a, an. ).

不一不異 Neither unity nor diversity, or doctrine of the 中論, v. 八不.

不久 Not long (in time).

不久詣道場 Not long before he visits the place of enlightenment or of Truth, i. e. soon will become a Buddha.

不了 Not to bring to a finish, not to make plain, not plain, not to understand, incomprehensible.

不了義經 Texts that do not make plain the Buddha's whole truth, such as Hīnayāna and 通敎 or intermediate Mahāyāna texts.

不了佛智 The incomprehensible wisdom of Buddha.

不二 advaya. No second, non-duality, the one and undivided, the unity of all things, the one reality、 the universal Buddha-nature. There are numerous combinations, e. g. 善惡不二 good and evil are not a dualism: nor are 有 and 空 the material and immaterial, nor are 迷 and 悟 delusion and awareness— all these are of the one Buddha-nature.

不二不異 neither plural nor diverse, e. g. neither two kinds of nature nor difference in form.

不二之法 The one undivided truth, the Buddha-truth. Also, the unity of the Buddha-nature.

不二法門 is similar to 不二之法; also the cult of the monistic doctrine; and the immediacy of entering into the truth.

不但空 ' Not only the void '; or, non-void; śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas see only the 'void', bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence 不但空 is the 中道空 the 'void' of the 'mean'. It is a term of the 通敎 Intermediate school.

不來 Not coming (back to mortality), an explanation of 阿那含 anāgāmin.

不來不去 anāgamana-nirgama. Neither coming into nor going out of existence, i. e. the original constituents of all 法 things are eternal; the eternal conservation of energy, or of the primal substance.

不來迎 Without being called he comes to welcome; the Pure-land sect believes that Amitābha himself comes to welcome departing souls of his followers on their calling upon him, but the 淨土眞宗 (Jōdo Shin-shu sect) teaches that belief in him at any time ensures rebirth in the Pure Land, independently of calling on him at death.

不修外道 One of the ten kinds of ' heresies' founded by Sañjayin Vairāṭīputra, v. 删, who taught that there is no need to 求道 seek the right path, as when the necessary kalpas have passed, mortality ends and nirvana naturally follows.

不偸盜 adinnādāna-veramaṇī; the second of the ten commandments, Thou shalt not steal.

不共 Not in the same class, dissimilar, distinctive, each its own.

不共三昧 asakṛt-samādhi; a samādhi in more than one formula, or mode.

不共不定 One of the six 不定因 indefinite statements of a syllogism, where proposition and example do not agree.

不共中共 The general among the particulars, the whole in the parts.

不共業 Varied, or individual karma; each causing and receiving his own recompense.

不共法 āveṇika-buddhadharma. The characteristics, achievements, and doctrine of Buddha which distinguish him from all others. See 十八不共法.

十八不共法 the eighteen distinctive characteristics as defined by Hīnayāna are his 十力, 四無畏, 三念住 and his 大悲; the Mahāyāna eighteen are perfection of body; of speech; of memory; impartiality or universality; ever in samādhi; entre self-abnegation; never diminishing will (to save); zeal; thought; wisdom; salvation; insight into salvation; deeds and mind accordant with wisdom; also his speech; also his mind; omniscience in regard to the past; also to the present; and to the future.

不共無明 Distinctive kinds of unenlightenment, one of the two kinds of ignorance, also styled 獨頭無明; particular results arising from particular evils.

不共相 Dissimilarity, singularity, sui generis.

不共般若 The things special to bodhisattvas in the 般若經 in contrast with the things they have in common with śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas.

不共變 Varied, or individual conditions resulting from karma; every one is his own transmigration; one of the 四變.

不分別 The indivisible, or middle way 中道.

不動 acala; niścala; dhruva. The unmoved, immobile, or motionless; also 無動 the term is used for the unvarying or unchanging, for the pole-star, for fearlessness, for indifference to passion or temptation. It is a special term of Shingon 異言 applied to its most important Bodhisattva, the 不動明王 q. v.

不動佛 不動如來; 阿閦鞞 or 阿閦婆, Akṣobhya, one of the 五智如來 Five Wisdom, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, viz., Vairocana, Akṣobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitābha, and Amoghasiddhi. He is especially worshipped by the Shingon sect, as a disciple of Vairocana. As Amitābha is Buddha in the western heavens, so Akṣobhya is Buddha in the eastern heaven of Abhirati, the realm of joy, hence he is styled 善快 or 妙喜, also 無瞋恚 free from anger. His cult has existed since the Han dynasty, see the Akṣobhya-Tathāgatasya-vyūha. He is first mentioned in the prajnapāramitā sutra, then in the Lotus, where he is the first of the sixteen sons of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu. His dhyāni-bodhisattva is Vajrapāṇi. His appearance is variously described, but he generally sits on a lotus, feet crossed, soles upward, left hand closed holding robe, right hand fingers extended touching ground calling it as color is pale gold, some say blue a vajra is before him. His esoteric word is Hum; his element the air, his human form Kanakamuni, v. 拘. Jap. Ashuku, Fudo, and Mudo; Tib. mi-bskyod-pa, mi-'khrugs-pa (mintug-pa); Mong. Ülü küdelükci. v. 不動明王.

不動供 Offerings to 不動明王.

不動使者 The messengers of Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛.

不動咒 不動慈救咒; 不動慈護咒; 不動陀羅尼; 不動使者祕密法; 不動使者陀羅尼祕密法. Prayers and spells associated with Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛 and his messengers.

不動地 The eighth of the ten stages in a Buddha's advance to perfection.

不動安鎭法 Prayers to 不動明王 to protect the house.

不動定 The samādhi, or abstract meditation, in which he abides.

不動明王 不動尊 Aryacalanatha 阿奢羅曩 tr. 不動尊 and 無動尊 and Acalaceta, 阿奢囉逝吒 tr. 不動使者. The mouthpiece or messenger, e. g. the Mercury, of the Buddhas; and the chief of the five Ming Wang. He is regarded as the third person in the Vairocana trinity. He has a fierce mien overawing all evil spirits. He is said to have attained to Buddhahood, but also still to retain his position with Vairocana. He has many descriptive titles, e. g. 無量力神通無動者; 不動忿怒王, etc. Five different verbal signs are given to him. He carries a sharp wisdom-sword, a noose, a thunder-bolt. The colour of his images is various—black, blue, purple. He has a youthful appearance; his hair falls over his left shoulder; he stands or sits on a rock; left eye closed; mouth shut, teeth gripping upper lip, wrinkled forehead, seven locks of hair, full-bodied, A second representation is with four faces and four arms, angry mien, protruding teeth, with fames around him. A third with necklaces. A fourth, red, seated on a rock, fames, trident, etc. There are other forms. He has fourteen distinguishing symbols, and many dharanis associated with the realm of fire, of saving those in distress, and of wisdom. He has two messengers 二童子 Kimkara 矜羯羅 and Cetaka 制吒迦, and, including these, a group of eight messengers 八大童子 each with image, symbol, word-sign, etc. Cf. 不動佛.

不動法 Prayer for the aid of 不動明王 to end calamity and cause prosperity.

不動無爲 One of the six 無爲 kinds of inaction, or laissez aIIer, the state of being unmoved by pleasure or pain.

不動解脫 liberation from being disturbed (by the illusions of life).

不動阿羅漢 an arhat who has attained to the state of the immovable liberation 不動解脫.

不動生死 Immortality, nirvana.

不動義 Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void.

不動講 An assembly for preaching and praising the virtues of 不動尊.

不動金剛明王 The 不動尊 as the vajra representative, or embodiment, of Vairocana for saving all sentient beings.

不卽不離 Neither the thing itself nor something apart, e. g. the water and the wave; similar to 不一不異.

不取正覺願 Amitābha's vow of not taking up his Buddhahood till each of his forty-eight vows is fulfilled, an affix to each of the vows.

不受一切法 Free from the receptivity, or sensation, of things, emancipated from desire.

不受三昧 In the Lotus Sutra, cap. 25, the bodhisattva 無盡意 obeying the Buddha's command, offered Guanyin a jewel-garland, which the latter refused saying he had not received the Buddha's command to accept it. This attitude is attributed to his 不受 samādhi, the samādhi of 畢竟空 utter 'voidness', or spirituality.

不可 May not, can not: unpermissible, for-bidden; unable. Buke, the name of a monk of the 靈妙寺 Ling Miao monastery in the Tang dynasty, a disciple of Subha-karāṣimha, and one of the founders of 眞言 Shingon.

不可得 ampalabhya; alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable, unknowable, unreal, another name for 空 the void. See 三世心不可得.

三世心不可得 The mind or thought, past, present, future, cannot be held fast; the past is gone, the future not arrived, the present does not stay.

不可得空 One of the eighteen 空; it is the 言亡慮絕之空, the 'void' that is beyond words or thought.

不可思議 Beyond thought or description, v. 不思議.

言亡慮絕之空 The 'void' that is beyond words or thought.

四不可思議 The four indescribables, v. 增一阿含經 18, are the worlds; living beings; dragons (nagas); and the size of the Buddha-lands.

五不可思議 The five indescribables, of the 智度論 30, are: The number of living beings; all the consequences of karma; the powers of a state of dhyāna; the powers of nagas; the powers of the Buddhas.

不可思議尊 不可思議光如來 The ineffable Honoured One; the Tathāgata of ineffable light; titles of Amitābha.

不可思議解脫經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不可思議經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra. The full title is also a name for the 維摩經 Vimalakīrti-sūtra.

不可思議解脫法門 The samādhi, or liberation of mind, that ensures a vision of the ineffable.

不可有 The existence of those who do the 不可, or forbidden, i. e. the hells.

不可棄 Not to be cast away— said to be the name of the founder of the Mahīśāsakah, or 化地 school, cast into a well at birth by his mother, saved by his father, at first brahman, afterwards a Buddhist; v. 文殊問經, but probably apocryphal.

不可稱智 The Buddha wisdom that in its variety is beyond description.

不可見有對色 invisible, perceptible, or material things, e. g. sound, smell, etc.

不可見無對色 Invisible, imperceptible, or immaterial things.

不可說 Unmentionable, indefinable; truth that can be thought but not expressed.

不可說佛 Gaṇendra; the 733rd of the Buddhas of the present kalpa 賢劫, in which 1,000 Buddhas are to appear, of whom four have appeared.

不可越守護 Two guardians of the Law on the right of Mañjuśrī in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, named 難持 and 難勝.

不和合性 unharmonizing natures, one of the 五法.

不善 Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e. g. 五逆十惡.

不善律儀 idem 非律儀, i. e. 不法 or 非善戒.

不喞M066116 Ignorant, rustic: immature or ignorant.

不坐高廣大牀 anuccaśayanāmahāśayana. Not to sit on a high, broad, large bed, the ninth of the ten commandments.

不增不減 Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute 實相之空理 nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative.

不增減眞如 the unvarying 眞如 bhūtatathatā, one of the ten 眞如; also the eighth of the 十地.

不壞 avināśya; indestructible, never decaying, eternal.

不壞句 A term in 眞言 Shingon for the magic word 阿 'a', the indestructible embodiment of Vairocana.

不壞四禪 The four dhyāna heavens, where the samādhi mind of meditation is indestructible, and the external world is indestructible by the three final catastrophes.

不壞法 Two kinds of arhats practice the 白骨觀 skull meditation, the dull who consider the dead as ashes, the intelligent who do not, but derive supernatural powers from the meditation.

不壞金剛 Vairocana the indestructible, or eternal.

不壞金剛光明心殿 The luminous mind-temple of the eternal 大日 Vairocana, the place in the Vajradhātu, or Diamond realm, of Vairocana as teacher.

不如蜜多 The twenty-sixth patriarch, said to be Puryamitra (Eitel), son of a king in Southern India, labored in eastern India, d. A. D. 388 by samādhi.

不妄語 musāvādā-veramaṇī, the fourth commandment, thou shalt not lie; no false speaking.

不婬慾 abrahamacaryā-veramaṇī, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery, i. e. against fornication and adultery for the lay, and against all unchastity for the clerics.

不學 aśaikṣa; no longer studying, graduated, one who has attained.

不定 Unfixed, unsettled, undetermined, uncertain.

不定受業 One of the 'four karma' — aniyata or indefinite karma; opposite of 定業.

不定地法 One of the six mental conditions, that of undetermined character, open to any influence good or evil.

不定性 (不定種性) Of indeterminate nature. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school divides all beings into five classes according to their potentialities. This is one of the divisions and contains four combinations: (1) Bodhisattva-cum-śrāvaka, with uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyekabuddha; (3) śrāvaka-cum-pratyekabuddha; (4) the characteristcs of all three vehicles intermingled with uncertain results; the third cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may.

不定性聚 不定聚 One of the three Tiantai groups of humanity, the indeterminate normal class of people, as contrasted with sages 定性聚 whose natures are determined for goodness, and the wicked 邪定性聚 whose natures are determined for evil.

不定教 Indeterminate teaching. Tiantai divides the Buddha' s mode of teaching into four; this one means that Buddha, by his extraordinary powers of 方便 upāya-kauśalya, or adaptability, could confer Mahāyāna benefits on his hearers out of his Hīnayāna teaching and vice versa, dependent on the capacity of his hearers.

不定觀 (不定止觀) Direct insight without any gradual process of samādhi; one of three forms of Tiantai meditation.

不害 ahiṃsā. Harmlessness, not injuring, doing harm to none.

不審 A term of greeting between monks. i. e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring into your condition.

不廻 Anagamin. He who does not return; one exempt from transmigration.

不律儀 Practices not in accord with the rule: immoral or subverted rules, i. e. to do evil, or prevent good; heretical rules and practices.

不忘禪 The meditation against forgetfulness.

不思議 acintya. 阿軫帝也 Beyond thought and words, beyond conception, baffling description, amazing.

不思議乘 The ineffable vehicle, Buddhism.

不思議慧童子 The youth of ineffable wisdom, one of the eight youths in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu.

不思議智 acintya-jñāna, inconceivable wisdom, the indescribable Buddha-wisdom.

不思議業相 Inexpressible karma-merit always working for the benefit of the living.

不思議界 acintyadhātu. The realm beyond thought and words, another name for the bhūtatathatā, 眞如.

不思議眞言相道法 The practice of the presence of the invisible Dharmakāya in the esoteric word.

不思議空 第一義空 The Void beyond thought or discussion, a conception of the void, or that which is beyond the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

不思議空智 The wisdom thus attained which removes all distresses and illusions.

不思議經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不思議解脫經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不思議薰 The indescribable vāsanā, i. e. suffusion, or 'fuming', or influence of primal 無明 ignorance, on the 眞如 bhūtatathatā, producing all illusion. v 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

不思議變 The indescribable changes of the bhūtatathatā in the multitudinous forms of all things.

不思議易生死 Ineffable changes and transmigrations, i. e. to the higher stages of mortality above the traidhātuka or trailokya 三界.

不悅 Unhappy, uneasy, the disturbing influence of desire.

不惜身命 The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one's life (for the sake of bodhi).

不懺舉 The excommunication of an unrepentant monk; one of the 三舉.

不才淨 Neither clever nor pure— a term of rebuke.

不拜 Lay Buddhists may not pay homage to the gods or demons of other religions; monks and nuns may not pay homage to kings or parents.

不捉持生像金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-pratigrahaṇād vaira maṇī (virati). The tenth commandment, not to take or possess uncoined or coined gold and silver, or jewels.

不捨誓約 Amitābha's vow of non-abandonment, not to enter Buddhahood till all were born into his Paradise.

不放逸 No slackness or looseness; concentration of mind and will on the good.

不斷 Without ceasing, unceasing.

不斷光 The unceasing light (or glory) of Amitābha.

不斷光佛 One of the twelve shining Buddhas.

不斷常 Unceasing continuity.

不斷念佛 Unceasing remembrance, or invocation of the Buddha.

不斷相應染 One of the 六染心.

不斷讀經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.

不斷經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.

不斷輪 Unceasing turning of the wheel, as in a monastery by relays of prayer and meditation.

不時解脫 The sixth, or highest of the six types of arhats; the other five groups have to bide their time and opportunity 時解脫 for liberation in samādhi, the sixth can enter immediately.

不更惡趣願 The second of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that those born in his kingdom should never again enter the three evil lower paths of transmigration.

不染世間法 Unsullied by the things of the world (e. g. the lotus).

不染汚無知 Uncontaminated ignorance.

不染著諸法三昧 The samādhi which is uncontaminated by any (evil) thing, the samādhi of purity; i. e. Mañjuśrī in samādhi holding as symbol of it a blue lotus in his left hand.

不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nāṭya-gīta-vāditra-viśūkadarśanād-vairamaṇī (virati). The seventh commandment against taking part in singing, dancing, plays, or going to watch and hear them.

不正食 Not strict food, not exactly food, things that do not count as a meal, e. g. fruit and nuts.

不死 Undying, immortal.

不死甘露 Sweet dew of immortality, a baptismal water of 眞言 Shingon.

不死藥 Medicine of immortality, called shāhē 裟訶, which grows on 雪山 the Himālayas and bestows on anyone seeing it endless and painless life.

不死覺 One of the eight 覺, the desire for long life.

不死門 The gate of immortality or nirvana, i. e. Mahāyāna.

不殺生 prāṇātipātād vairamaṇī (virati). The first commandment, Thou shalt not kill the living.

不法 Not in accordance with the Buddha law, wrong, improper, unlawful.

不活畏 The fear of giving all and having nothing to keep one alive: one of the five fears.

不滅 anirodha, not destroyed, not subject to annihilation.

不滅不生 anirodhānupāda, neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. 不生.

不淨 Unclean, common, vile.

不淨忿怒 不淨金剛; 鳥樞沙摩明王 or 鳥芻沙摩明王; 觸金剛 Ucchuṣma, a bodhisattva connected with 不動明王 who controls unclean demons.

不淨施 'Unclean' almsgiving, i. e. looking for its reward in this or the next life.

不淨肉 'Unclean', flesh, i. e. that of animals, fishes, etc., seen being killed, heard being killed, or suspected of being killed; Hīnayāna forbids these, Mahāyāna forbids all flesh.

不淨行 非梵行 Ignoble or impure deeds, sexual immorality.

不淨觀 The meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others, e. g. the nine stages of disintegration of the dead body 九想 q.v.; it is a meditation to destroy 貪 desire; other details are: parental seed, womb, the nine excretory passages, the body's component parts, worm-devoured corpse — all unclean.

不淨觀經 A sutra of Dharmatrata.

不淨說法 邪命說法 'Unclean' preaching, i. e. to preach, whether rightly or wrongly, from an impure motive, e. g. for making a living.

不淨輪 One of the three 輪: impermanence, impurity, distress 無常, 不淨, 苦.

不生 anutpatti; anutpāda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mistakenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The 'nir' in nirvana is also erroneously said to mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word 'a' is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathāgata, who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication the term means "eternal". ādi, which means"at first, " "beginning","primary", is also interpreted as 不生 uncreated.

不生斷 One of the 三斷, when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in the evil paths are ended.

不生不滅 v. 不滅 'Neither (to be) born nor ended' is another term for 常住 permanent, eternal; nothing having been created nothing can be destroyed; Hīnayāna limits the meaning to the state of nirvana, no more births and deaths; Mahāyāna in its Mādhyamika form extends it universally, no birth and death, no creation and annihilation, see 中論.

四不生 Nothing is produced (1) of itself; (2) of another, i. e. of a cause without itself; (3) of both; (4) of no-cause.

不疑殺 Not in doubt that the creature has been killed to feed me, v. 不淨肉.

不相應心 The non-interrelated mind, see 起信論.

不相應行 Actions non-interrelated (with mind).

不空 Amogha, Amoghavajra. 不空三藏; 智藏; 阿目佉跋折羅 Not empty (or not in vain) vajra. The famous head of the Yogācāra school in China. A Singhalese of northern brahmanic descent, having lost his father, he came at the age of 15 with his uncle to 東海, the eastern sea, or China, where in 718 he became a disciple of 金剛智 Vajrabodhi. After the latter's death in 732, and at his wish, Eliot says in 741, he went to India and Ceylon in search of esoteric or tantric writings, and returned in 746, when he baptized the emperor Xuan Tsung. He was especially noted for rain-making and stilling storms. In 749 he received permission to return home, but was stopped by imperial orders when in the south of China. In ?756 under Su Tsung he was recalled to the capital. His time until 771 was spent translating and editing tantric books in 120 volumes, and the Yogacara 密教 rose to its peak of prosperity. He died greatly honoured at 70 years of age, in 774, the twelfth year of Tai Tsung, the third emperor under whom he had served. The festival of feeding the hungry spirits 孟蘭勝會 is attributed to him. His titles of 智藏 and 不空三藏 are Thesaurus of Wisdom and Amogha Tripitaka.

不空供養菩薩 Āryāmogha-pūrṇamaṇi, also styled 如意金剛 'At will vajra'; in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, the fifth on the south of the 悉地 court.

不空如來藏 不空眞如 The realm of phenomena; in contrast with the universal 眞如 or 法身 dharmakāya, unmingled with the illusion of phenomena.

不空成就如來 Amoghasiddhi. The Tathāgata of unerring performance, the fifth of the five wisdom or dhyāni-buddhas of the diamond-realm. He is placed in the north; his image is gold-colored, left hand clenched, right fingers extended pointing to breast. Also, 'He is seated in 'adamantine' pose (legs closely locked) '(Getty), soles apparent, left hand in lap, palm upwards, may balance a double vajra, or sword; right hand erect in blessing, fingers extended. Symbol, double vajra; color, green (Getty); word, ah!; blue-green lotus; element, earth; animal, garuḍa; Śakti (female personification), Tārā; Mānuṣi-Buddha (human or savior Buddha), Maitreya. T., dongrub; J., Fukū jō-jū.

不空羂索 An unerring lasso. See 不空羂索菩薩.

不空羂索菩薩 (不空羂索觀音 or 不空羂索王); Amoghapāśa 阿牟伽皤賖. Not empty (or unerring) net, or lasso. One of the six forms of Guanyin in the Garbhadhātu group, catching deva and human fish for the bodhi-shore. The image has three faces, each with three eyes and six arms, but other forms have existed, one with three heads and ten arms, one with one head and four arms. The hands hold a net, lotus, trident, halberd, the gift of courage, and a plenipotentiary staff; sometimes accompanied by 'the green Tārā, Sudhana-Kumāra, Hayagrīva and Bhṛkuṭī (Getty). There are numerous sutras, etc.

不空見菩薩 Amoghadarśin, the unerringly seeing Bodhisattva, shown in the upper second place of Titsang's court in the Garbhadhātu; also 普觀金剛.

不空金剛菩薩 Amoghavajra-bodhisattva. 阿目佶跋折羅 A Bodhisattva in the 蘇悉地 court of the Garbhadhātu.

不空鉤觀音 Amoghāṅkuśa. 央倶捨 Guanyin of the 'Unerring hook', similar to 不空羂索觀音; also styled 淸淨蓮華明王央倶捨; in the court of the empyrean.

不立文字 (不立文字教) The 禪 ch'an or intuitive School does 'not set up scriptures'; it lays stress on meditation and intuition rather than on books and other external aids: cf. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra.

不輕 Never Despise, 常不輕菩薩 a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose constant greeting to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persecution; see the chapter of this title in the Lotus Sutra.

不輕行 The practice of 'Never Despise'. See 不輕.

不綺語 Unrefined, indecent, improper, or smart speech.

不著香華鬘不香塗身 mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣaṇasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The eighth commandment against adorning the body with wreaths of fragrant fowers, or using fragrant unguents.

不聞惡名願 The sixteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter final Buddhahood as long as anyone of evil repute existed.

不臘次 (or 不臈次) Not in order of age, i. e. clerical age; disorderly sitting; taking a seat to which one is not entitled.

不自在 Not independent, not one's own master, under governance.

不與取 adattādāna. Taking that which is not given, i. e. theft; against this is the second commandment.

不苦不樂受 one of the 三受, the state of experiencing neither pain nor pleasure, i. e. above them. Also styled 捨受 the state in which one has abandoned both.

不蘭迦葉 Pūraṇa-kāśyapa. 富蘭那迦葉 One of the six heretics, or Tirthyas, opposed to Śākyamuni.

不虛妄性 Not of false or untrue nature; true, sincere; also 眞實性.

不行而行 Without doing yet to do, e. g. 無爲而爲.

不覺 Unenlightened, uncomprehending, without 'spiritual' insight, the condition of people in general, who mistake the phenomenal for the real, and by ignorance beget karma, reaping its results in the mortal round of transmigration; i. e. people generally.

不覺現行位 The first two of the 十地 of the saint, in which the illusion of mistaking the phenomenal for the real still arises.

不說四衆過罪戒 The prohibition of mentioning the errors and sins of other disciples, cleric or lay.

不請 Not to request; uninvited; voluntary.

不請之友 The uninvited friend, i. e. the Bodhisattva.

不請法 Uninvited preaching or offering of the Law, i. e. voluntarily bestowing its benefits.

不變易性 Unchanging nature, immutable, i. e. the bhūtatathatā.

不變眞如 The immutable bhūtatathatā in the absolute, as compared with 隨緣眞如, i. e. in relative or phenomenal conditions.

不變隨緣 The conditioned immutable, i. e. immutable as a whole, but not in its parts, i. e. its phenomenal activity.

不起法忍 The stage of endurance, or patient meditation, that has reached the state where phenomenal illusion ceases to arise, through entry into the realization of the Void, or noumenal; also 生法忍 (or 起法忍) .

不退 (不退轉) avaivartika, or avinivartanīya. Never receding, always progressing, not backsliding, or losing ground; never retreating but going straight to nirvana; an epithet of every Buddha.

三不退 Never receding from 位 position attained; from a right course of 行 action; from pursuing a right line of 念 thought, or mental discipline. These are duties of every bodhisattva, and have numerous interpretations.

四不退 The four kinds of non-backsliding, which includes three kinds of non-backsliding 三不退, on top of which the Pure Land sect adds another 處 place or abode, i. e. that those who reach the Pure Land never fall away, for which five reasons are given termed 五種不退. The 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect makes their four 信, 位, 證, and 行, faith, position attained, realization, and accordant procedure.

不退住 The seventh of the 十住, the stage of never receding, or continuous progress.

不退土 The Pure Land, from which there is no falling away.

不退地 The first of a bodhisattva's 十地; it is also interpreted by right action and right thought.

不退相 One of the nine 無學 aśaikṣa, i. e. the stage beyond study, where intuition rules. Name of one of the twenty-seven sages.

不退菩薩 A never receding bodhisattva, who aims at perfect enlightenment.

不退輪 (不退轉法輪) The never-receding Buddha vehicle, of universal salvation.

不還 Not to return, never returning. Cf. 不退.

不還向 The third of the 四向 four directions or aims, see 阿那含 anāgāmin, not returning to the desire-world, but rising above it to the 色界 or the 無色界 form-realm, or even formless realm.

不還果 The fruits, fruition, or rewards of the last. Various stages in the final life of parinirvāṇa are named, i. e. five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven kinds.

不釐務侍者 A nominal assistant or attendant, an attendant who has no responsibilities.

不非時食 Vikāla-bhojanād vairamaṇī (virati); part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating out of regulation hours, v. 不食肉.

不顧論宗 One of the 因明四宗, a philosophical school, whose rule was self-gratification, 'not caring for' others.

不飮酒 surā-maireya-madya-pramādasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The fifth of the ten commandments, i. e. against alcohol.

不食肉 vikālabhojana; part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating flesh; v. 不非時食.

madhya. Middle, central, medium, the mean, within; to hit the centre. v. also 三諦.

中乘 The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna.

中價衣 Another name for the uttarā saṅghāṭī, the middle garment of price, or esteem.

中元 The fifteenth of the seventh moon; see 孟蘭盆.

上元 The fifteenth of the first moon. See 孟蘭盆.

下元 The fifteenth of the tenth moon; cf. 孟蘭盆.

中劫 Middling kalpa, a period of 336, 000, 000 years.

中千界 (中千世界) A middling chiliocosm, see 三千大千世界.

中印 Central India, i. e. of the 五印 five Indies, as mentioned by Xuanzang in the 西域記.

中含 The middle Agama 阿含經.

中品 Middle rank or class.

中唄 Chanting of 梵唄 Buddhist hymns is divided into three kinds 初, 中, and 後.

中因 An arrangement by the esoteric sect of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, Vairocana being the first in position, Akṣobhya east, and so on.

中國 Madhyadesa. 中天 (中天竺); 中梵 The middle kingdom, i. e. Central North India, v. 中印.

中士 medium disciples, i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who can gain emancipation for themselves, but cannot confer it on others: cf. 下士 and 上士.

中天 (中天竺) Central North India, idem 中國.

中天竺寺 A monastery on the 飛來 Feilai peak at Hangchow.

中宗 The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence, the third 中 neither, something 'between' or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra.

中宿依 A monk's inner garment, i. e. the five-patch garment; also 中着依.

中實 idem 中道實相.

中尊 The central honored one— in any group of Buddhas, e. g. 不動尊 among the five 明王.

中心 idem 忠心經.

中悔 Repenting or recanting midway, i. e. doubting and falling away.

中有 One of the 四有, i. e. the antarā-bhāva or intermediate state of existence between death and reincarnation; hence 中有之旅 is an unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰.

中有之旅 An unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰.

中根 Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs 六根; there are three powers of each organ 上根, 中根, and 下根.

中梵 Central North India, idem 中國.

中洲 Each of the four great continents at the foot of Mount Sumeru has two middling continents.

中流 In the midst of the stream, i. e. of 生死 mortality, or reincarnations.

中胎 (中胎藏) The central figure of the eight-petalled group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala; i. e. the phenomenal Vairocana who has around him four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas, each on a petal. From this maṇḍala spring the four other great maṇḍalas.

中臺 The name of a Buddha in the center of lotus.

中臺八葉院 The Court of the eight-petaled lotus in the middle of the Garbhadhātu, with Vairocana in its center and four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the eight petals. The lotus is likened to the human heart, with the Sun-Buddha 大日 at its center. The four Buddhas are E. Akṣobhya, S. Ratnasambhava, W. Amitābha, N. Amoghasiddhi; the four bodhisattvas are S. E. Samantabhadra, S. W. Mañjuśrī, N. W. Avalokiteśvara, and N. E. Maitreya.

中般 One of the five kinds of those who never recede but go on to parinirvāṇa, cf. 不還.

中草 Medium-sized herbs, medium capacity, v. 三草.

中觀 Meditation on the Mean, one of the 三觀; also meditation on the absolute which unites all opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the 法相宗, the 三論宗, the 天台宗. v. 中論.

中論 中觀論 Prāñnyāya-mūla-śāstra-ṭīkā, or Prāṇyamula-śāstra-ṭīkā; the Mādhyamika-śāstra, attributed to the bodhisattvas Nāgārjuna as creator, and Nīlacakṣus as compiler; tr. by Kumārajīva A. D. 409. It is the principal work of the Mādhyamika, or Middle School, attributed to Nāgārjuna. Versions only exist in Chinese and Tibetan; an English translation by Miyamoto exists and publication is promised; a German version is by Walleser. The 中論 is the first and most?? important of the 三論 q. v. The teaching of this School is found additionally in the 順中論; 般若燈論釋大乘中觀釋論 and 中論疏. Cf. 中道. The doctrine opposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence 假 and 空, and denies the two extremes of production (or creation) and nonproduction and other antitheses, in the interests of a middle or superior way.

中論性教 The Mādhyamika school, which has been described as a system of sophisiic nihilism, dissolving every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and refuting both; but it is considered by some that the refuting of both is in the interests of a third, the 中 which transcends both.

中諦 The third of the 三諦 three postulates of the Tiantai school, i. e. 空, 假, and 中 q. v.

中輩 The middle stage of the 三輩 referred to in the 無量壽經 i. e. the middle class of those in the next life; also 中輩生.

中輩觀 the meditation on the condition of 中輩.

中道 The 'mean' has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between two extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and annihilation; this 'mean' is found in a third principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminology of 有 or 無, substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See 中論. The following four Schools define the term according to their several scriptures: the 法相 School describes it as the 唯識, v. 唯識中道; the 三論 School as the 八不 eight negations, v. 三論; the Tiantai as 實相 the true reality; and the Huayan as the 法界 dharmadhātu. Four forms of the Mean are given by the 三論玄義.

中道卽法界 The doctrine of the 'mean', is the dharmadhātu, or 'spiritual ' universe.

中道宗 The third period of the Buddha's teaching, according to the 法相宗, giving the via media between the two extremes, the absolute as not confined to the phenomenal or the noumenal; also called 中道教.

中道實相 The reality of the 'mean' is neither 有 substance or existent, nor 空 void or non-existent, but a reality which is neither, or a mean between the two extremes of materialism and nihilism; also 中實.

中道應本 The 'mean' as the basic principle in the 別 and 圓 schools of the doctrine of the 應化身 'transformation body'.

中道第一義 The 'mean' is the first and chief of all principles, nothing is outside it.

中道觀 One of the Tiantai 三觀 three meditations, i. e. on the doctrine of the Mean to get rid of the illusion of phenomena.

中邊論 A treatise by Vasubandhu, translated by Xuanzang in three chuan and by 陳眞諦Chen Zhen-ti in two fascicles. It is an explanation of the 辨中邊論頌 Madhyānta-vibhāga-śāstra, said to have been given by Maitreya to Asaṅga.

中間定 An intermediate dhyāna stage between two dhyāna-heavens; also 中間三昧; 中間靜慮.

中陰 The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation, a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. 中有.

中陰法事 The means used (by the deceased' s family) for ensuring a favorable reincarnation during the intermediate stage, between death and reincarnation.

中食 The midday meal, after which nothing whatever may be eaten.

中體 The central Buddha in a group.

Red, cinnabar color; a remedy, drug, elixir.

丹田 The pubic region, 2 1/2 inches below the navel.

To say, speak.

云云 Continuing to speak; they say, people say; as follows, and so on, etc.

云何 Why?

云何唄 The opening stanza of the Nirvana sutra 3.

Interlock, dovetail-mutual.

互用罪 The fault of transferring from one object of worship over to another a, gift, or duty, e. g. using gilt given for an image of Śākyamuni to make one for Maitreya; or 'robbing Peter to pay Paul'.

互跪 Kneeling with both knees at once, as in India; in China the left knee is first placed on the ground; also 互胡跪.

互裟伽藍 Haṃsa saṃghārāma, 'Wild goose monastery, ' on Mount Indraśailaguhā, whose inmates were once saved from starving by the self-sacrifice of a wild goose; also 僧裟伽藍 (or 僧鷹伽藍) .

A well.

井中撈月 Like ladling the moon out of the well; the parable of the monkeys who saw the moon fallen into a well, and fearing there would be no more moonlight, sought to save it; the monkey-king hung on to a branch, one hung on to his tail and so on, but the branch broke and all were drowned.

井河 'Like the well and the river', indicating the impermanence of life. The 'well ' refers to the legend of the man who running away from a mad elephant fell into a well; the 'river ' to a great tree growing on the river bank yet blown over by the wind.

井華 The flower of the water, i. e. that drawn from the well in the last watch of the night, at which time the water is supposed not to produce animal life.

pañca, five.

五三八二 Five, three, eight, two, a summary of the tenets of the 法相 school, 五法, 三性, 八識, and 二無我 q. v.

五上分結 The five higher bonds of desire still existing in the upper realms, i. e. in both the form and formless realms.

五下分結 The five bonds in the lower desire-realms, i. e. desire, dislike, self, heretical ideals, doubt 貪, 瞋, 我, 邪戒, 疑.

五不可思議 The five inconceivable, or thought-surpassing things. v. 不可思議.

五不正食 Five improper things for a monk to eat— twigs, leaves, flowers, fruit, powders.

五不還天 idem 五淨居天.

五不還果 idem 五種阿那含.

五乘 The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the 'void'.

五乘齊入 All the different classes will obtain an entrance into the Pure Land by the vow of Amitābha.

五事妄語 The five things fallaciously explained by Mahādeva, as stated in the Kathāvatthu.

五五百年 The five periods each of 500 years. In the tenth chapter of the 大集月藏經 the Buddha is reported as saying that after his death there would be five successive periods each of 500 years, strong consecutively in power (1) of salvation, (2) of meditation, (3) of learning, (4) of stūpa and temple building, and finally (5) of dissension.

五五菩薩 The twenty-five Bodhisattvas 二十五菩薩.

五人說經 v. 五種說人.

五住地 (五住) The five fundamental condition of 煩惱 the passions and delusions: wrong views which are common to the trailokya; clinging, or attachment, in the desire-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the form-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the formless realm which is still mortal: the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in the trailokya 三界 which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion, Also 五住地惑.

五佛 The Five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu; v. 五智如來.

五佛五身 A Shingon term for the five Buddhas in their five manifestations: Vairocana as eternal and pure dharmakāya; Akṣobhya as immutable and sovereign; Ratnasaṃbhava as bliss and glory; Amitābha as wisdom in action; Śākyamuni as incarnation and nirmāṇakāya.

五佛子 Five classes of Buddhists; also idem 五比丘 q. v.

五佛寶冠 五佛冠; 五智冠 (五智寶冠) ; 五寶天冠; 寶冠 A Buddha-crown containing the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas. The five Buddhas 'are always crowned when holding the śakti, and hence are called by the Tibetans the 'crowned Buddhas' (Getty). Vairocana in the Vajradhātu wears a crown with five points indicative of the five qualities of perfect wisdom, etc., as represented by the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas.

五佛性 The five characteristics of a Buddha' s nature: the first three are the 三因佛性 q. v., the fourth is 果佛性 the fruition of perfect enlightenment, and the fifth 果果佛性 the fruition of that fruition, or the revelation of parinirvāṇa. The first three are natural attributes, the two last are acquired.

五佛羯磨印 The manual signs by which the characteristic of each of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas is shown in the Diamond-realm group, i. e. Vairocana, the closed hand of wisdom; Akṣobhya, right fingers touching the ground, firm wisdom; Ratnasaṃbhava, right hand open uplifted, vow-making sign; Amitābha, samādhi sign, right fingers in left palm, preaching and ending doubts; and Amoghasiddhi, i. e. Śākyamuni, the karma sign, i. e. final nirvana. These mūdra, or manual signs, are from the 瑜祇經 but other forms are common.

五佛頂 (五佛頂尊); 五頂輪王 Five bodhisattvas sometimes placed on the left of Śākyamuni, indicative of five forms of wisdom: (1) 白傘佛頂輪王 (白蓋佛頂輪王); 白 M027897佛頂, Sitāta-patra, with white parasol, symbol of pure mercy, one of the titles of Avalokiteśvara; (2) 勝佛頂 Jaya, with sword symbol of wisdom, or discretion; (3) 最勝佛頂 (一字最勝佛頂輪王); 金輪佛頂 (最勝金輪佛頂); 轉輪王佛頂 Vijaya, with golden wheel symbol of unexcelled power of preaching; (4) 火聚佛頂; 光聚佛頂 (or 放光佛頂 or 火光佛頂) ; 高佛頂 Tejorāṣi, collected brilliance, with insignia of authority 如意寶 or a fame; (5) 捨除佛頂; 除障佛頂; 摧碎佛頂; 除業佛頂; 除蓋障佛頂; 尊勝, etc. Vikīrṇa, scattering and destroying all distressing delusion, with a hook as symbol.

五佛頂法 The forms, colors, symbols, etc., of the 五佛頂.

五佛頂經 Abbreviation for— 一字佛頂輪王經. There is also a 五佛頂三昧陀羅尼經 translated by Bodhiruci circa A. D. 503.

五佛灌頂 Baptism with five vases of perfumed water, symbol of Buddha-wisdom in its five forms.

五作業根 The five working organs: the mouth, hands, feet, sex organ, and anus.

五位 The five categories, or divisions; there are several groups, e. g. (1) Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna have groupings of all phenomena under five heads, i. e. Hīnayāna has 75 法 which are 11 色法, 1 心法, 46 心所法, 14 不相離法, and 3 無爲法; Mahāyāna has 100 法 which are 8 心, 51 心所, 11 色, 24 不相因, and 6 無爲法. (2) The five divisions of 唯識 are 資糧位, 加行位, 通達位, 修習位, and 究竟 or 佛位. (3) The five evolutions in the womb are: kalalaṃ, embryo-initiation; arbudaṃ, after 27 days; peśī, 37; ghana, 47; praśākha, 57 days when form and organs are all complete. (4) Certain combinations of the 八卦 Eight Diagrams are sometimes styled 五位君臣 five positions of prince and minister.

五位三昧 五種三昧 The five kinds of samādhi: (1) On mortality, the 四禪 and 八定; (2) śrāvaka on the four axioms; (3) pratyekabuddha on the twelve nidānas; (4) bodhisattva on the 六度 and the 萬行; (5) Buddha on the one Buddha-vehicle, which includes all others; v. 五乘.

五供養 The five kinds of offerings— unguents, chaplets, incense, food, and lamps (or candles).

五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī, 丈殊五使者, 五種金剛使; they are shown on his left in his court in the Garbhadhātu group; their names are (1) Keśīnī 髻設尼 (or 計設尼) ; 繼室尼. (2) Upakeśīnī 鄔波髻設尼; 烏波髻施儞 (or 烏波髻施尼); 優婆計設尼. (3) Citrā 質多羅 (or 質怛羅). (4) Vasumatī, tr. 慧 and 財慧; 嚩蘇磨 底. (5) Ākarṣaṇī, tr. 請召 , 釣召 and 招召 ;阿羯沙尼.

五倶倫 The five comrades, i. e. Śākyamuni's five old companions in asceticism and first converts, v. 五比丘. Also 五拘鄰.

五條袈裟 (五條) The monk' s robe of five patches or lengths, also termed 下衣 as the lowest of the grades of patch-robes. It is styled 院内道行雜作衣 the garment ordinarily worn in the monastery, when abroad and for general purposes; also written 五帖袈裟、五條衣.

五停四念 idem 五停心觀 and 四念處 i. e. the five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five meditations are 不淨觀, 慈悲觀, 因緣觀, 界分別觀 and 數息觀 i. e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination, breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division puts breathing first, and there are other differences.

五八 Five eights, i. e. forty.

五八十具 All the five, eight, and ten commandments, i. e. the three groups of disciples, laity who keep the five and eight and monks who keep the ten.

五八尊 The forty forms of Guanyin, or the Guanyin with forty hands: the forty forms multiplied by the twenty-five things 二十五有 make 1, 000, hence Guanyin with the thousand hands.

五八識 The five sense perceptions and the eighth or ālaya vijñāna, the fecundating principle of consciousness in man.

五具足 The five complete utensils for worship— two flower vases, two candlesticks, and a censer.

五刀 The 'five swords' or slayers who were sent in pursuit of a man who fled from his king, e. g. the five skandhas 五蘊.

五分 idem 五分法身 and 五部大論.

五分律 五分戒本 The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya, or five divisions of the law according to that school.

五分法身 pañca-dharmakāya, the five attributes of the dharmakāya or 'spiritual' body of the Tathāgata, i. e. 戒 that he is above all moral conditions; 定 tranquil and apart from all false ideas; 慧 wise and omniscient; 解脫 free, unlimited, unconditioned, which is the state of nirvana; 解脫知見 that he has perfect knowledge of this state. These five attributes surpass all conditions of form, or the five skandhas; Eitel interprets this by exemption from all materiality (rūpa); all sensations (vedana); all consciousness (saṃjñā); all moral activity (karman); all knowledge (vijñāna). The esoteric sect has its own group. See also 五種法身.

五分香 The five kinds of incense, or fragrance, corresponding with the 五分法身, i. e. the fragrance of 戒香, 定香, etc.

五利使 Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five 鈍 dull, or stupid, and five 利 sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁取見.

五劫思惟 The five kalpas spent by Amitābha thinking out and preparing for his vows.

五力 pañcabalāni, the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala, wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.

五功德門 The five effective or meritorious gates to Amitābha's Pure Land, i. e. worship of him, praise of him, vows to him, meditation on him, willingness to suffer for universal salvation.

五十三佛 Fifty-three past Buddhas, of which the lists vary.

五十三尊 The fifty-three honored ones of the Diamond group, i. e. the thirty-seven plus sixteen bodhisattvas of the present kalpa.

五十三智識 五十三參 The fifty-three wise ones mentioned in the 入法界 chapter of the Huayan Sutra.

五十二位 The fifty-two stages in the process of becoming a Buddha; of these fifty-one are to bodhisattvahood, the fifty-second to Buddhahood. They are: Ten 十信 or stages of faith; thirty of the 三賢 or three grades of virtue i. e. ten 十住, ten 十行, and ten 十廻向; and twelve of the three grades of 聖 holiness, or sainthood, i. e. ten 地, plus 等覺 and 妙覺. These are the Tiantai stages; there are others, and the number and character of the stages vary in different schools.

五十二衆 五十二類 The fifty-two groups of living beings, human and not-human, who, according to the Nirvana-sutra, assembled at the nirvana of the Buddha.

五十二種供物 The fifty-two kinds of offerings of the 五十二衆.

五十二身像 The maṇḍala of Amitābha with his fifty-two attendant Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. Also known as 阿彌陀佛五十菩薩像 or 五十 ニ 尊 or 五通曼荼羅; said to have been communicated to 五通菩薩 in India at the 鷄頭磨寺.

五十五善知識 similar to 五十三智識. 五十八戒 The ten primary commands and the forty-eight secondary commands of the 梵綱經. 五十六億七千萬歳 The perod to elapse between Śākyamuni's nirvana and the advent of Maitreya, 56, 070, 000 years.

五十天供 The fifty (or fify-two) objects of worship for suppressing demons and pestilences, and producing peace, good harvests, etc.; the lists differ.

五十字門 The Sanskrit alphabet given as of fifty letters.

五十小劫 The fifty minor kalpas which, in the 涌出 chapter of the Lotus, are supernaturally made to seem as but half a day.

五十展轉 The fiftieth turn, i. e. the great-ness of the bliss of one who hears the Lotus Sutra even at fiftieth hand: how much greater that of him who hears at first hamd ! 五十功德 idem 五十展轉 and 五十轉五十惡 The fifty evils produced by the five skandhas, i. e. 色 seventeen, 受 eight, 想 eight, 行 nine, 識 eight.

五十法 Fifty modes of meditation mentioned in the 大品般若; i. e. the 三十七品 bodhi paksika dharma, the 三三昧, four 禪, four 無量心, four 無色定, eight 背捨, eight 勝處, nine 次第定, and eleven 切處.

五千上慢 The five thousand supremely arrogant (i. e. Hīnayāna) monks who left the great assemibly, refusing to hear the Buddha preach the new doctrine of the Lotus Sutra; see its 方便 chapter.

(度) The five Indias, or five regions of India, idem 五天竺 q. v.

Worship on the four fives, i. e. the fifth, tenth, twentieth, and twenty-fifth days of the month; also ||上堂.

叉地獄 The hell in which the sufferers are dismembered with five-pronged forks.

取蘊 The five tenacious bonds, or skandhas, attaching to mortality.

五受 The five vedanas, or sensations; i. e. of sorrow, ofjoy; of pain, of pleasure; of freedom from them all; the first two are limited to mental emotions, the two next are of the senses, and the fifth of both; v. 唯識論 5.

五同緣意識 One of the four kinds of 意識 q. v.; the mental concept of the perceptions of the five senses. 五味 The five flavours, or stages of making ghee, which is said to be a cure for all ailments; it is a Tiantai illustration of the five periods of the Buddha's teaching: (1) M000190 |ksira, fresh milk, his first preaching, i. e. that of the 華嚴經 Avatamsaka, for śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas; (2) 酪 |dadhi, coagulated milk, cream, the 阿含經 Agamas, for Hīnayāna generally; (3) 生酥 | navanita, curdled, the 方等經 Vaipulyas, for the Mahāyāna 通經(4) 涅槃經 |ghola, butter, the 般若經 Prajna, for the Mahāyāna 別教; (5) 醍醐 |sarpirmandla, clarified butter, ghee, the 法華 Lotus and 涅槃經 Nirvana sutras, for the Mahāyāna 圓教; see also 五時教, and v. 涅槃經 14. Also, the ordinary five flavours -sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty.

五味禪 Five kinds of concentration, i. e. that of heretics, ordinary people, Hīnayāna, Mahāyāna, and 最上乘 the supreme vehicle, or that of believers in the fundamental Buddha-nature of all things; this is styled 如來滿淨禪; 一行三昧,; 眞如三昧.

五味粥 The porridge of five flavors made on the eighth day of the twelfth moon, the anniversary of the Buddha's enlightenment.

五周因果 The five circuits or areas of cause and effect, i. e. the five main subjects of the Huayan sutra.

五品 A division of the disciples, in the Lotus Sutra, into five grades— those who hear and rejoice; read and repeat; preach; observe and meditate; and transform self and others.

五唯 (五唯量) pañcatanmātrāṇi, the five subtle or rudimentary elements out of which rise the five sensations of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. They are the fourth of the 二十五諦.

五善 The five good (things), i. e. the first five commandments.

五因 The five causes, v. 倶舍論 7. i. e. (1) 生因 producing cause; (2) 依因supporting cause; (3) 立因 upholding or establishing cause; (4) 持因 maintaining cause; (5) 養因 nourishing or strengthening cause. These all refer to the four elements, earth, water, fire, wind, for they are the causers or producers and maintainers of the infinite forms of nature. Another list from the Nirvana-Sutra 21 is (1) 生因 cause of rebirth, i. e. previous delusion; (2) 和合因 intermingling cause, i. e. good with good, bad with bad, neutral with neutral; (3) 住因 cause of abiding in the present condition, i. e. the self in its attachments; (4) 增長因 causes of development, e. g. food, clothing, etc.; (5) 遠因 remoter cause, the parental seed.

五堅固 idem 五五百年.

五執 The five planets, see 五星.

五境 The objects of the five senses, corresponding to the senses of form, sound, smell, taste, and touch.

五塵 The objects of the five senses, which being dusty or earthly things can taint the true nature; idem 五境.

五壇法 The ceremonies before the 五大明王.

五夢 The five bad dreams of King Ajātaśatru on the night that Buddha entered nirvana— as the moon sank the sun arose from the earth. the stars fell like rain, seven comets appeared, and a great conflagration filling the sky fell on the earth.

五大 The five elements— earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also 五行 the five agents. In the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation, or garbhadhātu, v. 胎; as being in all phenomena they are called 五輪 the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos 種子 are those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. 五佛.

五大使者 五天使者 The five dūta, i. e. great lictors, or deva-messengers— birth, old age, disease, death, earthly laws and punishments— said to be sent by Māra as warnings.

五大力菩薩 The five powerful Bodhisattvas, guardians of the four quarters and the centre.

五大尊 idem 五大明王.

五大形 The symbols of the five elements— earth as square, water round, fire triangular, wind half-moon, and space a combination of the other four.

五大施 The five great gifts, i. e. ability to keep the five commandments.

五大明王 The five Dharmapālas, or Law-guardians of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, of whom they are emanations or embodiments in two forms, compassionate and minatory. The five kings are the fierce aspect, e. g. Yamantaka, or the 六足尊金剛 Six-legged Honoured One is an emanation of Mañjuśrī, who is an emanation of Amitābha. The five kings are 不動, 降三世, 軍荼梨, 六足尊, and 淨身, all vajra-kings.

五大色 The five chief colours— yellow for earth, white for water, red for fire, black for wind, azure for space (or the sky). Some say white for wind and black for water.

五大觀 The meditation on the five elements 五大.

五大院 The fifth of the thirteen great courts of the Garbhadhātu-maṇḍala, named 持明院, the court of the five Dharmapālas 五大明王.

五大龍王 五類龍王 The five great dragon-kings of India.

五天 (五天子) Five devas in the Garbhadhātumaṇḍala located in the north-east. Also 五乘居天 (or 五乘居衆 ); 五那含天子.

五天 五天竺; The five regions of India, north, south, east, west, and central; v. 西域記.

五如來 The five Tathāgatas, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, in their special capacity of relieving the lot of hungry ghosts; i. e. Ratnasambhava. Akṣobhya, Amoghasiddhi, Vairocana, and Śākyamuni; v. 五智如來. '

五妙 The five wonders, i. e. of purified or transcendental sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch in the Pure-land.

五妙境界樂 The joys in the Pure land.

五妙欲 The five creature desires stimulated by the objects of the five earthly senses.

五學處 idem 五戒.

五官 The five controlling powers, v. 五大使, birth, old age, sickness, death, and the (imperial) magistrate.

五官王 The fourth of the 十王 judges of the dead, who registers the weight of the sins of the deceased.

五宗 The five great schools of Mahāyāna, i. e. 天台, 華嚴法相, 三論, and 律宗. There are other classes, or groups.

五家七宗 (五家) Division in China of the 禪 Ch'an, Intuitive or Meditative School. It divided into northern and southern schools under 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng respectively. The northern school continued as a unit, the southern divided into five or seven 宗, viz. 潙仰宗, 臨濟宗, 曹洞宗, 雲門宗, and 法眼宗; the two others are 黃龍 and 揚岐.

五家所共 What the five classes, i. e. rulers, thieves, water, fire, and prodigal sons, have as their common prey, the wealth struggled for by others.

五寶 The five precious things, syn. all the precious things. There are several groups, e. g. — gold, silver, pearls, cowries, and rubies; or, coral, crystal, gold, silver, and cowries; or, gold, silver, pearls, coral, and amber; etc.

五專 The five special things, or five devotions, observance of any one of which, according to the Japanese 眞宗 Shin sect, ensures rebirth in the Pure Land; they are 專禮, 專讀, 專觀, 專名, or 專讚嘆 either worship, reading, meditation, invocation, or praise.

五居 idem 五淨居天.

五山 Five mountains and monasteries: (1) in India, sacred because of their connection with the Buddha: 鞞婆羅跋怒 Vaibhāra-vana; 薩多般那求呵 Saptaparṇaguhā; 因陀羅勢羅求呵 Indraśailaguhā; 薩簸恕魂直迦鉢婆羅 Sarpiṣ kuṇḍikā-prāgbhāra; 耆闍崛 Gṛdhrakūṭa; (2) in China, established during the Five Dynasties and the Southern Sung dynasty, on the analogy of those in India; three at Hangzhou at 徑山 Jingshan, 北山 Beishan, and 南山 Nanshan and two at Ningbo at 阿育王山 King Aśoka Shan and 太白山 Taiboshan. Later the Yuan dynasty established one at 全陵 Chin Ling, the 天界大龍翔隻慶寺 which became chief of these under the Ming dynasty.

五師 The five masters or teachers, i. e. respectively of the sutras, the vinaya, the śāstras, the abhidharma, and meditation. A further division is made of 異世五師 and 同世五師. The first, i. e. of different periods, are Mahākāśyapa, Ānanda, Madhyāntika, Śāṇavāsa, and Upagupta; another group connected with the Vinaya is Upāli, Dāsaka, Sonaka, Siggava, and Moggaliputra Tissva. The 同世 or five of the same period are variously stated: the Sarvāstivādins say they were the five immediate disciples of Upagupta, i. e. Dharmagupta, etc.; see 五部.

五師子 The five lions that sprang from the Buddha's five fingers; 涅槃經 16.

五年大會 pañca-vārṣika-pariṣad, or mokṣa-mahā-parisad, v. 般. The ancient quinquennial assembly for confession and exhortation, ascribed by some to Aśoka.

五度 The five means of transportation over the sea of mortality to salvation; they are the five pāramitās 五波羅蜜— almsgiving, commandment-keeping, patience under provocation, zeal, and meditation.

五律 The doctrines of the 五部 q. v.

五德 The five virtues, of which there are various definitions. The five virtues required in a confessor at the annual confessional ending the rainy retreat are: freedom from predilections, from anger, from fear, not easily deceived, discernment of shirkers of confession. Another group is the five virtues for a nurse of the sick, and there are others.

五心 The five conditions of mind produced by objective perception: 卒爾心 immediate or instantaneous, the first impression; 尋求心attention, or inquiry; 決定心conclusion, decision; 染淨心the effect, evil or good; 等流心the production therefrom of other causations.

五忍 The five stages of bodhisattva-kṣānti, patience or endurance according to the 別教: (1) 伏忍the causes of passion and illusion controlled but not finally cut off, the condition of 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (2) 信忍 firm belief, i. e. from the 初地 to the 三地; (3) 順忍 patient progress towards the end of all mortality, i. e. 四地 to 六地; (4) 無生忍 patience for full apprehension, of the truth of no rebirth, 七地 to 九地; and (5) 寂滅忍 the patience that leads to complete nirvana, 十地 to 妙覺; cf. 五位.

五忿怒 The five angry ones, idem 五大明王.

五念門 The five devotional gates of the Pure-land sect: (1) worship of Amitābha with the 身 body; (2) invocation with the 口 mouth; (3) resolve with the 意 mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of that land, etc.; (5) resolve to bestow one's merits, e. g. works of supererogation, on all creatures.

五性 The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics.

五性宗 idem 法相宗.

五怖畏(五畏) The five fears of beginners in the bodhisattva-way: fear of (1) giving away all lest they should have no means of livelihood; (2) sacrificing their reputation; (3) sacrificing themselves through dread of dying; (4) falling into evil; (5) addressing an assembly, especially of men of position.

五悔 The five stages in a penitential service. Tiantai gives: (1) confession of past sins and forbidding them for the future; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to keep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the good in self and others; (4) 廻向 offering all one's goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-way; (5) resolve, or vows, i. e. the 四弘誓. The Shingon sect 眞言宗 divides the ten great vows of Samantabhadra 普賢 into five 悔, the first three vows being included under 歸命 or submission; the fourth is repentance; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the Buddhas; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired merit.

五惑 The five delusions, idem 五鈍使.

五情 The feelings, or passions, which are stirred by the 五根 five senses.

五惡 The five sins— killing, stealing, adultery, lying, drinking intoxicants. Cf. 五戒.

五惡見 idem 五見.

五惡趣 idem 五趣 and 五道.

五慳 The five kinds of selfishness, or meanness: monopolizing (1) an abode; (2) an almsgiving household; (3) alms received; (4) praise; (5) knowledge of the truth, e. g. of a sutra.

五戒 pañca-veramaṇī; the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer 五戒二十五神.

五所依土 The five Buddha-kṣetra, or dependencies, the realms, or conditions of a Buddha. They are: (1) 法性土 his dharmakāya-kṣetra, or realm of his 'spiritual nature', dependent on and yet identical with the 眞如 bhutatathata; (2) 實 with its five immortal skandhas, i. e. his glorified body for his own enjoyment;. (3) 色相土 the land or condition of his self-expression as wisdom; (4) 他受用土 his saṃbhogakāya realm for the joy of others; (5) 變化土 the realm on which his nirmāṇakāya depends, that of the wisdom of perfect service of all, which results in his relation to every kind of condition.

五扇提羅 idem 五闡提羅.

五拔刀賊 The five skandhas, idem 五刀.

五攝論 A śāstra of Asaṅga 無著, also translated as the 攝大乘論, giving a description of Mahāyāna doctrine; Vasubandhu prepared a summary of it; tr. by 無性 Wuxiang. Translations were also made by Paramārtha and Xuanzang; other versions and treatises under various names exist.

五支作法 (or 五分作法) The five parts (avayava) of a syllogism: 立宗 pratijñā, the proposition; 辯因 hetu, the reason; 引喩 udāharaṇa, the example; 合 upanaya, the application; and 結 nigamana, the summing up, or conclusion. These are also expressed in other terms, e. g. 立義; 因; 譬如; 合譬;, and 決定.

五支戒 The five moral laws or principles arising out of the idea of the mahā-nirvāṇa in the 大涅槃經 11.

五教 The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) 大乘始教 the primary stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5) 一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教.

五教章 The work in three juan by 法藏 Fazang of the Tang dynasty, explaining the doctrines of the Five Schools.

五方五智 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the five regions; see the esoteric 五大.

五方便 An abbreviation for 五五才便, i. e. 二十五才便; also the Tiantai 五方便念佛門.

五族如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu.

五旬 pañca-bhijñā. The five supernatural or magical powers; six is the more common number in Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. 五神通.

五更 The five night watches; also the fifth watch.

五明 pañca-vidyā, the five sciences or studies of India: (1) śabda, grammar and composition; śilpakarmasthāna, the arts and mathematics; cikitsā, medicine; hetu, logic; adhyātma, philosophy, which Monier Williams says is the 'knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of ātman', the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiṭṭaka and the 十二部教 as their 内明, i. e. their inner or special philosophy.

五星 The five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Mercury; also 五執.

五時八教 A Tiantai classification of the Buddha's teaching into five periods and eight kinds of doctrine, which eight are subdivided into two groups of four each, 化儀四教 and 化法四教.

五時 (五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.

五智 The five kinds of wisdom of the 眞言宗 Shingon School. Of the six elements 六大 earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) 曇空, and consciousness (or mind 識 ), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhātu, the womb of all things 胎藏界, the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhātu 金剛界, sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijñāna, is further subdivided into five called the 五智 Five Wisdoms: (1) 法界體性智 dharmadhātu-prakṛti-jñāna, derived from the amala-vijñāna, or pure 識; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhātu, defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana 大日, in the centre, who abides in this samādhi; it also corresponds to the ether 空 element. (2) 大圓鏡智 adarśana-jñāna, the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the ālaya-vijñāna, reflecting all things; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Akṣobhya and the east. (3) 平等性智 samatā-jñāna, derived from mano-vijñāna, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasaṃbhava and the south. (4) 妙觀察智 pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna, derived from 意識, wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-destruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitābha and the west. (5) 成所作智 kṛtyānuṣṭhāna-jñāna, derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air 風 and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyāni-Buddhas are the 五智如來. The five kinds of wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting, universal, all-discerning, and all-perfecting.

五智如來 五智五佛; 五佛; 五如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, or Wisdom-Tathāgatas of the Vajradhātu 金剛界, idealizations of five aspects of wisdom; possibly of Nepalese origin. The Wisdom Buddha represents the dharmakāya or Buddha-mind, also the Dharma of the triratna, or trinity. Each evolves one of the five colours, one of the five senses, a Dhyani-bodhisattva in two forms one gracious, the other fierce, and a Mānuṣi-Buddha; each has his own śakti, i. e. feminine energy or complement; also his own bīja, or germ-sound 種子 or 印 seal, i. e. 眞言 real or substantive word, the five being for 大日 aṃ, for 阿閦 hūṃ, for 寶生 ? hrīḥ, for 彌陀 ? aḥ, for 不 空 ? āḥ. The five are also described as the emanations or forms of an Ādi-Buddha, Vajrasattva; the four are considered by others to be emanations or forms of Vairocana as the Supreme Buddha. The five are not always described as the same, e. g. they may be 藥師 (or 王) Bhaiṣajya, 多寶 Prabhūtaratna, Vairocana, Akṣobhya, and either Amoghasiddhi or Śākyamuni. Below is a classified list of the generally accepted five with certain particulars connected with them, but these differ in different places, and the list can only be a general guide. As to the Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, each Buddha evolves three forms 五佛生 五菩薩, 五金剛, 五忿怒, i. e. (1) a bodhisattva who represents the Buddha's dharmakāya, or spiritual body; (2) a vajra or diamond form who represents his wisdom in graciousness; and (3) a fierce or angry form, the 明王 who represents his power against evil. (1) Vairocana appears in the three forms of 轉法輪菩薩 Vajra-pāramitā Bodhisattva, 遍照金 剛 Universally Shining Vajrasattva, and 不動明王 Ārya-Acalanātha Rāja; (2) Akṣobhya's three forms are 虛空藏 Ākāśagarbha, 如意 complete power, and 軍荼 利明王 Kuṇḍalī-rāja; (3 ) Ratnasaṃbhava's are 普賢 Samantabhadra, 薩埵 Sattvavajra, and 孫婆 or 降三世明王 Trailokyavijayarāja; (4) Amitābha's are 觀世音 Avalokiteśvara, 法金剛 Dharmarāja, and 馬頭明王 Hayagrīva, the horse-head Dharmapāla; (5) Amoghasiddhi's are 彌勒 Maitreya, 業金剛 Karmavajra, and 金剛夜叉 Vajrayakṣa. The above Bodhisattvas differ from those in the following list: —
Table 1

Name Chinese Position Element Sense Color
Vairocana 大日 centre ether sight white
Akṣobhya 阿閦 east earth sound blue
Ratnasaṃbhava 寶生 south fire smell yellow
Amitābha 彌陀 west water taste red
Amoghasiddhi 不空 north air touch green

Table 2

Germ Animal Dhyani-Bodhisattva Buddha
aṃ lion Samantabhadra 普賢 Krakucchanda
hūṃ elephant Vajrapāṇi 金剛力士 Kanakamuni
? aḥ horse Ratnapāṇi 寶手 Kāśyapa
? hrīḥ goose or peacock Avalokiteśvara 觀音 Śākyamuni
? āḥ garuḍa Visvapāṇi ? Maitreya


五智寶冠 idem 五佛寶冠.

五智所生三身 Each of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas is accredited with the three forms which represent his 身業 body, 口業 speech, and 意業 mind, e. g. the embodiment of Wisdom is Vairocana, his preaching form is 普賢, and his will form is 不動明王; the embodiment 身 of the mirror is Akṣobhya, his 口 is Mañjuśrī, his 意 is 降三世金剛; and so on; v. 五智如來.

五會念佛 Five ways of intoning 'Amitābha' established by 法照 Fazhao of the Tang dynasty, known as 五曾法師 from his brochure 五曾法事讚.

五果 The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed psychologically); (2) 名色 formation mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods.

五根 pañcendriyāṇi. (1) The five roots, i. e. the five organs of the senses: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body as roots of knowing. (2) The five spiritual organs pr positive agents: 信 faith, 精進 energy, 念 memory, 定 visionary meditation, 慧 wisdom. The 五力 q. v. are regarded as negative agents.

五根色 see 五色.

五根本 They are the six great kleśa, i. e. passions, or disturbers, minus 見 views, or delusions; i. e. desire, anger, stupidity (or ignorance), pride, and doubt.

五業 The five kinds of karma: of which the groups are numerous and differ.

五樂 The pleasures of the five senses, v. 五欲.

五欲 The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and sleep.

五正色 idem 五色.

五正行 五種正行 The five proper courses to ensure the bliss of the Pure Land: (1) Intone the three sutras 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經, and 阿彌陀經; (2) meditate on the Pure Land; (3) worship solely Amitābha; (4) invoke his name; (5 ) extol and make offerings to him. Service of other Buddhas, etc., is styled 五 (種) 雜行.

五正食 半者蒲膳尼 pañcabhojanīya. The five foods considered proper for monks in early Buddhism: boiled rice, boiled grain or pease, parched grain, flesh, cakes.

五股 (五股杵 or 五股金剛); also 五鈷, 五古, or 五M029401 The five-pronged vajra or thunderbolt emblem of the 五部 five groups and 五智 five wisdom powers of the vajradhātu; doubled it is an emblem of the ten pāramitās. In the esoteric cult the 五股印 five-pronged vajra is the symbol of the 五智 five wisdom powers and the 五佛 five Buddhas, and has several names 五大印, 五智印, 五峯印; 金剛慧印, 大羯印, and 大率都婆印, and has many definitions.

五比丘 The first five of Buddha's converts, also called 五佛子, Ājñāta-Kauṇḍinya 憍陳如, Aśvajit 額鞞, Bhadrika 拔提, Daśabala-Kāśyapa 十力迦葉, and Mahānāma-Kulika 摩男拘利, i. e. but there are numerous other forms of their names.

五法 pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities; (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc.

五法人 Followers of the five ascetic rules of Devadatta, the enemy of the Buddha.

五法成身 idem 五相成身.

五法身 idem 五分法身.

五波羅密 The five pāramitās (omitting the sixth, wisdom), i. e. dāna, almsgiving: śīla, commandment-keeping; kṣānti, patience (under provocation): vīrya, zeal; and dhyāna, meditation.

五海 The five 'seas' or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 舊華嚴經 3, viz., (1) all worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future.

五淨 The five 'clean' products of the cow, its pañca-gavya, i. e. urine, dung, milk, cream (or sour milk), and cheese (or butter); cf M. W.

五淨居天, 五不還天 Cf. 色界. The five pure-dwelling heavens in the fourth dhyāna heaven, into which arhats are finally born: 無煩天 Avṛhās, the heaven free from all trouble; 無熱天 Atapās, of no heat or distress; 善現天 Sudṛsās, of beautiful presentation; 善見天 Sudarśanās, beautiful; and 色究竟天 Akaniṣṭhās, the highest heaven of the form-realm.

五淨食, 五種淨食 idem 五正食.

五濁 五滓; 五渾 The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the 濁 itself and the fourth and fifth its results.

五濁增時 The period of increasing turbidity or decay; see 五濁.

五燒 The five burnings, or 五痛 five pains, i. e. infraction of the first five commandments leads to state punishment in this life and the hells in the next.

五無量 The five infinites, or immeasurables — body, mind, wisdom, space, and all the living— as represented respectively by the five Dhyāni Buddhas, i. e. 寶生, 阿閦, 無量壽, 大日, and 不空.

五無間 The uninterrupted, or no-interval hell, i. e. avīci hell, the worst, or eighth of the eight hells. It is ceaseless in five respects— karma and its effects are an endless chain with no escape; its sufferings are ceaseless; it is timeless; its fate or life is endless; it is ceaselessly full. Another interpretation takes the second, third, and fifth of the above and adds that it is packed with 罪器 implements of torture, and that it is full of all kinds of living beings.

五無間業 or 五無間罪 The five karma, or sins, leading to the avīci hell v. 五逆 and 五無間.

五燈錄 The five Teng-lu are (1) 傳燈錄 A. D 1004-8; (2) 廣燈錄; (3) 讀燈錄; (4) 聯燈錄, and (5) 普燈錄; the 燈錄會元 and 燈錄嚴統 are later collections.

五甁 The five vases used by the esoteric school for offering flowers to their Buddha, the flowers are stuck in a mixture of the five precious things, the five grains and the five medicines mingled with scented water.

五甁智水 The five vases are emblems of the five departments of the Vajradhātu, and the fragrant water the wisdom of the five. Wisdom— Buddhas.

五甁灌頂 Baptism with water of the five vases 五甁 representing the wisdom of the five Buddhas 五佛.

五生 Five rebirths, i. e. five states, or conditions of a bodhisattva's rebirth: (1) to stay calamities, e. g. by sacrificing himself; (2) in any class that may need him; (3) in superior condition, handsome, wealthy, or noble; (4) in various grades of kingship; (5) final rebirth before Buddhahood; v. 瑜伽論 4.

五畏 idem 五怖畏.

五痛 idem 五燒.

五百 pañcaśata. Five hundred, of which there are numerous instances, e. g. 500 former existences; the 500 disciples, etc.

五百世 or 五百生 500 generations.

五百世無手 A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn without hands for 500 generations; v. 梵網經下.

五百羅漢 (五百大羅漢) 500 great arhats who formed the synod under Kaniṣka and are the supposed compilers of the Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra, 400 years after Buddha entered nirvana (阿毗達磨大毗婆娑論), tr. by Xuanzang (A. D. 656-9). The 500 Lohans found in some monasteries have various definitions.

五百戒 The 'five hundred ' rules for nuns, really 348, viz. 8 波羅夷, 17 僧殘, 30 捨墮, 178 單提, 8 提捨尼, 100 衆學, and 7 滅諍.

五百生 idem 五百世.

五百部 五百小乘; 五百異部 The 500 sects according to the 500 years after the Buddha's death; 智度論 63.

五百問 (五百問事) The 500 questions of Mahā-maudgalyāyana to the Buddha on discipline.

五百由旬 The 500 yojanas of difficult and perilous journey to the Land of Treasures: v. the Lotus Sutra.

五盛陰苦 The mental and physical sufferings arising from the full-orbed activities of the skandhas 五陰, one of the eight sufferings; also 五陰盛 (五陰盛苦).

五眼 The five kinds of eyes or vision: human; deva (attainable by men in dhyāna); Hīnayāna wisdom; bodhisattva truth; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more relate to omniscience making 十眼 ten kinds of eyes or vision.

五相 idem 五相成身 and 五衰.

五相成身 (五相成身觀) A contemplation of the five stages in Vairocana Buddhahood— entry into the bodhi-mind; maintenance of it; attainment of the diamond mind; realization of the diamond embodiment; and perfect attainment of Buddhahood. It refers also to the 五智 of the Vairocana group; also 五轉成身 (or 五法成身) .

五知根 The five indriyas or organs of perception— eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. v. 五根.

五礙 idem 五障.

五神通 (or 五神變) pañcabhijñā; also 五通 (力) the five supernatural powers. (1 ) 天眼通 (天眼智證通) divyacakṣus ; deva-vision, instantaneous view of anything anywhere in the form-realm. (2) 天耳通 (天耳智證通) divyaśrotra, ability to hear any sound anywhere. (3) 他心通 (他心智證通) paracitta-jñāna, ability to know the thoughts of all other minds. (4) 宿命通 (宿命智證通) pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-jñāna, knowledge of all formed existences of self and others. (5) 神通 (神通智證通) 通; 神足通; 神如意通 ṛddhi-sākṣātkriyā, power to be anywhere or do anything at will. See 智度論 5. Powers similar to these are also attainable by meditation, incantations, and drugs, hence heterodox teachers also may possess them.

五祖 The five patriarchs. Those of the Huayan (Kegon) sect are 終南杜順; 雲華智儼; 賢首法藏; 淸涼澄觀, and 圭峯宗密. The Pure-land sect five patriarchs are 曇鸞; 道綽; 善導; 懷感 and 少康. The 蓮社 (白蓮社) Lianshe sect has 善導; 法照; 少康; 省常, and 宗賾.

五禁 idem 五戒.

五祕密 (五祕) The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; 欲 desire on the east; 觸 contact, south; 愛 love, west; and 慢 pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds.

五祕密曼荼羅 or 十七尊曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of this group contains seventeen figures representing the five above named, with their twelve subordinates.

五種 The five kinds; but frequently the 種 is omitted, e. g. for 五種正食 see 五正食.

五種三歸 The five modes of trisarana, or formulas of trust in the Triratna, taken by those who (1) 翻邪 turn from heresy; (2) take the five commandments; (3) the eight commandments; (4) the ten commandments; (5) the complete commandments.

五種不女 The five kinds of sexually incomplete females, 螺, 筋, 鼓, 角, and 脉. v. 大藏法數 32.

五種不男 The five kinds of 般荼迦 paṇḍakas, i. e. eunuchs, or impotent males: by birth; emasculation; uncontrollable emission; hermaphrodite; impotent for half the month; they are known as 扇搋 Sandha; 留拏 ? Runda; 伊梨沙掌拏 Irṣyāpaṇḍaka; 半擇迦 Paṇḍaka; 博叉 Pakṣapaṇḍaka; there are numerous subdivisions.

五種不翻 The five kinds of terms which Xuanzang did not translate but transliterated— the esoteric (such as 陀羅尼); those with several meanings (such as 薄伽梵); those without equivalent in China (such as 閻浮樹); old-established terms (such as 阿耨菩提); and those which would be less impressive when translated.

五種不還 The five kinds of anāgāmins 那含, who never return to the desire-realm: (1) 中般 the anāgāmin who enters on the intermediate stage between the realm of desire and the higher realm of form; (2) 生般 who is born into the form world and soon overcomes the remains of illusion; (3) 有行般 who diligently works his way through the final stages; (4) 無行般 whose final departure is delayed through lack of aid and slackness; (5) 上流般 who proceeds from lower to higher heavens into nirvana. Also 五種那含 and 五種般 the 般 being 'Parinirvāṇa'.

五種修法 Five kinds of esoteric ceremonial, i. e. (1) 扇底迦 śāntika, for stopping calamities; (2) 布瑟徵迦 or 補瑟徵迦 pauṣṭika, for success or prosperity; (3) 阿畏遮迦 abhicāraka, for suppressing, or exorcising; (4) 阿羯沙尼 ākarṣaṇī, for calling, or attracting (good beings, or aid); (5) 伐施迦囉軌 vaśīkaraṇa, for seeking the aid of Buddhas and bodhisattvas; also 五部尊法 and cf. 五種灌頂.

五種印 The signs of the five kinds of vision, v. 五眼.

五種唯識 The five kinds of weishi, or idealistic representation in the sutras and śāstras as summed up by Cien 慈恩 of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 境唯識 wisdom or insight in objective conditions; (2) 教唯識 in interpretation; (3) 理唯識 in principles; (4) 行唯識 in meditation and practice; (5) 果唯識 in the fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subject.

五種壇法 The five kinds of maṇḍala ceremonials, v. 五部尊法.

五增上緣 (種增上緣) ; 五緣 Five excellent causes, e.g. of blessedness: keeping the commandments; sufficient food and clothing; a secluded abode; cessation of worry; good friendship. Another group is: riddance of sin; protection through long life; vision of Buddha (or Amitābha, etc. ); universal salvation (by Amitābha); assurance of Amitābha's heaven.

五種布施 The five kinds of almsgiving or dānas— to those from afar, to those going afar, to the sick, the hungry, and those wise in Buddhist doctrine.

五種性 The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva development: (1) 習種性 the germ nature of study of the 空 void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the 十住 stage; (2) 性種性 that of ability to discriminate all the 性 natures of phenomena and transform the living; the 十行 stage; (3) 道種性(the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the 十廻向; (4) 聖種性 the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the 十廻向 which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the 賢 and becomes 聖; (5) 等覺種性 the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i. e. 等覺.

五種惡病 Five epidemics in Vaiśālī during the Buddha's lifetime— bleeding from the eyes, pus from the ears, nose-bleeding, lockjaw, and astringent taste of all food.

五種散亂 The five kinds of mental aberration: (1) the five senses themselves not functioning properly; (2) external distraction, or inability to concentrate the attention; (3) internal distraction, or mental confusion; (4) distraction caused by ideas of mean and mine, personality, possession, etc. (5) confusion of thought produced by Hīnayāna ideas.

五種比量 The five inferences in (Indian) logic: (1) 相比量 from appearance, e. g. fire from smoke; (2) 體比量 from the corporeal, e. g. two or more things from one; (3) 業比量 from action, e. g. the animal from its footmark; (4) 法比量 from recognized law, old age from birth; (5) 因果比量 from cause and effect, that a traveler has a destination.

五種法師 The five kinds of masters of the Law, v. Lotus Sutra, 法師品— one who receives and keeps; reads; recites; expounds; and copies the sutra.

五種法界 The Huayan school's five forms of dharmadhātu: (1) 有爲法界 or 事世界 the phenomenal realm; (2) 無爲法界 or 理世界 the dependent and interactive; the inactive, quiescent, or noumenal realm; (3) 亦有爲亦無爲世界 or 事理無礙世界, both, i.e., interdependent and interactive; (4) 非有爲非無爲世界 either active nor inactive, but it is also 事理無礙世界, e. g. water and wave, wave being water and water wave; (5) 無障礙世界 or 事事無礙世界 the unimpeded realm, the unity of the phenomenal and noumenal, of the collective and individual.

五種法身 The five kinds of a Buddha's dharmakāya. There are four groups. I. (1) 如如智法身 the spiritual body of bhūtatathatā-wisdom; (2) 功德法身 of all virtuous achievement; (3) 自法身 of incarnation in the world; (4) 變化法身 of unlimited powers of transformation; (5) 虛空法身 of unlimited space; the first and second are defined as saṃbhogakāya, the third and fourth as nirmāṇakāya, and the fifth as the dharmakāya, but all are included under dharmakāya as it possesses all the others. II. The esoteric cult uses the first four and adds as fifth 法界身 indicating the universe as pan-Buddha. III. Huayan gives (1) 法性生身 the body or person of Buddha born from the dharma-nature. (2) 功德生身 the dharmakāya evolved by Buddha virtue, or achievement; (3) 變化法身 the dharmakāya with unlimited powers of transformation; (4) 實相法身 the real dharmakāya; (5) 虛 空法身 the universal dharmakāya. IV. Hīnayāna defines them as 五分法身 q. v.

五種灌頂 The five abhiṣecanī baptisms of the esoteric school— for ordaining ācāryas, teachers, or preachers of the Law: for admitting disciples: for putting an end to calamities or suffering for sins; for advancement, or success; and for controlling (evil spirits ) or getting rid of difficulties, cf. 五種修法. Also, baptism of light: of sweet dew (i. e. perfume): of the 'germ-word' as seed; of the five baptismal signs of wisdom made on the forehead, shoulders, heart, and throat, indicating the five Dhyāni-Buddhas; and of the ' true word' on the breast.

五種藏 The five 'stores', or the five differentiations of the one Buddha-nature; (1) 如來藏 the Tathāgata-nature, which is the fundamental universal nature possessed by all the living: (2) 正法藏 the source or treasury of all right laws and virtues: (3) 法身藏 the storehouse of the dharmakāya obtained by all saints: (4) 出世藏 the eternal spiritual nature, free from earthly errors; (5) 自性淸淨藏 the storehouse of the pure Buddha-nature. Another similar group is 如來藏, 法界藏, 法身藏, 出世間上上藏, and 自性淸淨藏.

五種般 see 五種不還.

五種行 The acts of the 五種法師 q. v.; also idem 五正行.

五種說人 The five kinds of those who have testified to Buddhism; also 五人說經; 五說; i. e. the Buddha,. his disciples, the ṛṣis, devas, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, sages, devas, supernatural beings, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, men, and things. See 五類說法.

五種通 Five kinds of supernatural power: (1) 道通 of bodhisattvas through their insight into truth; (2) 神通 of arhats through their mental concentration; (3) 依通 supernatural or magical powers dependent on drugs, charms, incantations, etc.; (4) 報通 or 業通 reward or karma powers of transformation possessed by devas, nāgas, etc.; (5) 妖通 magical power of goblins, satyrs, etc.

五種那含 v. 五種不還.

五種鈴 The five kinds of bells used by the Shingon sect in Japan, also called 金剛鈴, i. e. 五鈷鈴, 賣鈴, 一鈷. 三鈷鈴, 塔鈴; the different names are derived from their handles; the four first named, beginning with the five-pronged one, are placed each at a corner of the altar, the last in the middle.

五種雜行 see 五正行.

五種魔 The five māras associated with the five skandhas; also 五蘊魔; 五陰魔, 五衆魔.

五箭 The five arrows, i. e. the five desires 五欲.

五納衣 A monk's garment of patches.

五結 The five bonds to mortality: 貧 desire, 恚 hata, 慢 pride, 嫉 envy, 慳 grudging.

五結樂子 One of Indra's musicians who praised Buddha on a crystal lute; v. 中阿含經 33.

五繫 The five suspended corpses, or dead snakes, hanging from the four limbs and neck of Mara as Papiyan; v. Nirvana sutra 6.

五翳 The five films, or interceptors of the light of sun and moon— smoke, cloud dust, fog, and the hands of asuras.

五聲 idem 五音.

五臺山 Pañcaśirsha, Pancaśikha. Wutai Shan, near the northeastern border of Shanxi, one of the four mountains sacred to Buddhism in China. The principal temple was built A. D. 471-500. There are about 150 monasteries, of which 24 are lamaseries. The chief director is known as Changjia Fo (the ever-renewing Buddha). Mañjuśrī is its patron saint. It is also styled 淸涼山.

五色 The five primary colors, also called 五正色 (or 五大色): 靑 blue, 黃 yellow, 赤 red, 白 white, 黑 black. The 五間色 or compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown. The two sets correspond to the cardinal points as follows: east, blue and green; west, white, and crimson; south, red and scarlet; north, black and purple; and center, yellow and brown. The five are permutated in various ways to represent various ideas.

五間色 five compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown.

五根色: faith, white; zeal, red; memory yellow; meditation, blue; and wisdom, black. These are represented inter alia in the 五色線 (or 五色縷, or 五色綖, or 五色繩) the five-colored emblematic cord; this cord is also a brahman's sign worn on the shoulder and forbidden by the Buddha.

五苦 The five forms of suffering: I. (1) Birth, age, sickness, death; (2) parting with those loved; (3) meeting with the hated or disliked; (4) inability to obtain the desired; (5) the five skandha sufferings, mental and physical. II. Birth, age, sickness, death, and the shackles (for criminals). III. The sufferings of the hells, and as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, and human beings.

五菩提 The five bodhi, or stages of enlightenment: (1) 發心菩提 resolve on supreme bodhi; (2) 伏心菩提 mind control, i. e. of the passions and observance of the pāramitās: (3) 明心菩提 mental enlightenment, study, and increase in knowledge and in the prajñāpāramitā: (4) 出到菩提 mental expansion, freedom from the limitations of reincarnation and attainment of complete knowledge; (5) 無上菩提 attainment of a passionless condition and of supreme perfect enlightenment;.

五蓋 The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger, drowsiness, excitability, doubt.

五葷 idem 五辛.

五蘊 The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations, substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā, conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) 行 saṃskāra, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所; (5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.

五蘊世間 (or 五陰世間 or 五衆世間) The worlds in which the five skandhas exist.

五蘊宅 The abode of the five skandhas— the human body.

五蘊論 大乘五蘊論 A śāstra by Vasubandhu on the Mahāyāna interpretation of the five skandhas, tr. by Xuanzang; 1 chuan. Other works are the 五蘊皆空經 tr. by Yijing of the Tang dynasty. 五蘊譬喩經 tr. by 安世高 An Shih Kao of the Han dynasty: both are in the 雜阿含經 2 and 10 respectively; also 五蘊論釋 a commentary by Vinītaprabha.

五蘊魔 The Mara of the skandhas, v. 五種魔.

五處供養 The five to be constantly served — father, mother, teacher, religious director, the sick.

五處加持 Ceremonial touching of the five places on the body— brow, right and left shoulders, heart, and throat.

五處眞言 has similar reference to 五處加持. v. 五種灌頂.

五衆 idem 五蘊. Also, the five groups, i. e. monks, nuns, nun-candidates, and male and female novices.

五行 The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大.

五衍 The five Yanas or Vehicles, idem 五乘.

五衣 The five garments worn by a nun are the three worn by a monk: with two others.

五衰 The five signs of decay or approaching death, of which descriptions vary. e. g. uncontrolled discharges, flowers on the head wither. unpleasant odor, sweating armpits, uneasiness (or anxiety); Nirvana Sutra 19.

五見 The five wrong views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi, i. e. 我見 and 我所見 the view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha, extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā, perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa, stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見 śīla-vrata-parāmarśa, rigid views in favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. 五利使.

五覺 The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; see also 五菩提 for a different group. (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) 始覺 bodhi in its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances; (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of bodhi in action, in the 十信; (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment, i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi.

五觀 The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the 'middle' way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living.

五解脫輪 The five wheels of liberation, or salvation, i. e. the five maṇḍalas in which are the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, see 五智如來; also called五大月輪 and五輪塔婆.

五說 idem 五種說人.

五論 It idem 五部大論.

五調子 idem 五音.

五諦 The five axioms: (1) 因諦 the cause, which is described as 集諦 of the Four Noble Truths; (2) 果諦 the effect as 苦諦; (3) 智諦 or 能知諦 diagnosis as 道諦; (4) 境諦 or 所知諦 the end or cure as 滅諦; to these add (5) 勝諦 or 至諦, the supreme axiom, i. e. the 眞如; v. 四諦.

五識 The five parijñānas, perceptions or cognitions; ordinarily those arising from the five senses, i. e. of form-and-color, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The 起信論 Awakening of Faith has a different set of five steps in the history of cognition; (1) 業識 initial functioning of mind under the influence of the original 無明 unenlightenment or state of ignorance; (2) 轉識 the act of turning towards the apparent object for its observation; (3) 現識 observation of the object as it appears; (4) 知識 the deductions derived from its appearance; (5) 相續識 the consequent feelings of like or dislike, pleasure or pain, from which arise the delusions and incarnations.

五趣 The five gati, i. e. destinations, destinies: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, human beings, devas; cf. 五惡趣 and 五道.

五趣生死輪 A series of pictures to show the course of life and death, ascribed in the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya 34 to the Buddha.

五身 see 五種法身.

五輪 The five wheels, or things that turn: I. The 五體 or five members, i. e. the knees, the elbows, and the head; when all are placed on the ground it implies the utmost respect. II. The five foundations of the world. first and lowest the wheel or circle of space; above are those of wind; of water; the diamond, or earth; on these rest the nine concentric circles and eight seas. III. The esoteric sect uses the term for the 五大 five elements, earth, water, fire, wind, and space; also for the 五解脫輪 q. v. IV. The five fingers (of a Buddha).

五輪六大 The five are the 五大 five elements, to which the sixth 大 is added, i. e. the six elements, earth, water, fire, air and space, and 識 intelligence or mind.

五輪塔婆 (五輪率塔婆) A stūpa with five wheels at the top; chiefly used by the Shingon sect on graves as indicating the indwelling Vairocana.

五輪觀 五輪三摩地 A meditation of the esoteric school on the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, and space, with their germ-words, their forms (i. e. square, round, triangular, half-moon, and spherical), and their colors (i. e. yellow, white, red, black, and blue). The five wheels also represent the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智. The object is that 五輪成身 the individual may be united with the five Buddhas, or Vairocana.

五輪際 The fifth wheel limit, or world foundation, i. e. that of space.

五轉 The five evolutions, or developments; (1) resolve on Buddhahood; (2) observance of the rules; (3) attainment of enlightenment; (4) of nirvana; (5) of power to aid others according to need.

五轉成身 idem 五相成身.

五轉色 The above five developments are given the colors respectively of yellow, red, white, black, and blue (or green), each color being symbolic, e. g. yellow of Vairocana, red of Mañjuśrī, etc.

五辛 The five forbidden pungent roots, 五葷 garlic, three kinds of onions, and leeks; if eaten raw they are said to cause irritability of temper, and if eaten cooked, to act as an aphrodisiac; moreover, the breath of the eater, if reading the sutras, will drive away the good spirits.

五逆 pañcānantarya; 五無間業 The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby.

五通 v. 五神通.

五通仙 One who by non-Buddhistic methods has attained to the five supernatural powers 五通.

五通神 Spirits possessed of the five supernatural powers. They are also identified five bodhisattvas of the 雞頭摩: monastery in India, who, possessed of supernatural powers, went to the Western Paradise and begged the image of Maitreya, whence it is said to have been spread over India.

五道 idem 五趣.

五道六道 There is difference of statement whether there are five or six gati, i. e. ways or destinies; if six, then there is added the asura, a being having functions both good and evil, both deva and demon.

五道冥官 An officer in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades.

五道將軍 A general in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades, who keeps the book of life.

五道轉輪王 One of the ten kings of Hades who retries the sufferers on their third year of imprisonment.

五邉 The five alternatives, i. e. (things) exist; do not exist; both exist and non-exist; neither exist nor non-exist: neither non-exist nor are without non-existence.

五遍行 The five universal mental activities associated with every thought— the idea, mental contact, reception, conception, perception, 作意, 觸, 受, 想, 思; cf. 五蘊.

五那含天 idem 五淨居天.

五邪命 (五邪) The five improper ways of gain or livelihood for a monk, i. e. (1) changing his appearance, e. g. theatrically; (2) advertising his own powers and virtue; (3) fortuning by physiognomy, etc.; (4) hectoring and bullying; (5) praising the generosity of another to induce the hearer to bestow presents.

五部 The five classes, or groups I. The 四諦 four truths, which four are classified as 見道 or theory, and 修道 practice, e. g. the eightfold path. II. The five early Hīnayāna sects, see 一切有部 or Sarvastivadah. III. The five groups of the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.

五部合斷 To cut off the five classes of misleading things, i. e. four 見 and one 修, i. e. false theory in regard to the 四諦 four truths, and erroneous practice. Each of the two classes is extended into each of the three divisions of past, three of present, and three of future, making eighteen mental conditions.

五部大乘經 The five chief Mahāyāna sutras according to Tiantai are: 華嚴經; 大集經; 大品般若經; 法華經, and 涅槃經, i. e. Avataṃsaka, Mahāsanghāta, Mahāprajñāpāramitā, Lotus, and Nirvana sutras.

五部大論 Asaṅga, founder of the Yogācāra school, is said, by command of Maitreya, to have edited the five great śāstras, 瑜伽師地論, 分別瑜伽論, 大乘莊嚴經論, 辨中邉論頌論, and 金剛般若論.

五部尊法 五種壇法 (or 五部護摩 or 五部悉地). Ceremonials of the esoteric cult for ridding from calamity; for prosperity; subduing evil (spirits); seeking the love of Buddhas; calling the good to aid; cf. 五種修法.

五部座 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智如來.

五部律 The first five Hīnayāna sects— Dharmagupta, Sarvāstivāda, Mahīśāsaka, Kāśyapīya, and Vātsīputrīya; see 五師.

五部教主 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas v.五 智 如 來.

五部法 idem 五部尊法.

五部淨 (居 炎 摩 羅) Yama as protector in the retinue of the thousand-hand Guanyin.

五部秘藏 idem 五部尊法.

五重世界 The five graduated series of universes: (1) 三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu; a universe, or chiliocosm; (2) such chiliocosms, numerous as the sands of Ganges, form one Buddha-universe; (3) an aggregation of these forms a Buddha-universe ocean; (4) an aggregation of these latter forms a Buddha-realm seed; (5) an infinite aggregation of these seeds forms a great Buddha-universe, 智度論 50. Another division is (1) a world, or universe; (2) a Buddha-nature universe, with a different interpretation; and the remaining three areas above, the sea, the seed, and the whole Buddha-universe.

五重滯 The five heavy blockages, or serious hindrances; see 五鈍使 infra.

五重雲 The five banks of clouds or obstructions for a woman, see 五障.

五鈍使 pañca-kleśa 五重滯; 五惑 The five dull, unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptations: 貪 desire, 嗔 anger or resentment, 癡 stupidity or foolishness, 慢 arrogance, 疑 doubt. Overcoming these constitutes the pañca-śīla, five virtues, v. 尸羅. Of the ten 十使 or agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher qualities.

五鈷金剛杵 (五股金剛杵, 五鈷金剛) The five-armed vajra, 五智金剛杵; 五峯金剛杵, 五峯光明; emblem of the powers of the 五智如來 q. v.

五門禪 idem 五停心觀; there is also a fivefold meditation on impermanence, suffering, the void, the non-ego, and nirvana.

五間色 The five compound colours, v. 五色.

五闡提羅 The five ṣaṇḍhilās, i. e. five bad monks who died, went to the hells, and were reborn as ṣaṇḍhilās or imperfect males; also 五扇提羅.

五阿含 (五阿含經) The five Agamas, 五阿笈魔, i. e. (1) 長阿含經 Dīrghāgama; (2) 中阿含經 Madhyamāgama; (3) 僧育多阿含經 Samyuktāgama; (4) 鴦掘多羅阿含經 Ekottarikāgama, and (5) 屈陀伽阿合經 Kṣudrakāgama.

五陰 五衆 see 五蘊. 陰 is the older term.

五陰世間 idem 五蘊世間.

五陰苦 (五陰盛苦) idem 五盛陰苦.

五陰魔 idem 五蘊魔.

五障 The five hindrances, or obstacles; also 五礙; 五雲. I. Of women, i. e. inability to become Brahma-kings, Indras, Māra-kings, Caikravarti-kings, or Buddhas. II. The hindrances to the five 五力 powers, i. e. (self-) deception a bar to faith, as sloth is to zeal, anger to remembrance, hatred to meditaton, and discontent to wisdom. III. The hindrances of (1) the passion-nature, e. g. original sin; (2) of karma caused in previous lives; (3) the affairs of life; (4) no friendly or competent preceptor; (5) partial knowledge.

五障三從 The five hindrances to woman, see above, and her three subordinations, i. e. to father, husband. and son.

五雲 v. 五障.

五音 The five musical tones, or pentatonic scale— do, re, mi, sol, la; also 五聲; 五調子.

五頂 pañcaśikha, the five locks on a boy's head; also used for 五佛頂尊 q. v.

五頂輪王 idem 五佛頂尊.

五頂山 idem Wu-Tai Shan 五臺.

五類天 The five kinds of devas: (1) 上界天 in the upper realms of form and non-form; (2) 虛空天 in the sky, i. e. four of the six devas of the desire-realm; (3) 地居天 on the earth, i. e. the other two of the six devas, on Sumeru; (4) 遊虛天空 wandering devas of the sky, e. g. sun, moon, starvas, (5) 地下天 under-world devas, e. g. nāgas, asuras, māras, etc. Of. 五大明王.

五類聲 The five groups of five each of the consonants in the syllabary called 悉曇 Siddha.

五類說法 The five preachers in the Huayan sutra: the Buddha; bodhisattvas; śrāvakas; the devas in their praise songs; and material things, e. g. the bodhi-tree; v. 五種說人.

五食 The five kinds of spiritual food by which roots of goodness are nourished: correct thoughts; delight in the Law; pleasure in meditation; firm resolve, or vows of self-control; and deliverance from the karma of illusion.

五香 The incense composed of five ingredients (sandalwood, aloes, cloves, saffron, and camphor) offered by the esoteric sects in building their altars and in performing their rituals. Cf. 五分香.

五體 and 五體投地 v. 五輪.

五髻 The five cūḍā, topknots or locks, emblems of the 五智 q. v.

五髻冠 A five-pointed crown with a meaning similar to 五髻.

五髻文殊 Mañjuśrī of the five locks.

Now, at present, the present.

今圓 A Tiantai term indicating the present 'perfect' teaching, i. e. that of the Lotus, as compared with the 昔圓 older 'perfect ' teaching which preceded it.

今家 The present school, i. e. my school or sect.

scales, mail: important; resolute, firm; an attendant; petty, small.

介爾 A transient thought, see kṣaṇa 刹.

Kindness, benevolence, virtue.

仁者 Kind sir!

仁尊 Benevolent and honored, or kindly honored one, i. e. Buddha.

仁王 The benevolent king, Buddha; the name Śākya is intp. as 能仁 able in generosity. Also an ancient king, probably imaginary, of the 'sixteen countries' of India, for whom the Buddha is said to have dictated the 仁王經, a sutra with two principal translations into Chinese, the first by Kumārajīva styled 仁王般若經 or 佛說仁王般若波羅蜜經 without magical formulae, the second by Amogha (不空) styled 仁王護國般若波羅蜜經, etc., into which the magical formulae were introduced; these were for royal ceremonials to protect the country from all kinds of calamities and induce prosperity.

仁王供 Service of the 仁王曾 (or 仁王講) the meeting of monks to chant the above incantations.

仁王咒 仁王陀羅尼 The incantations made in the 仁王供.

仁王尊 The two Vajrapāṇi 阿 and 吽 who act as door guardians of temples, variously known as 密跡菩薩, 密修力士, 執金剛神, and 那羅延金剛.

A file of ten; sundry, what.

什物 Things (in general), oddments.

什肇 The 什 is Kumārajīva and the 肇 his disciple 僧肇 Sengzhao.

什麽 idem 甚麽 What ? What.

Sincere, true; to assent.

允堪 Yun-k'an, a famous monk of the Sung dynasty.

允若 Yun-jo, a famous monk of the Yuan dynasty.

Beginning, first, original, head; dollar; Mongol (dynasty).

元吉樹 The tree of the origin of felicity, i. e. the bodhi-tree or ficus religiosa, also styled 佛樹; 道樹, and 菩提樹.

元品無明 Primal ignorance; the original state of avidya, unenlightenment, or ignorance; original innocence. Also 根本無明; 無始無明.

元因 原因 The original or fundamental cause which produces phenomena, e. g. karma, reincarnation, etc.; every cause has its fruit or consequences. The idea of cause and effect is a necessary condition of antecedent and consequence; it includes such relations as interaction, correlation, interdependence, co-ordination based on an intrinsic necessity.

元妙 The original or fundamental marvel or mystery, i. e. the conception of nirvana.

元始 Prabhū, 波羅赴; 鉢利部 beginning, in the beginning, primordial. Prabhū is a title of Viṣṇu as a personification of the sun.

元心 The original or primal mind behind all things, idem the 一心 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith, the 森羅萬象之元 source of all phenomena, the mind which is in all things.

元明 本明 Original brightness or intelligence; the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā as the source of all light or enlightenment.

元曉 Yuan-hsiao, a famous Korean monk who traveled, and studied and wrote in China during the Tang dynasty, then returned to Korea; known as 海東師 Hai-tung Shih.

元照 Name of 湛然 Chan-jan, the seventh head of the Tiantai School; he died 1116.

元祖 The original patriarch, or founder of a sect or school; sometimes applied to the Buddha as the founder of virtue.

元藏 The Yuan tripiṭaka, compiled by order of Shih Tsu (Kublai), founder of the Yuan dynasty, and printed from blocks; begun in 1277, the work was finished in 1290, in 1, 422 部 works, 6, 017 卷 sections, 558 凾 cases or covers. It contained 528 Mahayanist and 242 Hinayanist sutras; 25 Mahāyāna and 54 Hīnayāna vinaya; 97 Mahāyāna and 36 Hīnayāna śāstras; 108 biographies; and 332 supplementary or general works. In size, and generally, it was similar to the Sung edition. The 元藏目錄 or Catalogue of the Yuan tripiṭaka is also known as 大普寧寺大藏經目錄.

元辰星 元神星 A star that controls the attainment of honors, and the riddance of sickness and distresses. The star varies according to the year star of the suppliant which is one of the seven stars in Ursa Major.

Within, inner.

内乞 The bhikṣu monk who seeks control from within himself, i. e. by mental processes, as compared with the 外乞 the one who aims at control by physical discipline. e. g. fasting, etc.

内供奉 (内供) A title for the monk who served at the alter in the imperial palace, instituted in A. D. 756; also called 供奉.

内典 Buddhist scriptures; of. 外典 non-Buddhist scriptures. There are also divisions of internal and external in Buddhist scriptures.

內凡 The inner or higher ranks of ordinary disciples as contrasted with the 外凡 lower grades; those who are on the road to liberation; Hīnayāna begins the stage at the 四善根位 also styled 內凡位; Mahāyāna with the 三賢位 from the 十住 upwards. Tiantai from the 相似卽 of its 六卽 q. v.

內塵 The inner, or sixth 塵 guṇa associated with mind, in contrast with the other five guṇas, qualities or attributes of the visible, audible, etc.

內史 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內記.

內外 Internal and external: subjective and objective.

內外兼明 Inner and outer both 'ming '; the first four of the 五明 q. v. are 'outer' and the fifth 'inner'.

內外空 Internal organ and external object are both unreal, or not material.

內外道 Within and without the religion; Buddhists and non-Buddhists; also, heretics within the religion.

內學 The inner learning, i. e. Buddhism.

內宿 Food that has been kept overnight in a monastic bedroom and is therefore one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內煮.

內寺 The Buddhist shrines or temples in the palace, v. 內道塲.

內心 The mind or heart within; the red lotus is used in the 大日經 as its emblem.

內心曼荼羅 (or 祕密曼荼羅) The 'central heart ' maṇḍala of the 大日經 or the central throne in the diamond realm lotus to which it refers.

內我 The antarātman or ego within, one's own soul or self, in contrast with bahirātman 外我 an external soul, or personal, divine ruler.

內教 Buddhism, in contrast with 外教 other cults.

內明 adhyatmāvidyā, a treatise on the inner meaning (of Buddhism), one of the 五明 q. v.

內法 Buddhism, as contrasted with other religions.

內無爲 Inner quiescence, cf. the six 妙門.

內煮 Cooked food in a monastic bedroom, becoming thereby one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內宿食.

內界 The realm of mind as contrasted with 外界 that of the body; also the realm of cognition as contrasted with externals, e. g. the 五界 five elements.

內祕 The inner mystic mind of the bodhisattva, though externally he may appear to be a śrāvaka.

內種 The seed contained in the 八識, i. e. ālayavijñāna, the basis of all phenomena.

內空 Empty within, i. e. no soul or self within.

內緣 The condition of perception arising from the five senses; also immediate, conditional, or environmental causes, in contrast with the more remote.

內薰 Inner censing; primal ignorance, or unenlightenment; perfuming, censing, or acting upon original intelligence causes the common uncontrolled mind to resent the miseries of mortality and to seek nirvana; v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

內胎 The inner garbhadhātu, i. e. the eight objects in the eight leaves in the central group of the maṇḍala.

內衆 The inner company, i. e. the monks, in contrast with 外俗 the laity.

內衣 antaravāsaka, one of the three regulation garments of a monk, the inner garment.

內記 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內史.

內證 The witness or realization within: one's own assurance of the truth.

內識 Internal perception, idem 心識.

內道塲 A place for Buddhist worship in the palace, v. 内齋 and 内寺.

內門轉 The psychological elements in the 八識, viz. the seventh and eighth categories.

內陣 The inner ranks, i. e. the part of a temple near the altar, where the monks sit.

內院 The inner court— of the Tusita heaven, where Maitreya dwells and preaches; also 善法堂.

內障 Internal, or mental hindrances, or obstacles.

內齋 Buddhist ceremonies in the palace on the emperor's birthday, v. 內道塲.

Public, general, official; a duke, grandparent, gentleman; just, fair.

公案 J. kōan; 因緣 A dossier, or case-record; a cause; public laws, regulations; case-law. Problems set by Zen masters, upon which thought is concentrated as a means to attain inner unity and illumination.

公界 A public place; in public.

ṣaṭ, ṣaḍ. Six.

六事成就 The six things which enable a bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pāramitās — worshipful offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delight in the law; these are described as corresponding to the pāramitās seriatim; v. 莊嚴經 12.

六住 The sixth of the 十住 q. v.

六作 idem 六受.

六位 The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i. e. 十信位; 十住位; 十廻向位; 十地位; 等覺位; 佛地位; these are from the order Huayan jing.

六供具 The six articles for worship— flowers, a censer, candles, hot liquid, fruits, tea.

六依 The six senses on which one relies, or from which knowledge is received; v. 六情.

六入 ṣaḍāyatana; 六阿耶怛那 (or 六阿也怛那) the six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensation — eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidanas, see 十二因緣. The 六根 are the six organs, the 六境 the six objects, and the 六塵 or guṇas, the six inherent qualities. The later term is 六處 q. v.

六八弘誓 The forty-eight great or surpassing vows of Amitābha, also 六八超世本願.

六决定 v. 六種决定; also 七深信.

六凡 The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints 聖者: in the hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.

六到彼岸 The six things that ferry one to the other shore, i. e. the six pāramitās, v. 六度.

六劍 六箭 The six swords (or arrows), i. e. the six senses, v. 六塵, which are defined as the qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and mind.

六十 ṣaṣṭi, sixty.

六十二見 The sixty-two 見 or views, of which three groups are given: The 大品般若經 in the 佛母品 takes each of the five skandhas under four considerations of 常 time, considered as time past, whether each of the five has had permanence, impermanence, both, neither, 5 x 4 = 20; again as to their space, or extension, considered as present time, whether each is finite, infinite, both, neither =20; again as to their destination, i. e. future, as to whether each goes on, or does not, both, neither (e. g. continued personality) = 20, or in all 60; add the two ideas whether body and mind 神 are a unity or different = 62. The Tiantai School takes 我見, or personality, as its basis and considers each of the five skandhas under four aspects, e. g (1) rūpa, the organized body, as the ego; (2) the ego as apart from the rūpa; (3) rūpa as the greater, the ego the smaller or inferior, and the ego as dwelling in the rūpa; (4) the ego as the greater, rupa the inferior, and the rupa in the ego. Consider these twenty in the past, present, and future = 60, and add 斷 and 常 impermanence and permanence as fundamentals = 62. There is also a third group.

六十卷 The 60 rolls: the Tiantai 三大部, or three collections of fundamental texts of that school.

六十四書 The sixty-four classes of Indian writing or literature, Brahmi, Kharosthi, etc.

六十四梵音 The sixty-four Aryan or noble characteristics of a Buddha's tones or voice, e. g. snigdha 流澤聲 smooth; mṛdukā 柔軟聲 gentle, etc.

六十四眼 Eighteen lictors in the avīci hell each with sixty-four eyes.

六十心 The sixty different mental positions that may occur to the practitioner of Yoga, see 大日經, 住心品; examples of them are desire, non-desire, ire, kindness, foolishness, wisdom, decision, doubt, depression, brightness, contention, dispute, non-contention, the spirit of devas, of asuras, of nāgas, of humanity, woman (i. e. lust), mastery, commercial, and so on.

六卽 The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha; (3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位; (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位, i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽 discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment, i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖果 fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the 八位 the eight grades.

六卽佛 Buddha in six forms; (1) 理佛 as the principle in and through all things, as pan-Buddha— all things being of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字佛 Buddha as a name or person. The other four are the last four forms above.

六受 The six vedanas, i. e. receptions, or sensations from the 六根 six organs. Also 六作.

六合釋 v. 六離釋.

六和敬 (六和) The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: 身 bodily unity in form of worship, 口 oral unity in chanting, 意 mental unity in faith, 戒 moral unity in observing the commandments, 見 doctrinal unity in views and explanations, and 利, 行, 學, or 施 economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies, or charity.

六和合 The six unions of the six sense organs with the six objects of the senses, the eye with the object seen, etc.

六味 The six tastes, or flavors — bitter, sour, sweet, acrid, salt, and insipid.

六喩 The six illustrations of unreality Diamond Sutra: a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. Also 六如.

六因 The six causations of the 六位 six stages of Bodhisattva development, q. v. Also, the sixfold division of causes of the Vaibhāṣikas (cf. Keith, 177-8); every phenomenon depends upon the union of 因 primary cause and 緣 conditional or environmental cause; and of the 因 there are six kinds: (1) 能作因 karaṇahetu, effective causes of two kinds: 與力因 empowering cause, as the earth empowers plant growth, and 不障因 non-resistant cause, as space does not resist, i. e. active and passive causes; (2) 倶有因 sahabhūhetu, co-operative causes, as the four elements 四大 in nature, not one of which can be omitted; (3) 同類因 sabhāgahetu, causes of the same kind as the effect, good producing good, etc.; (4) 相應因 saṃprayuktahetu, mutual responsive or associated causes, e. g. mind and mental conditions, subject with object; Keith gives 'faith and intelligence'; similar to (2); (5) 遍行因 sarvatragahetu, universal or omnipresent cause, i. e. of illusion, as of false views affecting every act; it resembles (3) but is confined to delusion; (6) 異熟因 vipākahetu, differental fruition, i. e. the effect different from the cause, as the hells are from evil deeds.

六地 Six bodhisattvas in the Dizang group of the garbhadhātu, each controlling one of the 六道 or ways of sentient existence. They deal with rebirth in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.

六垢 (六垢法) Six things that defile: 誑 exaggeration, 謟 flattery, 憍 arrogance, 惱 vexation, 恨 hatred, 害 malice.

六城部 Ṣaṇṇagarikāḥ, 山拖那伽梨柯部; or 密林山部. One of the twenty Hīnayāna sects, connected with the Vātsīputtrīyāḥ 犢子部.

六境 The six fields of the senses, i. e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought); rūpa, form and color, is the field of vision; sound, of hearing; scent, of smelling; the five flavors, of tasting; physical feeling, of touch; and mental presentation, of discernment; cf. 六入; 六處 and next.

六塵 The six guṇas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or discernments the 六識; cf. 六境. Dust 塵 is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the Buddha made use of them to preach his law.

六大 The six great or fundamental things, or elements — earth; water; fire; wind (or air); space (or ether); and 識 mind, or perception. These are universal and creative of all things, but the inanimate 非情 are made only of the first five, while the animate 有情 are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differently interpreted in the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu. Also 六大界.

六大法性 The unity in variety of the six elements and their products; ordinary eyes see only the differentiated forms or appearances, the sage or philosopher sees the unity.

六大無礙 The six elements unimpeded, or interactive; or 六大體大 the six elements in their greater substance, or whole. The doctrine of the esoteric cult of tran-substantiation, or the free interchangeability of the six Buddha elements with the human, like with like, whereby yoga becomes possible, i. e. the Buddha elements entering into and possessing the human elements, for both are of the same elemental nature.

六大煩惱 The six great kleśa, passions, or distressers: desire, resentment, stupidity, pride, doubt, and false views.

六大神 The spirits of the six elements.

六大觀 Meditation on the six elements; in the exoteric cult, that they are unreal and unclean; in the esoteric cult, that the Buddha and human elements are of the same substance and interchangeable, see above.

六大賊 v. 六賊.

六天 The six devalokas, i. e. the heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, between the brahmalokas and the earth, i. e. 四王天; 忉利天; 夜摩天; 兜率天; 樂變化天; and 他化自在天. The sixth is the heaven of Mara, v. 六欲天.

六夷 The six pārājikas, v. 波羅夷.

六如 The six 'likes' or comparisons, like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning, v. 六喩.

六妄 The six misleaders, i. e. the six senses.

六妙行 idem 六行觀.

六字 The six words or syllables, 南無阿彌陀佛 Namo Amitābha.

六字名號 a name for Mañjuśrī. See 六字文殊.

六字文殊 The six-word dhāraṇī of Mañjuśrī 闇婆髻駄那麽 (or 闇婆計陀那麽) or 唵縛鷄淡納莫. There are also the esoteric (Shingon) six words connected with the six forms of Guanyin and the 六字法, 六字供, 六字河臨法, and六字護摩 ceremonials, some connected with Mañjuśrī, and all with Guanyin. There are several 六字 dhāraṇīs, e. g. the Ṣaḍakṣara-vidyāmantra. The six words generally associated with Guanyin are 安荼詈般茶詈 (or 安荼隸般茶詈). There is also the six word Lamaistic charm oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ 唵?呢叭 M061971 吽.

六宗 The six schools, i. e. 三論宗; 法相宗; 華嚴宗; 律宗; 成實宗, and 倶舍宗 q. v.; the last two are styled Hīnayāna schools. Mahāyāna in Japan puts in place of them 天台宗 and 眞言宗 Tendai and Shingon.

六師 The six tīrthikas or heterodox teachers— Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa, Maskarin, Sañjayin, Ajita-keśakambala, Kakuda-Kātyāyana, and Nirgrantha; see 外道.

六師迦王 Name of the king who, thirteen years after the destruction of the Jetavana vihāra. which had been rebuilt 'five centuries ' after the nirvana, again restored it.

六年苦行 The six years of Śākyamuni's austerities before his enlightenment.

六度 The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana, i. e. the six pāramitās 波羅蜜 (波羅蜜多): (1) 布施 dāna, charity, or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others; (2) 持戒 śīla, keeping the command rents; (3) 忍辱 kṣānti, patience under insult; (4) 精進 vīrya, zeal and progress; (5) 闡定 dhyāna, meditation or contemplation; (6) 智慧 prajñā; wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last that carries across the saṃsāra (sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The 唯識論 adds four other pāramitās: (7) 方便 upāya, the use of appropriate means; (8) 願 praṇidhāna, pious vows; (9) 力 bala, power of fulfillment; (10) 智 jñāna knowledge.

六度果報 The reward s stimulated by the six pāramitās are 富 enrichment; 具色 all things, or perfection; 力 power; 壽 long life; 安 peace (or calmness); 辯 discrimination, or powers of exposition of the truth.

六度無極 The six infinite means of crossing the sea of mortality, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度.

六德 The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of a Buddha's titles: sovereign, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honored.

六念 (六念法) The six thoughts to dwell upon: Buddha, the Law, the Order, the commands, almsgiving, and heaven with its prospective joys.

六念處 The six stages of the six kinds of mindfulness 六念.

六情 The emotions arising from the six organs of sense 六根 for which term 六情 is the older interpretation; v. 六依.

六慧 The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions 六位 q. v. (1) 聞慧 the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with the 十住; (2) 思慧 of thought with the 十行; (3) 修慧 of observance with the 十廻向; (4) 無相慧 of either extreme, or the mean, with the 十地; (5) 照寂慧 of understanding of nirvana with 等覺慧; (6) 寂照慧 of making nirvana illuminate all beings associated with 佛果 Buddha-fruition. They are a 別教 Differentiated School series and all are associated with 中道 the school of the 中 or middle way.

六成就 Six perfections (some say five, some seven) found in the opening phrase of each sutra: (1) 'Thus' implies perfect faith; (2) ' have I heard, ' perfect hearing; (3) 'once, 'the perfect time; (4) 'the Buddha, ' the perfect lord or master; (5) 'on Mt. Gṛdhrakūṭa, ' the perfect place; (6) 'with the great assembly of bhikṣus, ' the perfect assembly.

六方 The six directions— E. W. N. S. above and below.

六方禮 The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage in the six directions; observing the 'well-born' do this; the Buddha is said to have given the discourse in the 善生經.

六方護念, 六方證明 (or 六方證誠) The praises of Amitābha proclaimed by the Buddhas of the six directions.

六時 The six 'hours' or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i. e. morning noon, evening; night, midnight, and dawn. Also, the six divisions of the year, two each of spring, summer, and winter.

六時懺 six daily periods of worship.

六時三昧 six daily periods of meditation.

六時不斷 six daily periods of unintermitting devotions.

六時禮讚 six daily periods of worship of ceremonial.

六染心 The six mental 'taints' of the Awakening of Faith 起心論. Though mind-essence is by nature pure and without stain, the condition of 無明 ignorance, or innocence, permits of taint or defilement corresponding to the following six phases: (1) 執相應染 the taint interrelated to attachment, or holding the seeming for the real; it is the state of 執取相 and 名字相 which is cut off in the final pratyeka and śrāvaka stage and the bodhisattva 十住 of faith; (2) 不斷相應染 the taint interrelated to the persisting attraction of the causes of pain and pleasure; it is the 相續相 finally eradicated in the bodhisattva 初地 stage of purity; (3) 分別智相應染 the taint interrelated to the 'particularizing intelligence' which discerns things within and without this world; it is the first 智相, cut off in the bodhisattva 七地 stage of spirituality; (4) 現色不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint, i. e. of the 'ignorant' mind as yet hardly discerning subject from object, of accepting an external world; the third 現相 cut of in the bodhisattva 八地 stage of emancipation from the material; (5) 能見心不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting a perceptive mind, the second 轉相, cut of in the bodhisattva 九地 of intuition, or emancipation from mental effort; (6) 根本業不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting the idea of primal action or activity in the absolute; it is the first 業相, and cut of in the 十地 highest bodhisattva stage, entering on Buddhahood. See Suzuki's translation, 80-1.

六相 The six characteristics found in everything— hole and parts, unity and diversity, entirety and (its) fractions.

六根 The six indriyas or sense-organs: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. See also 六入, 六境, 六塵, and 六處.

六根五用 Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all the others, which is a Buddha's power.

六根功德 The powers of the six senses, i. e. the achievement by purification of their interchange of function.

六根懺悔 A penitential service over the sins of the six senses.

六根淸淨 The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power and interchange, as in the case of a Buddha. This full development enables e. g. the eye to see everything in a great chiliocosm from its highest heaven down to its lowest hells and all the beings past, present, and future, with all the karma of each.

六根淸淨位 The state of the organs thus purified is defined by Tiantai as the 十信位 of the 別教, or the 相似卽 of the 圓教, v. 六卽.

六欲 The six sexual attractions arising from color; form; carriage; voice (or speech); softness (or smoothness); and features.

六欲天 The devalokas, i. e. the heavens of desire, i. e. with sense-organs; the first is described as half-way up Mt. Sumeru, the second at its summit, and the rest between it and the Brahmalokas; for list v. 六天. Descriptions are given in the 智度論 9 and the 倶舍論 8. They are also spoken of as 六欲天婬相, i. e. as still in the region of sexual desire.

六欲四禪 the six heavens where sexual desire continues, and the four dhyāna heavens of purity above them free from such desire.

六法戒 The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: indelicacy of contact with a male; purloining four cash; killing animals; untruthfulness; food after the midday meal; and wine-drinking. Abbreviated as 六法.

六法 is also a term for 六法念.

六波 The six pāramitās, v. 波羅密.

六無常六譬 v. 六喩.

六煩惱 v. 六大煩惱.

六物 The six things personal to a monk— saṅghāṭī, the patch robe; uttarā saṅghāṭī, the stole of seven pieces; antara-vaasaka, the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the 三衣 three garments: paatra, begging bowl; ni.siidana, a stool: and a water-strainer: the six are also called the 三衣六物.

六瑞 The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus Sutra, see 法華經, 序品: (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) his samādhi; (3) the rain of flowers; (4) the earthquake; (5) the delight of the beholders; (6) the Buddha-ray.

六界 The six elements: earth, water, fire, air (or wind), space, and mind; idem 六大.

六界聚 The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements 六界.

六畜 The six animals likened to the six organs 六根, v. 六衆生.

六神通 The six transcendental, or magical, powers, v. 六通.

六祖 The six patriarchs of the Ch'an (Zen) school 禪宗, who passed down robe and begging bowl in succession i. e. Bodhidharma, Huike, Sengcan, Daoxin, Hongren, and Huineng 達摩, 慧可, 僧璨, 道信, 弘忍, and 慧能.

六種住 The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattva-bhumi sutra 菩薩地持經 are: (1) 種性住 the attainment of the Buddha-seed nature in the 十住; (2) 解行住 of discernment and practice in the 十行 and 十廻向; (3) 淨心住 of purity by attaining reality in the 初地見道; (4) 行道迹住 of progress in riddance of incorrect thinking, in the 二地 to the 七地; (5) 決定住 of powers of correct decision and judgment in the eighth and ninth 地; (6) 究竟住 of the perfect Bodhisattva stage in the tenth 地 and the 等覺位, but not including the 妙覺位 which is the Buddha-stage.

六種倶生惑 The six deceivers common to all the living— greed, anger, torpor, ignorance, doubt, and incorrect views.

六種決定 The six kinds of certainty resulting from observance of the six pāramitās: 財成決定 the certainty of wealth; 生勝決定 of rebirth in honorable families; 不退決定 of no retrogression (to lower conditions); 修習決定 of progress in practice; 定業決定 of unfailingly good karma; 無功用決定 of effortless abode in truth and wisdom. 大乘莊嚴論 12.

六種印 The six seals, or proofs, i. e. the six pāramitās, 六度.

六種因 v. 六因.

六種外道 The six kinds of ascetics; also 六種苦行外道; 六術; v. 六行.

六種巧方便 The six able devices of Bodhisattvas: (1) preaching deep truths in simple form to lead on people gladly to believe; (2) promising them every good way of realizing their desires, of wealth, etc.; (3) showing a threatening aspect to the disobedient to induce reform; (4) rebuking and punishing them with a like object; (5) granting wealth to induce grateful offerings and almsgiving; (6) descending from heaven, leaving home, attaining bodhi, and leading all to joy and purity. 菩薩地持經 8.

六種性 For the first five see 五種道; the sixth is the Buddha stage of 妙覺性. Cf. 六種位.

六種觀 The meditation on the six natures 六種性.

六種正行 The fifth of the 五種正行 q. v. is expanded into six kinds of proper practice: reading and intoning, studying, worshipping, invoking, praising, and making offerings.

六種釋 idem 六離合釋.

六種震動 The six earthquakes, or earth-shakings, also 六種動相, of which there are three different categories. I, Those at the Buddha's conception, birth, enlightenment, first preaching, when Māra besought him to live, and at his nirvana; some omit the fifth and after 'birth' add 'leaving home '. II. The six different kinds of shaking of the chiliocosm, or universe, when the Buddha entered into the samādhi of joyful wandering, see 大品般若經 1, i. e. east rose and west sank, and so on with w. e., n. s., s. n., middle and borders, borders and middle. III. Another group is shaking, rising, waving, reverberating, roaring, arousing, the first three referring to motion, the last three to sounds; see the above 般若經; which in later translations gives shaking, rising, reverberating, beating, roaring, crackling.

六窗一猿 Six windows and one monkey (climbing in and out), i. e. the six organs of sense and the active mind.

六箭 The six arrows, i. e. the six senses; v. 六塵.

六結 A cloth or cord tied in six consecutive double loops and knots. The cloth represents the fundamental unity, the knots the apparent diversity. v. 楞伽經 5.

六罪人 The six kinds of offender, i. e. one who commits any of the 四重 four grave sins, or destroys harmony in the order, or sheds a Buddha's blood.

六羅漢 The six arhats i. e. Śākyamuni and his first five disciples, cf. 五羅漢.

六群比丘 The six common-herd bhikṣus, to whose improper or evil conduct is attributed the laying down of many of the laws by Śākyamuni; also 六衆; different lists of names are given, the generally accepted list indicating Nanda, Upananda, Aśvaka, Punarvasu, Chanda, and Udāyin. Udāyin is probably Kalodayin, a name given in other lists.

六自在王 The six sovereign rulers, i. e. the six senses, see 六根.

六舟 The six boats, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度 for ferrying to the bank beyond mortality.

六般神足 The six supernatural signs; idem 六瑞.

六苦行 The heretics of the six austerities are referred to as 六苦行外道; v. 六行.

六萬藏 The sixty thousand verses of the Buddha-law which Devadatta could recite, an ability which did not save him from the avīci hell.

六著心 (六著) The six bonds, or the mind of the six bonds: greed, love, hate, doubt, lust, pride.

六蔽 The six sins that smother the six pāramitās: grudging, commandment-breaking, anger, family attachment, confused thoughts, and stupid ignorance.

六處 ṣaḍāyatana. The six places, or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the nidānas, see 十二因緣; they are the 六根 or six organs of sense, but the term is also used for the 六入 and 六境 q. v.; also 六塵.

六衆 idem 六羣比丘.

六衆生 The six senses 六根 are likened to six wild creatures in confinement always struggling to escape. Only when they are domesticated will they be happy. So is it with the six senses and the taming power of Buddha truth. The six creatures are a dog, a bird, a snake, a hyena, a crocodile (śiśumāra), and a monkey.

六行 Among Buddhists the term means the practice of the 六度 six pāramitās; it is referred, among outsiders, to the six austerities of the six kinds of heretics: (1) 自餓 starvation; (2) 投淵 naked cave-dwelling (or, throwing oneself down precipices); (3) 赴火 self-immolation, or self-torturing by fire; (4) 自坐 sitting naked in public; (5) 寂默 dwelling in silence among graves; (6) 牛狗 living as animals.

六行觀 The six meditations, also called 厭欣觀; 六妙行 comparing the 下地 lower realms with the 上地 higher, the six following characters being the subject of meditation: the three lower represent 麤 coarseness, 苦 suffering, and 障 resistance; these in meditation are seen as distasteful: while the higher are the 靜 calm, 妙 mystic, 離 free, which are matters for delight. By this meditation on the distasteful and the delectable the delusions of the lower realms may be overcome.

六術 idem 六種外道; see 六行.

六衰 The six ruiners, i. e. the attractions of the six senses, idem 六塵, 六賊 q. v.

六裁 The six decisions, i. e. the concepts formed through the mental contact of the six senses; later called 六觸.

六親 The six immediate relations— father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger brothers.

六觀法 (六觀) cf. 六種性 and 六位.

六觀音 The six kinds of Guanyin. There are two groups— I. That of Tiantai: 大悲 most pitiful; 大慈 most merciful; 師子無畏 of lion-courage; 大光普照 of universal light; 天人丈夫 leader amongst gods and men; 大梵深遠 the great omnipresent Brahma. Each of this bodhisattva's six qualities of pity, etc., breaks the hindrances 三障 respectively of the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and devas. II. As thousand-handed; the holy one; horseheaded; eleven-faced; Cundī (or Marīci); with the wheel of sovereign power.

六解一亡 'When the six knots are untied the unity disappears. ' The six knots represent the six organs 六根 causing mortality, the cloth or cord tied in a series of knots represents nirvana. This illustrates the interdependence of nirvana and mortality. Cf. 六結; v. 梯伽經 5.

六觸 idem 六裁.

六論 The six 外道論 vedāṇgas, works which are 'regarded as auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the Veda, their object being to secure the proper pronunciation and correctness of the text and the right employment of the Mantras of sacrifice as taught in the Brāhmaṇas '. M. W. They are spoken of together as the 四皮陀六論 four Vedas and six śāstras, and the six are Sikṣā, Chandas, Vyākarana, Nirukta, Jyotiṣa, and Kalpa.

六譬 The six metaphors, v. 六衆生.

六諦 The six logical categories of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy: dravya, substance; guṇa, quality; karman, motion or activity; sāmānya, generality; viśeṣa, particularity; samavāya, inherence: Keith, Logic, 179. Eitel has 'substance, quality, action, existence, the unum et diversum, and the aggregate'.

六賊 The six cauras, or robbers, i. e. the six senses; the 六根 sense organs are the 媒 'matchmakers', or medial agents, of the six robbers. The 六賊 are also likened to the six pleasures of the six sense organs. Prevention is by not acting with them, i. e. the eye avoiding beauty, the ear sound, nose scent, tongue flavors, body seductions, and mind uncontrolled thoughts.

六趣 The six directions of reincarnation, also 六道: (1) 地獄趣 naraka-gati, or that of the hells; (2) 餓鬼趣 preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; (3) 畜生趣 tiryagyoni-gati, of animals; (4) 阿修羅趣 asura-gati, of malevolent nature spirits; (5 ) 人趣 manuṣya-gati, of human existence; (6) 天趣 deva-gati, of deva existence. The 六趣輪廻經 is attributed to Aśvaghoṣa.

六足尊 The six-legged Honored One, one of the five 明王 fierce guardians of Amitābha, i. e. 大威德, who has six heads, faces, arms, and legs; rides on an ox; and is an incarnation of Mañjuśrī. The 六足阿毘曇摩 Jñāna-prasthāna-saṭpādābhidharma is a philosophical work in the Canon.

六輪 The six kinds of cakravartī, or wheel-kings, each allotted to one of the 六位; the iron-wheel king to the 十信位, copper 十住, silver 十行, gold 十廻向, crystal 十地, and pearl 等覺.

六通 abhijñā, or ṣaḍ abhijñā. The six supernatural or universal powers acquired by a Buddha, also by an arhat through the fourth degree of dhyāna. The 'southern' Buddhists only have the first five, which are also known in China; v. 五神通; the sixth is 漏盡通 (漏盡智證通) āsravakṣaya-jñāna, supernatural consciousness of the waning of vicious propensities.

六道 The six ways or conditions of sentient existence; v. 六趣; the three higher are the 上三途, the three lower 下三途.

六道佛菩薩 The Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the six gati, i. e. the six dizang 六地藏 q. v.; also the 六觀音 q. v.; the six dizang are also styled 六道能化菩薩 Bodhisattvas who can change the lot of those in the six gati.

六道四生 The four modes of the six rebirths — womb, egg, moisture, or transformation.

六道四聖 The six ways of rebirth, see above, and the four holy ways of rebirth, the latter being respectively into the realms of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; the ten are known as the 十界.

六道集經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.

六道伽陀經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.

六部大乘經 The six works chosen by Cien 慈恩 as authoritative in the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, i. e. 大方廣佛華嚴經 of which there are three translations; 解深密經4 tr.; 如來出現功德莊嚴經 untranslated; 阿毘達磨經 untranslated; 楞伽經 3 tr.; 厚嚴經 (also called 大乘密嚴經).

六離合釋 Ṣaṭ-samāsa; also 六種釋 (or 六合釋) the six interpretations of compound terms, considered in their component parts or together. (1) 持業釋 or 同依釋 karmadhāraya, referring to the equality of dependence of both terms, e. g. 大乘 Mahāyāna, 'great' and 'vehicle'), both equally essential to 'Mahāyāna' with its specific meaning; (2) 依主釋 (or 六士釋) tatpuruṣa, containing a principal term, e. g. 眼識 eye-perception, where the eye is the qualifying term; (3) 有財釋 (or 多財釋) bahuvrīhi, the sign of possession, e. g. 覺者 he who has enlightenment; (4) 相違釋 dvandva, a term indicating two separate ideas, e. g. 教觀 teaching and meditation; (5) 鄰近釋 avyayībhava, an adverbial compound, or a term resulting from 'neighboring' association, e. g. 念處 thought or remembering place, i. e. memory; (6) 帶數釋 dvigu, a numerative term, e. g. 五蘊 pañcaskandha, the five skandhas. M. W. gives the order as 4, 3, 1, 2, 6, and 5.

六難 The six difficult things— to be born in a Buddha-age, to hear the true Buddha-law, to beget a good heart, to be born in the central kingdom (India), to be born in human form, and to be perfect; see, Nirvana Sutra 23.

六震 idem 六種震.

六面尊 idem 六足尊.

六麤 The six 'coarser' stages arising from the 三細 or three finer stages which in turn are produced by original 無明, the unenlightened condition of ignorance; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論. They are the states of (1) 智相 knowledge or consciousness of like and dislike arising from mental conditions; (2) 相續相 consciousness of pain and pleasure resulting from the first, causing continuous responsive memory; (3) 執取相 attachment or clinging, arising from the last; (4) 計名字相 assigning names according to the seeming and unreal with fixation of ideas); (5) 起業 the consequent activity with all the variety of deeds; (6) 業繋苦相 the suffering resulting from being tied to deeds and their karma consequences.

六齋 The six monthly poṣadha, or fast days: the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. They are the days on which the Four Mahārājas 四天王 take note of human conduct and when evil demons are busy, so that great care is required and consequently nothing should be eaten after noon, hence the 'fast', v. 梵王經 30th command. The 智度論 13 describes them as 惡日 evil or dangerous days, and says they arose from an ancient custom of cutting of the flesh and casting it into the fire.

To cut, carve; a whole; urgent; the 反切 system of spelling, i. e. the combination of the initial sound of one Chinese word with the final sound of another to indicate the sound of a third, a system introduced by translators of Buddhist works; v. 反.

切勝 A title of Aśvaghoṣa.

To divide. separate; a fractional part: a share: a duty.

分位 avasthaa; defined as 時分 time and 地位 position; i. e. a state, e. g. the state of water disturbed into waves, waves being also a state of water; a dependent state.

分別 vibhajya, or vibhaaga; parikalpana; vikalpa; divide, discriminate, discern, reason; to leave. See also 三分別.

三分別 three forms of discrimination (1) 自性分別 natural discrimination, e. g. of present objects; (2) 計度分別 calculating discrimination (as to future action); (3) 隨念分別 discriminating by remembrance of affairs that are past.

分別事識 The third of the three kinds of perception 識, i. e. real (or abstract), manifest, and reasoned (or inferred); it includes all the eight 識 except the ālayavijñāna.

分別智 viveka. Differentiating knowledge, discrimination of phenomena, as contrasted with 無分別智 the knowledge of the fundamental identity of all things.

分別智相應染 The taint on mind following upon the action of discriminating, i. e. one of the six 染心; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論.

分別經 There are several sutras and śāstras with various 分別 titles.

分別說三 The One Vehicle discriminated as 'three' for the sake of the ignorant.

分別說部 The Vibhajyavādins. A school the origin of which is obscure. The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this school, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is suggested that this school was established to harmonize the differences between the Sthavirās and Mahāsāṅghikas. The Abhidharma Pitaka 'as we have it in the Pali Canon, is the definite work of this school ', Keith, 153.

分別識 The discriminating perception, i. e. of 意 mind, the sixth 根 organ.

分別起 Delusions arising from reasoning and teaching, in contrast with 倶生起 errors that arise naturally among people.

分喩 A metaphor only correct in part, e. g. a face like the moon.

分散 visarj. To dismiss, scatter, separate, as an assembly.

分析 To divide, separate, leave the world, v. 析.

分歲 New Year's eve, the dividing night of the year, also styled 歲夜.

分段 bhāgya. Lot, dispensation, allotment, fate.

分段生死, 分段死, 分段身, 分段三道 all refer to the mortal lot, or dispensation in regard to the various forms of reincarnation.

分段同居 Those of the same lot, or incarnation, dwelling together, e. g. saints and sinners in this world.

分段輪廻 The wheel of fate, or reincarnation.

分段變易 Includes (1) 分段生死, the condition and station resulting from good or bad karma in the three realms (desire, form, and formlessness) and in the six paths; (2) 變易生死 the condition and station resulting from good karma in the realms beyond transmigration, including arhats and higher saints.

分相門 The doctrine which differentiates the three vehicles from the one vehicle; as 該攝門 is that which maintains the three vehicles to be the one.

分眞卽 idem 分證卽.

分衛 piṇḍapāta, 賓荼波多; 儐荼夜 food given as alms; piṇḍapātika means one who lives on alms; it is also interpreted as 團墮 lumps (of food) falling (into the begging bowl); the reference is to the Indian method of rolling the cooked food into a bolus for eating, or such a bolus given to the monks.

分證卽 One of the Tiantai 六卽 q. v. Also 分眞卽.

分身 Parturition: in Buddhism it means a Buddha's power to reproduce himself ad infinitum and anywhere.

分那柯 pūrṇaka, i. e. 滿 full; name of a yakṣa, or demon.

分陀利迦 (also see 分陀利) puṇḍarīka, 芬陀; 分荼利迦, 分荼利華, 奔荼利迦, 奔荼利華; 本拏哩迦; the 白蓮花 white lotus (in full bloom). It is also termed 百葉華 (or 八葉華) hundred (or eight) leaf flower. For Saddharma-puṇḍarīka, the Lotus Sutra, v. 妙法蓮華經. The eighth and coldest hell is called after this flower, because the cold lays bare the bones of the wicked, so that they resemble the whiteness of this lotus. It is also called 隨色花; when a bud, it is known as 屈摩羅; and when fading, as 迦摩羅.

屈摩羅 the budding phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka).

迦摩羅 the fading phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka) .

Not; do not; translit. m and v.

勿伽 mudga; 'phaseolus mungo (both the plant and its beans),' M. W.; intp. as 胡豆 and 綠豆 kidney beans by the Fanyi mingyi.

勿伽羅子 Maudgalyāyana or Maudgalaputra, idem Mahāmaudgalyāyana 目蓮.

勿力伽難提 Mṛgānandi, or 蜜利伽羅 Mṛgala; rejoicing deer; a śramaṇa called 鹿杖 Lu-chang, who was satisfied with the leavings of other monks; also a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, and of Devadatta, who are both represented as having been deer.

勿哩訶婆跋底 B.rhaspati, Jupiter-lord, 木星 Jupiter.

A hook to entangle, inveigle, arrest; a tick, mark.

勾當 An employee in a monastery, especially of the Shingon sect. In Japan, the second rank of official blind men.

To transform, metamorphose: (1) conversion by instruction, salvation into Buddhism; (2) magic powers 通力 of transformation, of which there are said to be fourteen mental and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation 無而忽起; and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc.

化主 The lord of transformation, or conversion, i. e. a Buddha; also one who exhorts believers to give alms for worship: also an almsgiver.

化人 A deva or Buddha transformed into human shape.

化女 is 化人 in female form.

化他 To save others.

化他壽 A Buddha's long or 'eternal' life spent in saving others; implying his powers of unlimited salvation.

化佛 nirmāṇabuddha, an incarnate, or metamorphosed Buddha: Buddhas and bodhisattvas have universal and unlimited powers of appearance, v. 神通力.

化作 To transform (into), create, make.

化俗結緣 For the sake of converting the people.

化儀 The rules or methods laid down by the Buddha for salvation: Tiantai speaks of 化儀 as transforming method, and 化法 q. v. as transforming truth; its 化儀四教 are four modes of conversion or enlightenment: 頓 direct or sudden, 漸 gradual, 祕密 esoteric, and 不定 variable.

化制二教 The twofold division of the Buddha's teaching into converting or enlightening and discipline, as made by the Vihaya School, v. 化行.

化前 In the Amitābha cult the term means before its first sutra, the 觀無量壽經, just as 爾前 in the Lotus School means 'before the Lotus.'

化前序 the preface to the 觀經疏 by 善導 Shandao of the Tang dynasty.

化前方便 All the expedient, or partial, teaching suited to the conditions before the Wuliangshou jing 無量壽經.

化功歸己 The merit of converting others becomes one's own in increased insight and liberation); it is the third stage of merit of the Tiantai five stages of meditation and action 觀行五品位.

化土 one of the 三土 three kinds of lands, or realms; it is any land or realm whose inhabitants are subject to reincarnation; any land which a Buddha is converting, or one in which is the transformed body of a Buddha. These lands are of two kinds, pure like the Tusita heaven, and vile or unclean like this world. Tiantai defines the huatu or the transformation realm of Amitābha as the Pure-land of the West, but other schools speak of huatu as the realm on which depends the nirmāṇakāya, with varying definitions.

化地部 Mahīśāsakah, 磨醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿; 彌婆塞部, 正地部 an offshoot from the 說一切有部 or Sarvāstivāda school, supposed to have been founded 300 years after the nirvana. The name Mahisasakah is said to be that of a ruler who 'converted his land' or people; or 正地 'rectified his land'. The doctrines of the school are said to be similar to those of the 大衆部 Mahāsāṅghika; and to have maintained, inter alia, the reality of the present, but not of the past and future; also the doctrine of the void and the non-ego; the production of taint 染 by the five 識 perceptions; the theory of nine kinds of non-activity, and so on. It was also called 法無去來宗 the school which denied reality to past and future.

化城 The magic, or illusion city, in the Lotus Sutra; it typifies temporary or incomplete nirvana, i. e. the imperfect nirvana of Hīnayāna.

化境 The region, condition, or environment of Buddha instruction or conversion: similar to 化土.

化壇 The altar of transformation, i. e. a crematorium.

化宮殿 The magical palace, or, palace of joy, held in the fortieth left hand of: Guanyin of the thousand hands; the hand is styled 化宮殿手 or 寶殿手.

化導 To instruct and guide.

三輪化導 three sovereign powers for converting others are those of 神變 supernatural transformation (i. e. physical 身); 記心 memory or knowledge of all the thoughts of all beings (i. e. mental 意 ); and 教誠 teaching and warning (i. e. oral 口).

化導力 Power to instruct and guide, one of the 三力.

化尼 The power of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to be transformed into a nun.

化屬 The converted followers— of a Buddha, or bodhisattva.

化度 To convert and transport, or save.

化心 The mind in the transformation body of a Buddha or bodhisattva, which apprehends things in their reality.

化教 see 化行二教.

化樂天 Nirmāṇarati, 樂變化天 the fifth of the six desire-heavens, 640, 000 yojanas above Meru; it is next above the Tuṣita, or fourth deva. loka; a day is equal to 800 human years; life lasts for 8, 000 years; its inhabitants are eight yojanas in height, and light-emitting; mutual smiling produces impregnation and children are born on the knees by metamorphosis, at birth equal in development to human children of twelve— hence the 'joy-born heaven'.

化法 Instruction in the Buddhist principles, as 化儀 is in practice, Tiantai in its 化法四教 divides the Buddha's teaching during his lifetime into the four periods of 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Pitaka, Interrelated, Differentiated, and Complete, or All-embracing.

化源 The fount of conversion, or salvation, the beginning of the Buddha's teaching.

化現 Metamorphosis and manifestation; the appearance or forms of a Buddha or bodhisattva for saving creatures may take any form required for that end.

化理 The law of phenomenal change— which never rests.

化生 aupapādaka, or aupapāduka. Direct metamorphosis, or birth by transformation, one of the 四生, by which existence in any required form is attained in an instant in full maturity. By this birth bodhisattvas residing in Tuṣita appear on earth. Dhyāni Buddhas and Avalokiteśvara are likewise called 化生. It also means unconditional creation at the beginning of a kalpa. Bhuta 部多 is also used with similar meaning. There are various kinds of 化生, e. g. 佛菩薩化生 the transformation of a Buddha or bodhisattva, in any form at will, without gestation, or intermediary conditions: 極樂化生, birth in the happy land of Amitābha by transformation through the Lotus; 法身化生 the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, born or formed on a disciple's conversion.

化疏 A subscription list, or book; an offering burnt for ease of transmission to the spirit-realm.

化相 The transformation form or body (in which the Buddha converts the living).

化相三寶 The nirmāṇakāya Buddha in the triratna forms; in Hīnayāna these are the human 16-foot Buddha, his dharma as revealed in the four axioms and twelve nidānas, and his sangha, or disciples, i. e. arhats and pratyekabuddhas.

化米 Rice obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction, similarly化炭 charcoal and化茶 tea; sometimes used with larger connotation.

化炭 charcoal obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.

化茶 tea obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.

化緣 The cause of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's coming to the world, i. e. the transformation of the living; also, a contribution to the needs of the community.

化色 A Buddha's or bodhisattva's metamorphoses of body, or incarnations at will.

化菩薩 A Buddha or bodhisattva transformed: into a (human) bodhisattva; or a bodhisattva in various metamorphoses.

化行 (化行二教) The two lines of teaching: i. e. in the elements, for conversion and admission, and 行教 or 制教 in the practices and moral duties especially for the Order, as represented in the Vinaya; cf. 化制.

化誘 To convert and entice (into the way of truth).

化身 nirmāṇakāya, 應身, 應化身; 變化身 The third characteristic or power of the trikāya 三身, a Buddha's metamorphosic body, which has power to assume any shape to propagate the Truth. Some interpret the term as connoting pan-Buddha, that all nature in its infinite variety is the phenomenal 佛身 Buddha-body. A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form expressed by 應身, while 化身 is used for his manifold other forms of appearances.

化生 q. v. means direct 'birth' by metamorphosis. It also means the incarnate avaatara of a deity.

化生八相 The eight forms of a Buddha from birth to nirvana, v. 八相.

化轉 To transform, convert (from evil to good, delusion to deliverance).

化迹 The traces or evidences of the Buddha's transforming teaching; also 教迹.

化道 The way of conversion, transformation, or development; also 教道.


午供 The noon offering (of incense).

To turn over, turn or send back; contrary; to rebel.

反出生死 One of the seven kinds of mortality, i. e. escape from it into nirvana.

反切 The system of indicating the initial and final sounds of a character by two others, ascribed to Sun Yen 孫炎 in the third century A D., arising out of the translit. of Sanskrit terms in Buddhist translation.

反叉合掌 One of the twelve forms of folded hands, i. e. with interlocking fingers.

very, great.

太子 Kumaararāja. Crownprince. An epithet of Buddhas, and of Mañjuśrī.

太子和休經 太子刷護經 There are several 太子, etc. 經. One named the Subaahu-parip.rcchaa was translated under the first title between 265-316 A. D., four leaves; under the second title by Dharmarakṣa during the same period.

太孤危生 Life perilous as the (unscaleable) top of the loneliest peak.

太虛空 Space, where nothing exists; also 頑空; 偏空.

太麤生 A ruffian, a rough fellow.

A man; a sage, officer, hero; a husband, mate; a fellow; a particle, i. e. for, so, etc.

夫人 A wife; the wife of a king, i. e. a queen, devi.

凡夫 The common people, the unenlightened, hoi polloi, a common fellow.

Heaven; the sky; a day; cf. dyo, dyaus also as 提婆 a deva, or divine being, deity; and as 素羅 sura, shining, bright.

三種天 The three classes of devas: (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyeka-buddhas. 智度論 7.

四種天 The four classes of devas include (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas, and (4) 義天 all bodhisattvas above the ten stages 十住. The Buddhas are not included; 智度論 22.

五種天 (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas, and (4) 義天 all bodhisattvas above the ten stages 十住, and (5) 第一義天 a supreme heaven with bodhisattvas and Buddhas in eternal immutability; 涅槃經 23. Cf. 天宮.

天上 The heavens above, i. e. the six devalokas 六欲天 of the region of desire and the rupalokas andarupalokas, i. e. 色 and 無色界.

天上天下唯我獨尊 The first words attributed to Śākyamuni after his first seven steps when born from his mother's right side: 'In the heavens above and (earth) beneath I alone am the honoured one. 'This announcement is ascribed to every Buddha, as are also the same special characteristics attributed to every Buddha, hence he is the 如來 come in the manner of all Buddhas. In Mahayanism he is the type of countless other Buddhas in countless realms and periods.

天中天 devaatideva: deva of devas. The name given to Siddhartha (i. e. Śākyamuni) when, on his presentation in the temple of 天王 Maheśvara (Siva), the statues of all the gods prostrated themselves before him.

天主 Devapati. The Lord of devas, a title of Indra.

天主教法 Devendra-samaya. Doctrinal method of the lord of devas. A work on royalty in the possession of a son of Raajabalendraketu.

天乘 devayāna. The deva vehicle— one of the 五乘 five vehicles; it transports observers of the ten good qualities 十喜 to one of the six deva realms of desire, and those who observe dhyāna meditation to the higher heavens of form and non-form.

天人 devas and men; also a name for devas.

天人師 `saastaa devamam.syaanaam 舍多提婆摩菟舍喃, teacher of devas and men, one of the ten epithets of a Buddha, because he reveals goodness and morality, and is able to save.

天人散花身上 The story of the man who saw a disembodied ghost beating a corpse which he said was his body that had led him into all sin, and further on an angel stroking and scattering: lowers on a corpse, which he said was the body he had just left, always his friend.

天人道師 idem 天人師.

天仙 deva-ṛṣi, or devas and rsis, or immortals. Nāgārjuna gives ten classes of ṛṣis whose lifetime is 100, 000 years, then they are reincarnated. Another category is fivefold: 天仙 deva-ṛṣis in the mountains round Sumeru: 神仙 spirit-ṛṣis who roam the air: 人仙 humans who have attained the powers of immortals; 地仙 earth ṛṣis, subterranean; 鬼仙 pretas, or malevolent ṛṣis.

天使 Divine messengers, especially those of Yama; also his 三天使 three messengers, or lictors— old age, sickness, death; and his 五天使 or 五大使, i. e. the last three together with rebirth and prisons or punishments on earth.

天界力士 (天力士) idem 那羅延 Narayana.

天冠 A deva-crown, surpassing human thought.

天口 The mouth of Brahma, or the gods, a synonym for fire, as that element devours the offerings; to this the 護摩 homa, or fire altar cult is attributed, fire becoming the object of worship for good fortune. Fire is also said to speak for or tell the will of the gods.

天台山 The Tiantai or Heavenly Terrace mountain, the location of the Tiantai sect; its name is attributed to the 三台 six stars at the foot of Ursa Major, under which it is supposed to be, but more likely because of its height and appearance. It gives its name to a xian 縣 in the Zhejiang taizhou 浙江台州 prefecture, south-west of Ningbo. The monastery, or group of monasteries, was founded there by 智顗 Zhiyi, who is known as 天台大師.

天台三教 The three modes of Śākyamuni's teaching as explained by the Tiantai sect: (1) the sudden, or immediate teaching, by which the learner is taught the whole truth at once 頓教; (2) the gradual teaching 漸教; (3) the undetermined or variable method-whereby he is taught what he is capable of receiving 不定. Another category is 漸 gradual, 頓 direct, and 圓 perfect, the last being found in the final or complete doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sutra. Another is: (1) 三藏教 the Tripiṭaka doctrine, i. e. the orthodox Hīnayāna; (2) 通教 intermediate, or interrelated doctrine, i. e. Hīnayāna-cum-Mahāyāna; (3) 別教 differentiated or separated doctrine, i. e. the early Mahāyāna as a cult or development, as distinct from Hīnayāna.

天台九神 The nine patriarchs of the Tiantai sect: 龍樹 Nāgārjuna; 慧文 Hui-wen of the 北齊 Northern Qi dynasty; 慧思 Huici of 南嶽 Nanyue; 智者 (or 智顗) Zhizhe, or Zhiyi; 灌頂 Guanding of 章安 Changan; 法華 Fahua; 天宮 Tiangung; 左溪 Zuoxi; and 湛然 Zhanran of 荊溪. The ten patriarchs 十祖 are the above nine with 道邃 Daosui considered a patriarch in Japan, because he was the teacher of Dengyo Daishi who brought the Tendai system to that country in the ninth century. Some name Huiwen and Huici as the first and second patriarchs of the school of thought developed by Zhiyi at Tiantai; v. 天台宗.

天台八教 八教 The 化法四教 or four periods of teaching, i. e. 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Hīnayāna, Interrelated, Differentiated, and Complete or Final; the 化儀四教 q, v. are the four modes of teaching, direct, gradual, esoteric, and indefinite.

天台四教 The four types each of method and doctrine, as defined by Tiantai; see 天台八教.

天台大師 The actual founder of the Tiantai 'school' 智顗 Zhiyi; his 字 was 德安 De-an, and his surname 陳 Chen, A. D. 538-597. Studying under 慧思 Huici of Hunan, he was greatly influenced by his teaching; and found in the Lotus Sutra the real interpretation of Mahayanism. In 575 he first came to Tiantai and established his school, which in turn was the foundation of important Buddhist schools in Korea and Japan.

天台宗 The Tiantai, or Tendai, sect founded by 智顗 Zhiyi. It bases its tenets on the Lotus Sutra 法華經 with the 智度論, 涅盤經, and 大品經; it maintains the identity of the Absolute and the world of phenomena, and attempts to unlock the secrets of all phenomena by means of meditation. It flourished during the Tang dynasty. Under the Sung, when the school was decadent, arose 四明 Ciming, under whom there came the division of 山家 Hill or Tiantai School and 山外 the School outside, the latter following 悟恩 Wuen and in time dying out; the former, a more profound school, adhered to Ciming; it was from this school that the Tiantai doctrine spread to Japan. The three principal works of the Tiantai founder are called 天台三部, i. e. 玄義 exposition of the deeper meaning of the Lotus; 文句 exposition of its text; and 止觀 meditation; the last was directive and practical; it was in the line of Bodhidharma, stressing the 'inner light'.

天台律 The laws of the Tiantai sect as given in the Lotus, and the ten primary commandments and forty-eight secondary commandments of 梵網經 the Sutra of Brahma's Net 梵網經 (Brahmajāla); they are ascribed as the 大乘圓頓戒 the Mahāyāna perfect and immediate moral precepts, immediate in the sense of the possibility of all instantly becoming Buddha.

天台韶國師 Tiantai Shao guoshi, a Chekiang priest who revived the Tiantai sect by journeying to Korea, where the only copy of Zhiyi's works existed, copied them, and returned to revive the Tiantai school. 錢俶 Qianshu (A. D. 960 -997), ruler of 吳越 Wuyue, whose capital was at Hangchow, entitled him Imperial Teacher.

天后 Queen of Heaven, v. 摩利支.

天地鏡 The mirror of heaven and earth, i. e. the Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra, see 般若經.

天堂 The mansions of the devas, located between the earth and the Brahmalokas; the heavenly halls; heaven. The Ganges is spoken of as 天堂來者 coming from the heavenly mansions.

天堂地獄 The heavens and the hells, places of reward or punishment for moral conduct.

天女 devakanyā; apsaras; goddesses in general; attendants on the regents of the sun and moon; wives of Gandharvas, the division of the sexes is maintained throughout the devalokas 六 天.

天子 A son of Heaven. The Emperor-Princes, i. e. those who in previous incarnations have kept the middle and lower grades of the ten good qualities 十善 and, in consequence, are born here as princes. It is the title of one of the four mara, who is 天主 or lord of the sixth heaven of desire; he is also known as 天子魔 (天子業魔) and with his following opposes the Buddha-truth.

天宮 devapura; devaloka; the palace of devas, the abode of the gods, i. e. the six celestial worlds situated above the Meru, between the earth and the Brahmalokas. v. 六天.

天宮寳藏 A library of the sutras. The treasury of all the sutras in the Tuṣita Heaven in Maitreya's palace. Another collection is said to be in the 龍宮 or Dragon's palace, but is associated with Nāgārjuna.

天尊 The most honoured among devas, a title of a Buddha, i. e. the highest of divine beings; also used for certain maharāja protectors of Buddhism and others in the sense of honoured devas. Title applied by the Daoists to their divinities as a counterpart to the Buddhist 世尊.

天師 Preceptor of the emperor, a title of the monk 一行 Yixsing, and of the so-called Daoist Pope.

天帝 King, or emperor of Heaven, i. e. 因陀羅 Indra, i. e. 釋 (釋迦); 釋迦婆; 帝 (帝釋); Śakra, king of the devaloka 忉利天, one of the ancient gods of India, the god of the sky who fights the demons with his vajra, or thunderbolt. He is inferior to the trimūrti, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, having taken the place of Varuṇa, or sky. Buddhism adopted him as its defender, though, like all the gods, he is considered inferior to a Buddha or any who have attained bodhi. His wife is Indrāṇī.

天帝生驢胎 Lord of devas, born in the womb of an ass, a Buddhist fable, that Indra knowing he was to be reborn from the womb of an ass, in sorrow sought to escape his fate, and was told that trust in Buddha was the only way. Before he reached Buddha his life came to an end and he found himself in the ass. His resolve, however, had proved effective, for the master of the ass beat her so hard that she dropped her foal dead. Thus Indra returned to his former existence and began his ascent to Buddha.

天帝釋城 The city of Śakra, the Lord of devas, called 善見城 Sudarśana city good to behold, or 喜見城 city a joy to behold.

天弓 The deva-bow, the rainbow.

天德甁 The vase of deva virtue, i. e. the bodhi heart, because all that one desires comes from it, e. g. the 如意珠 the talismanic pearl. Cf. 天意樹.

天愛 devānāṃpriya. 'Beloved of the gods, 'i. e. natural fools, simpletons, or the ignorant.

天意樹 The tree in each devaloka which produces whatever the devas desire.

天授 Heaven-bestowed, a name of Devadatta, v. 提.

天有 Existence and joy as a deva, derived from previous devotion, the fourth of the seven forms of existence.

天根 The phallic emblem of Śiva, which Xuanzang found in the temples of India; he says the Hindus 'worship it without being ashamed'.

天梯山 The ladder-to-heaven hill or monastery, i. e. 天台 Tiantai mountain in Chekiang.

天樂 Heavenly music, the music of the inhabitants of the heavens. Also one of the three 'joys'— that of those in the heavens.

天機 Natural capacity; the nature bestowed by Heaven.

天樹王 The pārijāta tree 波利質多 which grows in front of Indra's palace— the king among the heavenly trees.

天狗 ulkā, 憂流迦the 'heavenly dog' i. e. a meteor. Also 'a star in Argo' according to Williams.

天獄 The heavens and hells; devalokas and purgatories.

天王 Maharāja-devas; 四天王 Caturmahārāja. The four deva kings in the first or lowest devaloka, on its four sides. E. 持國天王 Dhṛtarāṣṭra. S. 增長天王 Virūḍhaka. W. 廣目天王 Virūpākṣa. N. 多聞天王 Dhanada, or Vaiśravaṇa. The four are said to have appeared to 不空 Amogha in a temple in Xianfu, some time between 742-6, and in consequence he introduced their worship to China as guardians of the monasteries, where their images are seen in the hall at the entrance, which is sometimes called the 天王堂 hall of the deva-kings. 天王 is also a designation of Siva the 大白在, i. e. Maheśvara 摩醯首羅, the great sovereign ruler.

天王如來 Devarāja-tathāgata, the name by which Devadatta, the enemy of Śākyamuni, will be known on his future appearance as a Buddha in the universe called 天道 Devasopāna; his present residence in hell being temporary for his karmaic expurgation.

天界 idem天道.

天畫 deva lines or pictures.

天皇 Deva-king; the Tang monk 道悟 Daowu of the 天皇 Tianhuang monastery at 荊州 Jingzhou.

天眞 bhūtatathatā, permanent reality underlying all phenomena, pure and unchanging e. g. the sea in contrast with the waves; nature, the natural, 天然之眞理, 非人之造作者 natural reality, not of human creation.

天眞佛 The real or ultimate Buddha; the bhūtatathatā; another name for the Dharmakāya, the source of all life.

天眞獨朗 The fundamental reality or bhūtatathatā, is the only illumination. It is a dictum of 道邃 Daosui of the Tang to the famous Japanese monk 傳教 Dengyō. The apprehension of this fundamental reality makes all things clear, including the universality of Buddha- hood. It also interprets the phrase 一心三觀 that 空中假 the void, the 'mean ', the seeming, are all aspects of the one mind.

天眼 divyacakṣṣus. The deva-eye; the first abhijñā, v. 六通; one of the five classes of eyes; divine sight, unlimited vision; all things are open to it, large and small, near and distant, the destiny of all beings in future rebirths. It may be obtained among men by their human eyes through the practice of meditation 修得: and as a reward or natural possession by those born in the deva heavens 報得. Cf 天耳, etc.

天眼力 The power of the celestial or deva eye, one of the ten powers of a Buddha.

天眼明 One of the three enlightenments 三明, or clear visions of the saint, which enables him to know the future rebirths of himself and all beings.

天眼智 The wisdom obtained by the deva eye.

天眼智證通 (天眼智通) The complete universal knowledge and assurance of the deva eye.

天眼智通願 The sixth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter the final stage until all beings had obtained this divine vision.

天眼通 idem 天眼; also a term used by those who practise hypnotism.

天督 Tiandu, an erroneous form of 天竺, or 印度 Yindu, India.

天祠 devālaya, devatāgāra, or devatāgṛha. Brahminical temples.

天神 deva 提婆 or devatā 泥縛多. (1) Brahma and the gods in general, including the inhabitants of the devalokas, all subject to metem-psychosis. (2) The fifteenth patriarch, a native of South India, or Ceylon and disciple of Nāgārjuna; he is also styled Devabodhisattva 提婆菩薩, Āryadeva 聖天, and Nilanetra 靑目 blue-eyed, or 分別明 clear discriminator. He was the author of nine works and a famous antagonist of Brahmanism.

天神地祇 The spirits 天神 are Indra and his retinue; devas in general; the 地祇 are the earth spirits, nāgas, demons, ghosts, etc.

天童 Divine youths, i. e. deva guardians of the Buddha-law who appear as Mercuries, or youthful messengers of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

天童山 天潼山 A famous group of monasteries in the mountains near Ningpo, also called 太白山 Venus planet mountain; this is one of the five famous mountains of China.

天竺 (天竺國) India; 竹 zhu is said to have the same sound as 篤 tu, suggesting a connection with the 度 tu in 印度 Indu; other forms are 身毒 Sindhu, Scinde; 賢豆 Hindu; and 印持伽羅. The term is explained by 月 moon, which is the meaning of Indu, but it is said to be so called because the sages of India illumine the rest of the world: or because of the half-moon shape of the land, which was supposed to be 90, 000 li in circumference, and placed among other kingdoms like the moon among the stars. Another name is 因陀羅婆他那 ? Indravadana, or Indrabhavana, the region where Indra dwells. A hill and monastery near Hangchow.

天竺三時 (or 天竺三際). The three seasons of an Indian year: Grīṣma, the hot season, from first month, sixteenth day, to fifth month, fifteenth; Varṣākāla, the rainy season, fifth month, sixteenth, the to ninth month, fifteenth; Hemanta, the cold season, ninth month, sixteenth, to first month, fifteenth. These three are each divided into two, making six seasons, or six periods: Vasanta and grīṣma, varṣākāla and śarad, hemanta and śiśira. The twelve months are Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaiṣṭha, Āṣāḍha, Śrāvaṇa, Bhādrapada, Āśvavuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrṣa, Pauṣa, Māgha, and Phālguna.

天竺九儀 The nine forms of etiquette of India: speaking softly, bowing the head, raising the hands high, placing hands together, bending knees, kneeling long, hands and knees touching the ground, bowing the head, lowering arms and bending knees, bringing head, arms, and knees to the ground.

天竺五山 The five mountains of India on which the Buddha assembled his disciples: Vaibhara, Saptaparnaguha, Indrasailaguha, Sarpiskundika-pragbhara, Grdhrakuta.

天羅國 The kingdom of the king with kalmā-ṣapāda, i. e. spotted, or striped feet 斑定王; cf. 仁王經.

天耳 (天耳通) divyaśrotra, deva-ear, celestial ear.

天耳智 (天耳智通); 天耳智證通 The second of the six abhijñās 六通 by which devas in the form-world, certain arhats through the fourth dhyāna, and others can hear all sounds and understand all languages in the realms of form, with resulting wisdom. For its equivalent interpretation and its 修得 and 報得 v. 天眼.

天耳智通願 The seventh of the forty-eight vows of Amitābha, not to become Buddha until all obtain the divine ear.

天臂城 Devadarśita or Devadiṣṭa, Deva-arm city, but the Sanskrit means deva (or divinely) indicated. The residence of Suprabuddha, 善覺長者 father of Māyā, mother of the Buddha.

天華 Deva, or divine, flowers, stated in the Lotus Sutra as of four kinds, mandāras, mahāmandāras, mañjūṣakas, and mahāmañjūṣakas, the first two white, the last two red.

天蓋 A Buddha's canopy, or umbrella; a nimbus of rays of light, a halo.

天衆 The host of heaven, Brahma, Indra, and all their host.

天衆五相 The five signs of approaching demise among the devas, cf. 五衰.

天行 A bodhisattva's natural or spontaneous correspondence with fundamental law: one of the 五行 of the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra.

天衣 Deva garments, of extreme lightness.

天衣拂千歲 An illustration of the length of a small kalpa: if a great rock, let it be one, two, or even 40 li square, be dusted with a deva-garment once in a hundred years till the rock be worn away, the kalpa would still be unfinished.

天親 Vasubandhu, 伐蘇畔度; 婆藪槃豆 (or 婆修槃豆) (or 婆修槃陀) 'akin to the gods ', or 世親 'akin to the world'. Vasubandhu is described as a native of Puruṣapura, or Peshawar, by Eitel as of Rājagriha, born '900 years after the nirvana', or about A. D. 400; Takakusu suggests 420-500, Peri puts his death not later than 350. In Eitel's day the date of his death was put definitely at A. D. 117. Vasubandhu's great work, the Abhidharmakośa, is only one of his thirty-six works. He is said to be the younger brother of Asaṅga of the Yogācāra school, by whom he was converted from the Sarvāstivāda school of thought to that of Mahāyāna and of Nāgārjuna. On his conversion he would have 'cut out his tongue' for its past heresy, but was dissuaded by his brother, who bade him use the same tongue to correct his errors, whereupon he wrote the 唯識論 and other Mahayanist works. He is called the twenty-first patriarch and died in Ayodhya.

天語 The deva language, i. e. that of the Brahman, Sanskrit.

天識 Natural perception, or wisdom; the primal endowment in man: the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā.

天趣 idem 天道.

天迦 devanāgarī, 神字 the usual form of Sanskrit writing, introduced into Tibet, v. 梵字.

天道 deva-gati, or devasopāna, 天趣. (1) The highest of the six paths 六道, the realm of devas, i. e. the eighteen heavens of form and four of formlessness. A place of enjoyment, where the meritorious enjoy the fruits of good karma, but not a place of progress toward bodhisattva perfection. (2) The Dao of Heaven, natural law, cosmic energy; according to the Daoists, the origin and law of all things.

天部 The classes of devas; the host of devas; the host of heaven.

天部善神 Brahma, Indra, the four devaloka-rājas, and the other spirit guardians of Buddhism.

天須菩提 Deva Subhūti, one of three Subhūtis, disciples of the Buddha; said to have been so called because of his love of fine clothing and purity of life.

天食 sudhā, food of the gods sweet dew, ambrosia, nectar; blue, yellow, red, and white in colour, white for the higher ranks, the other colours for the lower.

天香 Deva incense, divine or excellent incense.

天鬼 Gods and demons; gati, or reincarnation, among devas and demons.

天魔 deva-māra, 魔羅 one of the four Māras, who dwells in the sixth heaven. Paranirmita-vaśa-vartin, at the top of the Kāmadhātu, with his innumerable host, whence he constantly obstructs the Buddha-truth and its followers. He is also styled 殺者 the slayer; also 波旬 explained by 惡愛 sinful love or desire, as he sends his daughters to seduce the saints; also 波卑 (波卑夜) Papiyan, the evil one. He is the special Māra of the Śākyamuni period; other Buddhas suffer from other Māras; v. 魔.

天魔外道 Māras and heretics— both enemies of Buddha-truth.

天鼓 The deva drum— in the 善法 Good Law Hall of the Trayas-triṃśas heavens, which sounds of itself, warning the inhabitants of the thirty-three heavens that even their life is impermanent and subject to karma: at the sound of the drum Indra preaches against excess. Hence it is a title of Buddha as the great law-drum, who warns, exhorts, and encourages the good and frightens the evil and the demons.

天鼓雷音佛 鼓音如來 Divyadundubhimeghanirghosa. One of the five Buddhas in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, on the north of the central group; said to be one of the dharmakāya of Sakyamuai, his 等流身 or universal emanation body; and is known as 不動尊 corresponding with Akṣobhya, cf. 五智如來 and 大日經疏 4.

天鼓音 雲自在燈王 Dundubhisvara-rāja. Lord of the sound of celestial drums, i. e. the thunder. Name of each of 2, 000 kotis of Buddhas who attained Buddhahood.

天龍 Devas, including Brahma, Indra, and the devas, together with the nāgas.

天龍八部 devas, nāgas, and others of the eight classes: devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas. 天; 龍; 夜叉; 乾闥婆; 阿修羅; 迦樓羅; 堅那羅; 摩睺羅迦.

天龍夜叉 devas, nāgas, yakṣas.

A hole: surname of Confucius; great, very; a peacock.

孔雀 mayūra, 摩裕羅 a peacock; the latter form is also given by Eitel for Mauriya as 'an ancient city on the north-east frontier of Matipura, the residence of the ancient Maurya (Morya) princes. The present Amrouah near Hurdwar'.

孔雀城 Mathurā, or Kṛṣṇapura; modern Muttra; 摩度羅 (or 摩偸羅, 摩突羅, or 摩頭羅); 秣兔羅 an ancient city and kingdom of Central India, famous for its stupas, reputed birthplace of Krisna.

孔雀明王 'Peacock king, ' a former incarnation of Śākyamuni, when as a peacock he sucked from a rock water of miraculous healing power; now one of the mahārāja bodhisattvas, with four arms, who rides on a peacock; his full title is 佛母大金曜孔雀明王. There is another 孔雀王 with two arms.

Few: also used as a transliteration of ṣat, six.

少光天 (少光); 廅天 parīttābhās; the fourth Brahmaloka, i. e. the first region of the second dhyāna heavens, also called 有光壽.

少室 Shaoshi, a hill on the 嵩山 Sungshan where Bodhidharma set up his 少林寺 infra.

少室六門集 Six brief treatises attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authenticity is denied.

少康 Shaokang, a famous monk of the Tang dynasty, known as the later 善導 Shandao, his master.

少林寺 The monastery at 少室 in 登封 Dengfeng xian, Henanfu, where Bodhidharma sat with his face to a wall for nine years.

少林武藝 Wu-i, a cook of the Shao-lin monastery, who is said single-handed to have driven off the Yellow Turban rebels with a three-foot staff, and who was posthumously rewarded with the rank of 'general '; a school of adepts of the quarter-staff, etc., was called after him, of whom thirteen were far-famed.

少欲知足 Content with few desires.

少淨天 (少淨) Parīttaśubhas. The first and smallest heaven (brahmaloka) in the third dhyāna region of form.

少財鬼 Hungry ghosts who pilfer because they are poor and get but little food.

Collect, mass; to quarter, camp. To sprout; very; stingy.

屯崙摩 Druma, the king of the kinhara, male and female spirits whose music awakened mystics from their trance: v. 智度論 17.

The open hand, palm; to lay hold of; to flatter.

巴利 Pali, considered by ' Southern ' Buddhists to be the language of Magadha, i. e. Māgadhī Prākrit, spoken by Śākyamuni: their Tripiṭaka is written in it. It is closely allied to Sanskrit, but phonetically decayed and grammatically degenerate.

巴思巴 v. 八思巴.

巴連弗 Pataliputra, v. 波吒釐.

巴陵三轉語 The three cryptic sayings of Hàojiàn 顥鑑 styled Baling, name of his place in Yuèzhōu 嶽州. He was the successor of Yunmen 雲門. 'What is the way ? The seeing fall into wells. What is the feather-cutting sword (of Truth)? Coral branches (i. e. moonbeams) prop up the moon. What is the divine (or deva) throng ? A silver bowl full of snow. '

巴鼻 (or 把鼻) ; 巴臂 Something to lay hold of, e. g. a nose or an arm; evidence.

māyā. Illusion, hallucination, a conjurer's trick, jugglery, i. e. one of the ten illustrations of unreality.

幻人 or幻士 An illusionist, a conjurer.

幻力 The powers of a conjurer.

幻化 Illusion and transformation, or illusory transformation.

幻垢 Illusory and defiled, i. e. body and mind are alike illusion and unclean.

幻師 An illusionist, a conjurer.

幻心 The illusion mind, or mind is unreal.

幻惑 Illusory; to delude.

幻日王 Bālāditya, 婆羅阿迭多 the morning sun (lit. mock-sun) king, circa A. D. 191. 幻 probably should be 幼; a king of Magadha, who fought and captured Mihirakula, the king of 磔迦 Ceka, or the Hūnas, who was an opponent of Buddhism.

幻有 Illusory existence.

幻法 Conjuring tricks, illusion, methods of Bodhisattva transformation.

幻相 Illusion, illusory appearance.

幻者 The illusory; anything that is an illusion; all things, for they are illusion.

幻身 The illusion-body, i. e. this body is not real but an illusion.

幻野 The wilderness of illusion, i. e. mortal life.

幻門 The ways or methods of illusion, or of bodhisattva transformation.

To stretch, draw, lead, bring in or on.

引入 To introduce, initiate.

引化 Initiate and instruct.

引出佛性 One of the 三佛性 q. v. the Buddha-nature in all the living to be developed by proper processes.

引導 To lead men into Buddha-truth); also a phrase used at funerals implying the leading of the dead soul to the other world, possibly arising from setting alight the funeral pyre.

引座 A phrase used by one who ushers a preacher into the 'pulpit' to expound the Law.

引接 引攝 To accept, receive, welcome— as a Buddha does all who call on him, as stated in the nineteenth vow 第十九願 of Amitābha.

引果 The stage of fruition, i. e. reward or punishment in the genus, as contrasted with 滿引 the differentiated species or stages, e. g. for each organ, or variety of condition. 唯識論 2.

引業 引因; 牽引業; 總報業 The principal or integral direction of karma, in contrast with 滿引 its more detailed stages; see last entry.

引正太子 Sātavāhana, 沙多婆漢那 a prince of Kosala, whose father the king was the patron of Nāgārjuna; the prince, attributing his father's unduly prolonged life to Nāgārjuna's magic, is said to have compelled the latter to commit suicide, on hearing of which the king died and the prince ascended the throne. 西域記 10.

引發因 One of the 十因 the force or cause that releases other forces or causes.

引磬 手磬 A hand-bell to direct the attention in services.

引請闍梨 A term for the instructor of beginners.

引飯大師 The great leader who introduces the meal, i. e. the club which beats the call to meals.

引駕大師 One of the 四大師 of the Tang dynasty; it was his duty to welcome back the emperor on his return to the palace, a duty at times apparently devolving on Buddhist monks.

hṛd, hṛdaya 汗栗太 (or 汗栗馱); 紀哩馱 the heart, mind, soul; citta 質多 the heart as the seat of thought or intelligence. In both senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various definitions, of which the following are six instances: (1) 肉團心 hṛd, the physical heart of sentient or nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) 集起心 citta, the ālayavijñāna, or totality of mind, and the source of all mental activity. (3) 思量心 manas, the thinking and calculating mind; (4) 緣慮心; 了別心; 慮知心; citta; the discriminating mind; (5) 堅實心 the bhūtatathatā mind, or the permanent mind; (6) 積聚精要心 the mind essence of the sutras.

心一境性 one of the seven dhyāna 定, the mind fixed in one condition.

心不相應行 ( or 心不相應行法) The functioning of the mind not corresponding with the first three of the 五法 five laws, of which this is the fourth.

心乘 The mind vehicle, i. e. 心觀 meditation, insight.

心亭 The pavilion of the mind, i. e. the body; cf.|城.

心佛 The Buddha within the heart: from mind is Buddha hood: the Buddha revealed in or to the mind; the mind is Buddha. 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 The mind, Buddha, and all the living — there is no difference between the three. i. e. all are of the same order. This is an important doctrine of the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra, cf. its 夜摩天宮品; by Tiantai it is called 三法妙 the mystery of the three things.

心作 The karmic activity of the mind, the 意業 of the three agents, body, mouth, and mind.

心光 The light from (a Buddha's) mind, or merciful heart, especially that of Amitābha.

心印 Mental impression, intuitive certainty; the mind is the Buddha-mind in all, which can seal or assure the truth; the term indicates the intuitive method of the 禪 Ch' an (Zen) school, which was independent of the spoken or written word.

心咒 One of the three classes of spells, idem 一字咒.

心命 Mind life, i. e. the life, longevity, or eternity of the dharmakāya or spiritual body, that of mind; also 慧命. v. 智度論 78.

心器 Mind as the receptacle of all phenomena.

心地 Mind, from which all things spīng; the mental ground, or condition; also used for 意 the third of the three agents-body, mouth, mind.

心城 The citadel of the mind, i. e. as guardian over action; others intp. it as the body, cf. 心亭.

心垢 The impurities of the mind, i. e. 煩惱 passion and delusion; the two phrases are used as synonyms.

心塵 Mind dust or dirt, i. e. 煩惱 the passions, greed, anger, etc.

心宗 The intuitive sect, i. e. the Ch'an (Zen) school; also 佛心宗; 禪宗.

心師 The mind as master, not (like the heretics) mastering (or subduing) the mind 師心.

心心 Every mind; also citta-caitta, mind and mental conditions, i. e. 心 and 心所.

心心數 The mind and its conditions or emotions; 心數 is an older form of 心所.

心念不空 Pondering on (Buddha) and not passing (the time) in vain.

心性 Immutable mind-corpus, or mind-nature, the self-existing fundamental pure mind, the all, the Tathāgata-garbha, or 如來藏心; 自性淸淨心; also described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith as immortal 不生不滅. Another definition identifies 心 with 性 saying 性卽是心, 心卽是佛 the nature is the mind, and mind is Buddha; another, that mind and nature are the same when 悟 awake and understanding, but differ when 迷 in illusion; and further, in reply to the statement that the Buddha-nature is eternal but the mind not eternal, it is said, the nature is like water, the mind like ice, illusion turns nature to mental ice form, awakening melts it back to its proper nature.

心性三千 The universe in a thought; the mind as a microcosm.

心想 Thought; the thoughts of the mind.

心意識 Mind, thought, and perception (or discernment).

心慧 wisdom, i. e. mind or heart wisdom, e. g. 身戒心慧 controlled in body and wise in mind.

心懷戀慕 Heart-yearning (for the Buddha).

心所 (心所法) Mental conditions, the attributes of the mind, especially the moral qualities, or emotions, love, hate, etc.; also 心所有法, v. 心心.

心數 An older term for 心所q. v. the several qualities of the mind. The esoterics make Vairocana the 心王, i. e. Mind or Will, and 心數 the moral qualities, or mental attributes, are personified as his retinue.

心智 Mind and knowledge, or the wisdom of the mind, mind being the organ, knowing the function.

心月 Mind (as the) moon, the natural mind or heart pure and bright as the full moon.

心月輪 The mind' s or heart' s moon-revolutions, i. e. the moon' s varying stages, typifying the grades of enlightenment from beginner to saint.

心根 Manas, or the mind-organ, one of the twenty-five tattva 諦 or postulates of a universe.

心極 The pole or extreme of the mind, the mental reach; the Buddha.

心機 The motive power of the mind, the mind the motor.

心水 The mind as a reflecting water-surface; also the mind as water, clear or turbids.

心冰 The heart chaste as ice; the mind congealed as ice, i. e. unable to solve a difficulty.

心法 Mental dharmas, idea— all 'things' are divided into two classes 色 and 心 physical and mental; that which has 質礙 substance and resistance is physical, that which is devoid of these is mental; or the root of all phenomena is mind 緣起諸法之根本者爲心法. The exoteric and esoteric schools differ in their interpretation: the exoterics hold that mental ideas or 'things' are 無色無形 unsubstantial and invisible, the esoterics that they 有色有形 have both substance and form.

心法身 心是法身 The mind is dharmakāya, 'tathāgata in bonds,' 在纏如來.

心波 Mind waves, i. e. mental activity.

心海 Mind as a sea or ocean, external phenomena being the wind, and the 八識 eight forms of cognition being the waves.

心源 The fountain of the mind; the thought-welling fountain; mind as the fons et origo of all things.

心無所住 The mind without resting-place, i. e. detached from time and space, e. g. the past being past may be considered as a 'non-past' or non-existent, so with present and future, thus realizing their unreality. The result is detachment, or the liberated mind, which is the Buddha-mind, the bodhi-mind, 無生心 the mind free from ideas of creation and extinction, of beginning and end, recognizing that all forms and natures are of the Void, or Absolute.

心燈 The lamp of the mind; inner light, intelligence.

心猿 The mind as a restless monkey.

心王 The mind, the will the directive or controlling mind, the functioning mind as a whole, distinct from its 心所 or qualities.

心王如來 Vairocana as the ultimate mind, the attributes being personified as his retinue. Applied also to the 五佛 and the 九尊.

心王心所 The mind and its qualities, or conditions.

心珠 The mind stuff of all the living, being of the pure Buddha-nature, is likened to a translucent gem.

心生滅門 The two gates of mind, creation and destruction, or beginning and end.

心田 The field of the mind, or heart, in which spring up good and evil.

心目 Mind and eye, the chief causes of the emotions.

心相 Heart-shape (of the physical heart); manifestation of mind in action; (the folly of assuming that) mind has shape.

心相應行 Actions corresponding with mind, or mind productive of all action.

心眞 Our mind is by nature that of the bhūtatathatā.

心眞如門 The mind as bhūtatathatā, one of the 二門 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

心眼 The eye of the mind, mental vision.

心神 The spirit of the mind, mental intelligence: mind.

心空 Mind-space, or mind spaciousness, mind holding all things, hence like space; also, the emptied mind, kenosis.

心經 Hṛdaya or 'Heart' Sutra, idem 般若心經; 般若波羅蜜多心經; styled 神分心經 'divinely distributed', when publicly recited to get rid of evil spirits.

心縛 The mind in bondage— taking the seeming for the real.

心緣 Mental cognition of the environment; to lay hold of external things by means of the mind.

心自在者 He whose mind is free, or sovereign, an arhat who has got rid of all hindrances to abstraction.

心華 Heart-flower, the heart in its original innocence resembling a fower.

心蓮 The lotus of the mind or heart; the exoteric school interprets it by original purity; the esoteric by the physical heart, which resembles a closed lotus with eight petals.

心藥 Medicine for the mind, or spirit.

心行 The activities of the mind, or heart; also working on the mind for its control; also mind and action.

心行不離 Mind and act not separated, thought and deed in accord, especially in relation to Amitābha.

心要 The very core, or essence.

心觀 Contemplation of the mind and its thoughts, v. 一心三觀.

心證 The inner witness, or assurance, mind and Buddha witnessing together.

心識 The mind and cognition; mind and its contents; the two are considered as identical in the Abhidharma-kośa, but different in Mahāyāna.

心趣 The bent or direction of the mind, or moral nature.

心跡 Footprints, or indications of mind, i. e. the mind revealed by deeds.

心路 The mind-road, i. e. the road to Buddhahood.

心量 Mind-measure; the ordinary man's calculating mind; also, capacity of mind.

心鏡 The heart-mirror, or mirror of the mind, which must be kept clean if it is to reflect the Truth.

心靈 The mind spirit, or genius; intelligence; cf. 心燈.

心願 The will of the mind, resolve, vow.

心香 The incense of the mind, or heart, i. e. sincere devotion.

心馬 The mind like a horse, that needs breaking in, or stimulating with a whip, cf. 心猿.

心鬼 A perverse mind, whose karma will be that of a wandering ghost.

心魔 (心魔賊) The māra-robbers of the mind, i. e. the passions.

A spear.

戈追 idem 倶胝 q. v. Koti.

pāṇī; hasta; kara; hand, arm.

手印 mūdra, mystic positions of the hand; signet-rings, seals; finger-prints.

手口意相應 In yoga practices it means correspondence of hand, mouth, and mind, i. e. manual signs, esoteric words or spells, and thought or mental projection.

手執金剛杵 Vajrapāṇi, or Vajradhara, who holds the thunderbolt.

手爐 A portable censer (with handle).

手磬 A hand-chime (or bell) struck with a stick.

手輪 The lines on the palm and fingers— especially the 'thousand' lines on a Buddha's hand.

A branch; to branch, put off, pay, advance.

支伐羅 至縛羅 cīvara. A mendicant' s garment.

支佛, 辟支佛 A pratyekabuddha, who understands the twelve nidānas, or chain of causation, and so attains to complete wisdom. His stage of attainment is the 支佛地.

支具 支度 The various articles required for worship.

支提 支帝; 支徵; 支陀; 脂帝. Newer forms are 制多; 制底 (制底耶); 制地, i. e. 刹, 塔, 廟 caitya. A tumulus, a mausoleum; a place where the relics of Buddha were collected, hence a place where his sutras or images are placed. Eight famous Caityas formerly existed: Lumbinī, Buddha-gayā, Vārāṇasī, Jetavana, Kanyākubja, Rājagṛha 王舍城, Vaiśālī, and the Śāla grove in Kuśinagara. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the exact connotation of the terms given, some being referred to graves or stūpas, others to shrines or temples, but in general the meaning is stūpas, shrines, and any collection of objects of worship.

支提山部 支提加部; 制多山部; 只底舸部 ? Caityaśaila; described as one of the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, and as ascetic dwellers among tombs or in caves.

支樓迦讖 支讖 Chih-lou-chia-ch'an, a śramaṇa who came to China from Yueh-chih A. D. 147 or A. D. 164 and worked at translations till A. D. 186 at Loyang.

支用 To divide, distribute for use, i. e. 分用.

支謙 Chih-ch'ien; name of a Yueh-chih monk said to have come to Loyang at the end of the Han dynasty and under the Wei; tall, dark, emaciated, with light brown eyes; very learned and wise.

支那, 指那, 眞丹, 至那, 斯那, 振旦, 震旦, 眞那, 振丹, 脂難, 旃丹; 摩訶至那 Cina; Maha-cina. The name by which China is referred to in the laws of Manu (which assert that the Chinese were degenerate Kṣatriya), in the Mahābharata, and in Buddhist works. This name may have been derived from families ruling in western China under such titles as 晉 Chin at Fen-chou in Shansi 1106-376 B. C., 陳 Ch'en in Honan 1122-479 B. C., 秦 Ch'in in Shensi as early as the ninth century B. C., and to this latter dynasty the designation is generally attributed.

支那提婆瞿恒羅 漢天種 Cīnadeva gotra. The 'solar deva' of Han descent, first king of Khavandha, born to a princess of the Han dynasty (206 B. C. -A. D. 220) on her way as a bride-elect to Persia, the parentage being attributed to the solar deva. 西域記 12.

支鄰陀 Mucilinda, v. 目 or 摩訶 Maha-m.

支郞 Chih-lang, formerly a polite term for a monk, said to have arisen from the fame of the three 支 Chih of the Wei dynasty 支謙 Chih-ch'ien, 支讖 Chih-ch'an, and 支亮 Chih-liang.

Letters, literature, writing; refined; culture; civil; a despatch; veined; a cash; to gloss.

文句 Textual explanation or criticism, also termed 章; 疏; 述義; 記, etc.; the term applies to works on canonical texts in general, but has particular reference to the Lotus Sutra, i. e. the 妙法蓮華經文句.

文來 A portfolio, or satchel for Buddhist books.

文字 The letter; letters; literal; the written word is described as the breath and life of the dharmakāya; cf. 嚕 ruta.

文字人 A literalist, pedant; narrow.

文字法師 A teacher of the letter of the Law, who knows not its spirit.

文尼 muni, idem 牟尼 and 茂尼, e. g. Śākyamuni.

文殊 (文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.

文殊三昧 The samādhi of Mañjuśrī styled the 無相妙慧 formless wonderful wisdom, or wonderful wisdom in the realm of that which is beyond form.

文殊五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī, each bearing one of his 五智 five expressions of wisdom; they are 髻設尼; 優波髻設尼; 質多羅; 地慧, and 請召.

文殊八大童子 The eight 'pages' of Mañjuśrī are 光網; 地慧; 無垢光; 不思慧; 召請; 髻設尼; 救護慧, and 鄥波髻設尼.

文殊悔過 The repentance of Mañjuśrī, i. e. of his former doubting mind, cf. St. Thomas.

文殊院 The seventh great court of the thirteen in the Garbhadhātu group; it shows Mañjuśrī in the centre of a group of twenty-five.

文池 The dragon pool by the side of the throne of Vajrapāṇi, called 目眞鄰陀 Mucilinda q. v.

文理 The written word and the truth expressed; written principles, or reasonings; a treatise; literary style.

文證 The evidence of the written word, or scripture.

文陀竭 Mūrdhajāta, Māndhātṛ, i. e. 頂生王 born from his mother's head, a reputed previous incarnation of the Buddha, who still ambitious, despite his universal earthly sway, his thousand sons, etc., few to Indra's heaven, saw the 天上玉女 celestial devī, but on the desire arising to rule there on Indra's death, he was hurled to earth; v. 文陀竭王經.

A bushel, i. e. ten Chinese pints.

斗帳 A bushel-shaped curtain, e. g. a state umbrella.

斗姥 Dame of the Bushel; queen of heaven 天后 or Marīci, 摩利支.

斗父天尊 The husband of the Dame of the Bushel 斗姥, a Daoist attribution.

An adze; to chop; a catty, 1 and 1/3 lb.: penetrating, minute.

斤斗 筋斗; 巾斗 A somersault.

Square; place; correct; a means, plan, prescription; then, now, just.

方丈 An abbot, 寺主 head of a monastery; the term is said to arise from the ten-foot cubic dwelling in which 維摩 Vimalakirti lived, but here seems to be no Sanskrit equivalent.

方便 upāya. Convenient to the place, or situation, suited to the condition, opportune, appropriate; but 方 is interpreted as 方法 method, mode, plan, and 便 as 便用 convenient for use, i. e. a convenient or expedient method; also 方 as 方正 and 便 as 巧妙, which implies strategically correct. It is also intp. as 權道智 partial, temporary, or relative (teaching of) knowledge of reality, in contrast with 般若智 prajñā, and 眞實 absolute truth, or reality instead of the seeming. The term is a translation of 傴和 upāya, a mode of approach, an expedient, stratagem, device. The meaning is— teaching according to the capacity of the hearer, by any suitable method, including that of device or stratagem, but expedience beneficial to the recipient is understood. Mahāyāna claims that the Buddha used this expedient or partial method in his teaching until near the end of his days, when he enlarged it to the revelation of reality, or the preaching of his final and complete truth; Hīnayāna with reason denies this, and it is evident that the Mahāyāna claim has no foundation, for the whole of its 方等 or 方廣 scriptures are of later invention. Tiantai speaks of the 三乘 q. v. or Three Vehicles as 方便 expedient or partial revelations, and of its 一乘 or One Vehicle as the complete revelation of universal Buddhahood. This is the teaching of the Lotus Sutra, which itself contains 方便 teaching to lead up to the full revelation; hence the terms 體内 (or 同體 ) 方便, i. e. expedient or partial truths within the full revelation, meaning the expedient part of the Lotus, and 體外方便 the expedient or partial truths of the teaching which preceded the Lotus; see the 方便品 of that work, also the second chapter of the 維摩經. 方便 is also the seventh of the ten pāramitās.

方便化身土 An intermediate 'land 'of the Japanese monk 見眞 Kenshin, below the Pure-land, where Amitābha appears in his transformation-body.

方便土 Abbreviation for the last and next but one.

方便智 upāya-jñāna; the wisdom or knowledge of using skilful means (for saving others).

方便有餘土 One of the Tiantai 四土 Four Lands, which is temporary, as its occupants still have remains to be purged away.

方便殺生 The right of great Bodhisattvas, knowing every one's karma, to kill without sinning, e. g. in order to prevent a person from committing sin involving unintermitted suffering, or to aid him in reaching one of the higher reincarnations.

方便波羅蜜 upāya, the seventh pāramitā.

方便波羅蜜菩薩 A bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu group, the second on the right in the hall of Space.

方便現涅槃 Though the Buddha is eternal, he showed himself as temporarily extinct, as necessary to arouse a longing for Buddha, cf. Lotus, 16.

方便門 The gates of upāya, i. e. convenient or expedient gates leading into Truth.

方便假門 Expedient gates or ways of using the seeming for the real.

方典 A term covering the whole of the Mahāyāna sutras, idem 方等經典.

方口食 Opportunism in obtaining a living, i. e. a monk who makes a living by fawning or by bullying, one of the 四邪命 four illicit ways of livelihood.

方外 Out of the world; the life of a monk.

方廣 vaipulya, 毘佛略 expansion, enlargement, broad, spacious. 方 is intp. by 方正 correct in doctrine and 廣 by 廣博 broad or wide; some interpret it by elaboration, or fuller explanation of the doctrine; in general it may be taken as the broad school, or wider teaching, in contrast with the narrow school, or Hīnayāna. The term covers the whole of the specifically Mahāyāna sutras. The sutras are also known as 無量義經 scriptures of measureless meaning, i. e. universalistic, or the infinite. Cf. 方等.

方廣大莊嚴經 A vaipulya sutra, the Lalita-vistara, in 12 chuan, giving an account of the Buddha in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to earth as Śākyamuni: tr. by Divākara under the Tang dynasty; another tr. is the 普曜經.

方廣道人 Heretical followers of Mahāyāna, who hold a false doctrine of 空 the Void, teaching it as total non-existence, or nihilism.

方相 Square, four square, one of the five shapes.

方等 vaipulya; cf. 方廣. 方 is interpreted as referring to the doctrine, 等 as equal, or universal, i. e. everynwhere equally. An attempt is made to distinguish between the two above terms, 方廣 being now used for vaipulya, but they are interchangeable. Eitel says the vaipulya sutras 'are distinguished by an expansion of doctrine and style (Sūtras developées, Burnouf). They are apparently of later date, showing the influence of different schools; their style is diffuse and prolix, repeating the same idea over and over again in prose and in verse; they are also frequently interlarded with prophecies and dhāraṇīs'; but the two terms seem to refer rather to the content than the form. The content is that of universalism. Chinese Buddhists assert that all the sutras from the 華嚴 Huayan onwards are of this class and therefore are Mahāyāna. Consequently all 方等 or 方廣 sutras are claimed by that school. Cf. 方便.

方等三昧 One of Tiantai's methods of inducing samādhi, partly by walking, partly by sitting, based on the 大方等陀羅尼經; Zhiyi delivered the 方等三昧行法 to his disciple 灌頂 Guanding who wrote it in one juan.

方等懺悔 (方等懺) One of the subjects of meditation in the 方等三昧 on the hindrances caused by the six organs of sense.

方等戒壇 (方等壇) An open altar at which instruction in the commandments was preached to the people, founded on the Mahāyāna-vaipulya sutras; the system began in 765 in the capital under 代宗 Daizong of the Tang dynasty and continued, with an interim under 武宗 Wuzong, till the 宣宗 Xuanzong period.

方等時 The third of the five periods of Tiantai 五時教, the eight years from the twelfth to the twentieth years of the Buddha's teaching, i. e. the period of the 維摩經, the 金光明經, and other vaipulya sutras.

方等部 The sutras taught during the 方等時 expedient period.

方服 A monk's robe 袈裟 said to be so called because of its square appearance; also 方袍.

方規 Square-shaped, properly, according to scale.

方詣 Direction.

sūrya; the sun; a day. 蘇利耶.

日光 (日光菩薩); 蘇利也波羅皮遮那 Sūrya-prabhāsana. Sunlight, and 月光 (月光菩薩) Moonlight, name of two Bodhisattva assistants of 藥師 the Master of Healing; Sunlight is the ninth in the Dizang Court of the Garbhadhātu group.

日出論者 The sunrise exponents, a title of the founders of the 經部宗 before the Christian era.

日域 Japan.

日天 (日天子) sūrya, 蘇利耶; 修利; 修野天子 (or 修意天子) 天子; also 寳光天子. The sun-ruler; one of the metamorphoses of Guanyin, dwelling in the sun as palace, driving a quadriga.

日天衆 The retinue of Indra in his palace of the sun.

日宮 The sun-palace, the abode of 日天子 supra.

日幢華眼鼓 Five characters taken from the names of, and representing five Buddhas in the Vajradhātu 大日, 寳幢, 華開敷, 蓮華眼, and 天鼓雷音.

日想觀 Meditation on, and observing of the setting sun, the first of the sixteen meditations in the 觀無量壽經.

日旋三昧 sūryāvarta-samādhi, one of the sixteen samādhi mentioned in the 法華經, 妙音品; 日輪三昧 is an older name for it.

日星宿 Nakṣatratārā-rāja-ditya; a degree of meditation, i. e. the sun, stars and constellations samādhi.

日曜 The sun, one of the nine 曜 luminaries; one of the retinue of 日天 shown in the eastern part of the Garbhadhātu group driving three horses.

日月淨明德 Candra-vimala-sūrya-prabhāsa-śrī. A Buddha whose realm resembles Sukhāvatī.

日月燈明佛 Candra-sūrya-pradīpa, or Candrārkadīpa. The title of 20, 000 Buddhas who succeeded each other preaching the Lotus Sutra, v. 法華經, 序品.

日本 Japan. Buddhism was introduced there from Korea in the sixth century, and in the seventh from China.

日禺中 10 a. m. styled by Tiantai the hour of 般若 wisdom.

日種 Sūrya-vaṃśa, one of the five surnames of Śākyamuni, sun-seed or lineage, his first ancestors having been produced by the sun from. 'two stalks of sugar-cane'; v. Ikṣvāku.

日精摩尼 A maṇi 摩尼, or pearl, crystal-clear as the sun, which gives sight to the blind.

日蓮 Nichiren, the Japanese founder, in A. D. 1252, of the 日蓮宗 Nichiren sect, which is also known as the 法華宗 or Lotus sect. Its chief tenets are the three great mysteries 三大祕法, representing the trikāya: (1) 本尊 or chief object of worship, being the great maṇḍala of the worlds of the ten directions, or universe, i. e. the body or nirmāṇakāya of Buddha; (2) 題目 the title of the Lotus Sutra 妙法蓮華經 Myo-ho-ren-gwe-kyo, preceded by Namo, or, 'Adoration to the scripture of the lotus of the wonderful law, ' for it is Buddha's spiritual body; (3) 戒壇 the altar of the law, which is also the title of the Lotus as above; the believer, wherever he is, dwells in the Pure-land of calm light 寂光淨土, the saṃbhogakāya.

日輪 The sun's disc, which is the exterior of the sun palace of 日天子; it is said to consist of sphaṭika, or fiery crystal.

candra, 旅達 (旅達羅); 旂陀羅; 戰達羅; 戰捺羅 the moon, called also 蘇摩 soma, from the fermented juice of asclepias acida used in worship, and later personified in association with the moon. It has many other epithets, e. g. 印度 Indu, incorrectly intp. as marked like a hare; 創夜神 Niśākara, maker of the night; 星宿王 Nakṣatranātha, lord of constellations; 喜懷之頭飾 the crest of Siva; 蓮華王 Kumuda-pati, lotus lord; 白馬主 Śvetavājin, drawn by (or lord of) white horses; 大白光神 Śītāṃśu, the spirit with white rays; 冷光神 Sitamarici, the spirit with cool rays; 鹿形神 Mṛgāṅka, the spirit with marks m form like a deer; 野兎形神 Śaśi, ditto like a hare.

月上女經 Candrottarā-dārikā-vyākaraṇa-sūtra of the maid in the moon.

月光 Candraprabha, 戰達羅鉢刺婆 Moonlight. One of the three honoured ones in the Vajradhātu, and in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu, known also as 淸涼金剛.

月光太子 Moonlight prince, name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation as a prince, when he split one of his bones to anoint a leper with its marrow and gave him of his blood to drink. 智度論 12.

月光王 Moonlight king, the same as 月光太子, the name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation when he gave his head to a brahman.

月光童子 月光兒 The son of an elder of the capital of Magadha, who listening to heretics and against his son's pleadings, endeavoured to destroy the Buddha in a pitfall of fire, but, on the Buddha's approach, the fire turned to a pool and the father was converted; the son was then predicted by the Buddha to be king of China in a future incarnation, when all China and the Mongolian and other tribes would be converted, v. 月光童子經.

月光菩薩 The bodhisattva Moonlight who attends on 藥師 the Master of Healing; also in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu; used for 月光王; v. 月光菩薩經.

月兎 The hare in the moon.

月分 Moon and division, a tr. of candrabhaga, 旃達羅婆伽 The two rivers Candra and Bhaga joined. The Chenab river, Punjab, the Acesines of Alexander.

月壇 An external altar in temples in the open, i. e. under the moon.

月天 Candradeva, or Somadeva. 旃達提婆 (or 蘇摩提婆) The ruler of the moon, to whom the terms under 月 supra are also applied.

月天子 The male regent of the moon, named 寳吉祥, one of the metamorphoses of the Bodhisattva 勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta; the male regent has also his queen 月天妃.

月婆首那 Upaśūnya, 高 空 an Indian monk, son of the king of 優禪尼 Udyāna, who tr. 僧伽叱經.

月宮 The moon-palace of the 月天子 made of silver and crystal; it is described as forty-nine yojanas square, but there are other accounts.

月忌 The return of the day in each month when a person died.

月愛三昧 A Buddha's 'moon-love samādhi' in which he rids men of the distresses of love and hate.

月愛珠 Candrakānta, the moon-love pearl or moonstone, which bestows abundance of water or rain.

月支 (月支國) The Yuezhi, or 'Indo-Scythians', 月氏 (國) and a country they at one time occupied, i. e. 都貨羅 Tukhara, Tokharestan, or Badakshan. Driven out from the northern curve of the Yellow River by the Huns, circa 165 B. C., they conquered Bactria 大夏, the Punjab, Kashmir, 'and the greater part of India. ' Their expulsion from the north of Shansi was the cause of the famous journey of Zhangqian of the Han dynasty and the beginning of Chinese expansion to the north-west. Kanishka, king of the Yuezhi towards the end of the first century A. D., became the great protector and propagator of Buddhism.

月明菩薩 idem 月光菩薩; there is a 月明菩薩經. Also 月明童子 (or 月明男).

月曜 Moon-shining, or Moon-effulgence; a group shown outside the Garbhadhātu group in the Diamond Court.

月燈三昧 candra-dīpa-samādhi, the samādhi said to have been given to 月光童子 by Buddha, the sutra of which is in two translations.

月王 Moon-king, 設賞迦 Śaśāṇka, a ruler of Karṇasuvarṇa, who tried to destroy the bodhidruma, Buddha's tree; dethroned by Śīlāditya.

月冑 Candravarma, 旃達羅伐摩 a learned monk of the Nāgavadana monastery.

月眉 New moon eyebrows, i. e. arched like the Buddha's.

月種 Candravaṃśa, descendants of the moon, 'the lunar race of kings or the second great line of Kṣatriya or royal dynasties in India. ' M. W.

月精摩尼(月精) The pearl or jewel in the fortieth hand of the 'thousand hand' Guanyin, towards which worship is paid in case of fevers; the hand is called 月精手.

月蓋 An elder of Vaiśālī, who at the Buddha's bidding sought the aid of Amitābha, 勢至 (Mahāsthamaprāpta) and Guanyin, especially the last, to rid his people of a pestilence. See Vimalakīrti Sutra.

月輦 The chariot of 月天子.

月輪 The moon's disc, the moon.

月輪觀 (or 月輪三昧) The moon contemplation ( or samādhi) in regard to its sixteen nights of waxing to the full, and the application of this contemplation to the development of bodhi within, especially of the sixteen kinds of bodhisattva mind of the lotus and of the human heart.

月面佛 The 'moon-face Buddha', whose life is only a day and a night, in contrast with the sun-face Buddha whose life is 1, 800 years.

月黶尊 One of the names of a 明王 Ming Wang, i. e. 'moon-black' or 'moon-spots', 降三世明王 the maharāja who subdues all resisters, past, present, and future, represented with black face, three eyes, four protruding teeth, and fierce laugh.

月鼠 The moon rat, one of the two rats, black and white, that gnaw the cord of life, i. e. night and day.

Wood; a tree; kāṣṭha, a piece of wood, wood, timber.

木上座 The elder with the tree, or the wooden elder; the elder's staff.

木佛 A Buddha of wood, i. e. an image of wood.

木佉褒折娜 mukhaproṅchana, or face-wiper, towel handkerchief, one of the thirteen articles of a monk.

木叉 木蛇; 波羅提木叉 mokṣa, prātimokṣa 波羅提木叉; mokṣa is deliverance, emancipation; prati, 'towards, 'implies the getting rid of evils one by one; the 250 rules of the Vinaya for monks for their deliverance from the round of mortality.

木叉提婆 Mokṣadeva. A title given by the Hinayanists in India to Mahāyānadeva, i. e. 玄奘 Xuanzang.

木叉毱多 Mokṣagupta. A monk of Karashahr, protagonist of the Madhyamayāna school, 'whose ignorance Xuanzang publicly exposed. ' Eitel.

木底 mukti, 解脫 deliverance, liberation, emancipation; the same meaning is given to 目帝羅 mucira, which has more the sense of being free with (gifts), generosity.

木律僧 A wooden pettifogging monk; a rigid formalist.

木得羅 Mudra, a seal; mystic signs with the hands.

木星 勿哩訶婆跋底 Bṛhaspati; 'Lord of increase,' the planet Jupiter.

木曜 Jupiter, one of the 九曜 nine luminaries, q. v.; on the south of the diamond hall outside the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.

木槵子 無患子 A tree whose wood can exorcise evil spirits, or whose seeds are used as rosary-beads. It is said to be the ariṣṭa 阿梨瑟迦紫, which means unharmed, secure; it is the name of the soap-berry and other shrubs.

木樂子 Seeds used for rosary-beads.

木瓜林 苦行林 Papaya forest, i. e. Uruvilva, 優樓頻螺 the place near Gayā where Kāśyapa, Śākyamuni, and others practised their austerities before the latter's enlightenment; hence the former is styled Uruvilva Kāśyapa.

木蘭色 Brownish colour made from bark, probably cinnamon.

木頭 Blockhead, a stupid person, one who breaks the commandments.

木香 根香; 薰陸香; 多伽羅 tagara. An incense-yielding tree, putchuk; vangueria spinosa or tabernae montana coronaria; Eitel.

木食 Living on wild fruits nuts, etc.

木魚 The wooden fish; there are two kinds, one round for use to keep time in chanting, the other long for calling to meals. The origin of the use of a fish is unkজxample to monks to be watchful: there is no evidence of connection with the Christian ίχθύς.ί 木馬 Wooden horse, a symbol of emancipation.

To owe: debt; deficient; to bend, bow, yawn, etc.; the Sanskrit sign अ said to imply 大空不可得 space, great and unattainable or immeasurable.

To stop, halt, cease; one of the seven definitions of 禪定 dhyāna described as 奢摩他 śamatha or 三摩地 samādhi; it is defined as 靜息動心 silencing, or putting to rest the active mind, or auto-hypnosis; also 心定止於一處 the mind centred, lit. the mind steadily fixed on one place, or in one position. It differs from 觀 which observes, examines, sifts evidence; 止 has to do with 拂妄 getting rid of distraction for moral ends; it is abstraction, rather than contemplation; see 止觀 In practice there are three methods of attaining such abstraction: (a) by fixing the mind on the nose, navel, etc.; (b) by stopping every thought as it arises; (c) by dwelling on the thought that nothing exists of itself, but from a preceding cause.

止息 To stop, cease; to stop breathing by self-control; to bring the mind to rest; used for 止觀.

止持 Self-control in keeping the commandments or prohibitions relating to deeds and words, which are styled 止持戒, 止持門, 止惡門. 止犯; 止持作犯 Stopping offences; ceasing to do evil, preventing others from doing wrong.

止觀 奢摩他毗婆舍那 (or 奢摩他毗鉢舍那) śamatha-vipaśyanā, which Sanskrit words are intp. by 止觀; 定慧; 寂照; and 明靜; for their respective meanings see 止 and 觀. When the physical organism is at rest it is called 止 zhi, when the mind is seeing clearly it is called 觀 guan. The term and form of meditation is specially connected with its chief exponent, the founder of the Tiantai school, which school is styled 止觀宗 Zhiguan Zong, its chief object being concentration of the mind by special methods for the purpose of clear insight into truth, and to be rid of illusion. The Tiantai work gives ten fields of mediation, or concentration: (1) the 五陰, 十八界, and 十二入; (2) passion and delusion; (3) sickness; (4) karma forms; (5) māra-deeds; (6) dhyāna; (7) (wrong) theories; (8) arrogance; (9) the two Vehicles; (10) bodhisattvahood.

止觀和尚 A name for the Tang monk Daosui 道邃.

止觀宗 Another name for the Tiantai school.

止觀捨 The upekṣā, indifference to or abandonment of both 止 and 觀, i. e. to rise above both into the universal.

止觀玄文 Another name for the止觀論.

止觀論 摩訶止觀論 The foundation work on Tiantai's modified form of samādhi, rest of body for clearness of vision. It is one of the three foundation works of the Tiantai School: was delivered by 智顗 Zhiyi to his disciple 章安 Chāgan who committed it to writing. The treatises on it are numerous.

To compare; than; to assemble, arrive; partisan; each; translit. pi, bhi, vi, v. also 毘, 毗.

比丘 比呼; 苾芻; 煏芻 bhikṣu, a religious mendicant, an almsman, one who has left home, been fully ordained, and depends on alms for a living. Some are styled 乞士 mendicant scholars, all are 釋種 Śākya-seed, offspring of Buddha. The Chinese characters are clearly used as a phonetic equivalent, but many attempts have been made to give meanings to the two words, e. g. 比 as 破 and 丘 as 煩惱, hence one who destroys the passions and delusions, also 悕能 able to overawe Māra and his minions; also 除饉 to get rid of dearth, moral and spiritual. Two kinds 内乞 and 外乞; both indicate self-control, the first by internal mental or spiritual methods, the second by externals such as strict diet. 苾芻 is a fragrant plant, emblem of the monastic life.

比丘尼 苾芻尼; 尼姑 bhikṣuṇī. A nun, or almswoman. The first woman to be ordained was the Buddha's aunt Mahāprajāpatī, who had nursed him. In the fourteenth year after his enlightenment the Buddha yielded to persuasion and admitted his aunt and women to his order of religious mendicants, but said that the admission of women would shorten the period of Buddhism by 500 years. The nun, however old, must acknowledge the superiority of every monk; must never scold him or tell his faults; must never accuse him, though he may accuse her; and must in all respects obey the rules as commanded by him. She accepts all the rules for the monks with additional rules for her own order. Such is the theory rather than the practice. The title by which Mahāprajāpatī was addressed was applied to nuns, i. e. ārya, or noble, 阿姨, though some consider the Chinese term entirely native.

比丘尼戒 The nun's '500 rules' and the eight commanding respect for monks, cf. 五百戒 and 八敬戒; also 比丘尼戒本 and other works; the 比丘尼僧祇律波羅提木叉戒經 Bhikṣuṇī-sāṃghika-vinaya-prātimokṣa-sūtra was tr. by Faxian and also by Buddhabhadra.

比丘會 An authoritative assembly of at least four monks; idem 僧伽.

比吒迦倶舍 piṭaka-kośa. i. e. 藏 a thesaurus, treasury, store.

比摩寺 A monastery five li west of Khotan where Laozi is said to have converted the Huns to Buddhism.

比耆陀羨那 毗戌陀僧訶 Viśuddhasiṃha; the second form is defined by Eitel as 淨師子 pure lion, a Mahayanist, circa A. D. 640; the first is named in the 賢愚經 6, but they may be two different persons.

比智 idem. 類智 q. v.

比羅娑落 (比羅娑落山) Pīlusāragiri, 象堅山 Hill firm as an elephant, a mountain southwest of the capital of Kapiśā, 'the tutelary deity of which was converted by Sakvamuni.' Eitel. Aśoka built a stūpa on its summit. 婆 is found in error for 娑 and 洛 for 落.

比那 (比那多); 毗那 vinata, 不高 A low hill.

比量 Comparison and inference; it is defined as 比 comparison of the known, and 量 inference of the unknown. It is the second form in logic of the three kinds of example, 現, 比 and 聖教量, e. g. the inference of fire from smoke.

比量相違 viruddha. A contradicting example or analogy in logic, e. g. the vase is permanent (or eternal), because of its nature; one of the nine, in the proposition, of the thirty-three possible fallacies in a syllogism.

Hair; feathers.

毛病 flaw, ailment.

毛孔 Hair-hole, pore, the pores.

毛繩 A hair rope, i. e. tied up by the passions, as with an unbreakable hair rope.

毛道 毛頭 A name for 凡夫 ordinary people, i. e. non-Buddhists, the unenlightened; the 毛 is said to be a translation of vāla, hair or down, which in turn is considered an error for bāla, ignorant, foolish, i. e. simple people who are easily beguiled. It is also said to be a form of bala-pṛthag-jana, v. 婆, which is intp. as born in ignorance; the ignorant and untutored in general.

毛道生 The ignorant people.

毛道凡夫 An ignorant, gullible person.

毛頭 idem 毛道; also, a barber-monk who shaves the fraternity.

毛馱伽羅子 Mudgalaputra, idem Mahāmaudgalyāyana, v. 目連.

water; liquid.

水上泡 A bubble on the water, emblem of all things being transient.

水中月 v. 水月.

水乳 Water and milk— an illustration of the intermingling of things; but their essential separateness is recognized in that the rāja-haṃsa (a kind of goose) is said to be able to drink up the milk leaving behind the water.

水冠 A monk's hat shaped like the character 'water' in front.

水器 water vessel; a filter used by the esoterics in baptismal and other rites.

水圓 water-globule, a tabu term for the more dangerous term 火珠 fire-pearl or ruby, also altered to 珠圓 pearl ball; it is the ball on top of a pagoda.

水塵 An atom of dust wandering freely in water— one of the smallest of things.

水壇 The water, or round, altar in the homa, or Fire ceremonial of the esoterics; also an altar in a house, which is cleansed with filtered water in times of peril.

水大 The element water, one of the four elements 四大 q. v.

水天 Varuṇa, 縛嚕拏; 婆樓那 ούϕανός, the heavens, or the sky, where are clouds and dragons; the 水神 water-deva, or dragon-king, who rules the clouds, rains, and water generally. One of the 大神 in the esoteric maṇḍalas; he rules the west; his consort is the 水天妃 represented on his left, and his chief retainer 水天眷屬 is placed on his right.

水天供 or 水天法 is the method of worshipping Varuṇa for rain.

水天德佛 The 743 rd Buddha of the present universe.

水定 The water dhyāna, in which one becomes identified with water, for during the period of trance one may become water; stories are told of devotees who, having turned to water, on awaking found stones in their bodies which had been thrown into their liquid bodies, and which were only removed during a succeeding similar trance.

水曜 The planet Mercury, one of the nine luminaries; it is shown south of the west door of the diamond court in the Garbhadhātu.

水月 udakacandra; jalacandra; the moon reflected in the water, i. e. all is illusory and unreal.

水月觀音 Guanyin gazing at the moon in the water, i. e. the unreality of all phenomena.

水梭花 Water shuttle flowers, i. e. fish.

水沫泡焰 Spume, bubbles, and flame, e. g. that all is unreal and transient.

水波 Waves of water; the wave and the water are two yet one— an illustration of the identity of differences.

水淨 Cleansed by water; edibles recovered from fowing water are 'clean'food to a monk.

水災 The calamity of water, or food; one of the three final world catastrophes of fire, wind, and water, v. 三災.

水滿 Jalāmbara (third son of 流水 Jalavāhana) reborn as Śākyamuni's son Rāhula.

水燈 The water-lantern festival in the seventh month.

水玉 sphaṭika, 塞頗胝迦; 婆致迦 water crystal, rock crystal.

水田衣 A monk's robe, because its patches resemble rice-fields; also 稻田衣.

水界 The realm of water, one of the 四大 four elements.

水精 sphaṭika, crystal, idem 水玉.

水羅 A gauze filter.

水老鶴 A bird, very rarely seen, possibly a snow-goose; also 水白鶴 (or 鷺 ): 水涸.

水葬 Water-burial, casting a corpse into the water, one of the four forms of burial.

水藏 Water-store, or treasury; second son of Jalavāhana, born as 瞿波 Gopā, see 水滿.

水囊 A water-bag, or filter.

水觀 also 水相觀; 水想 similar to 水定 q. v.

水輪 The third of the four 'wheel' on which the earth rests— space, wind (or air), water, and metal.

水輪三昧 The samādhi of the water 'wheel' 水輪, one of the 五輪三昧; water is fertilizing and soft, in like manner the effect of this samādhi is the fertilizing of good roots, and the softening or reduction of ambition and pride.

水陸會 or (水陸齋) The festival of water and land, attributed to Wudi of the Liang dynasty consequent on a dream; it began with placing food in the water for water sprites, and on land for 鬼 ghosts; see 釋門正統 4.

水頭 The waterman in a monastery.

水風火災 The three final catastrophes, see 三災.

Fire, flame. Śikhin 尸棄; 式棄, which means fire in the sense of flame, is the name of the 999th Buddha of the kalpa preceding this.

火一切處 Universal conflagration— one of the ten universals, and one of the meditations on the final destruction of all things by fire.

火伴 The fire-tender in a monastic kitchen.

火光 Fire-light, flame.

火光定 The flame dhyāna by which the body is self-immolated.

火光三昧 The flame samādhi, also styled the fourth dhyāna.

火光尊 idem 火天.

火印 The fire sign, for which a triangle pointing upwards is used; a triangular arrangement of fingers of the right hand with the left.

火坑 The fiery pit (of the five desires 五欲); also that of the three ill destinies— the hells, animals, hungry ghosts.

火壇 Fire altar, connected with homa or fire worship; also 爐壇.

火大 The element fire, one of the 四大 four elements.

火天 The fire devas shown as the 12th group in the diamond court of the Garbhadhātu; v. 火神.

火夜 hāva; to call, invoke; also 訶婆.

火宅 The parable of the burning house; one of the 'seven parables' in the Lotus Sutra 譬喩品, that of the burning house from which the owner tempts his heedless children by the device of the three kinds of carts— goat, deer, and bullock, especially a white-bullock cart i. e. Mahāyāna.

火宅僧 Monks in a, burning house, i. e. married monks.

火定 The fire dhyāna v. 火生.

火客 The monk who attends to the fire; also 火伴; 火佃.

火尊 i. e. 火神 q. v.

火帳 The kitchen account of the rice cooked and persons served.

火德星君 The ruler over the fire-star, Mars, whose tablet hangs in the south side of a temple and whose days of worship, to prevent conflagrations, are the fourth and eighteenth of each moon; he is identified with the ancient emperor 炎帝 Yen Ti.

火星 Aṇgāraka, 鴦哦囉迦 the planet Mars.

火曜 Mars, one of the nine luminaries, shown south of the Diamond hall in the Garbhadhātu.

火? Fire-tongs, made of wood, themselves burnt up before all brushwood is used up, a simile of a bodhisattva who so far forgot his vow to save all the living as to enter nirvana before completing his work.

火法 The homa or fire service of the esoterics.

火浣布袈裟 An asbestos cassock; also a non-inflammable robe said to be made of the hair of the 火鼠 fire-rat.

火淨 Purified, food made 'clean' by fire, or cooking.

火湯 The hell of liquid fire.

火災 The conflagration catastrophe, for world destruction, v. 三災.

火焚地獄 The scorching hell, where sinners are burnt up.

火燄三昧 A samādhi entered into by the Buddha, in which he emitted flames to overcome a poisonous dragon. Also 火光 (or 火生) 三昧 q. v.

火爐 火鑪 The homa or fire altar of the esoterics.

火版 The 'fire-board' or wooden plaque, hung in the kitchen, the striking of which warns the monks that the meal is ready.

火狗 The fiery dogs— which vomit fire on sinners in hell.

火珠 Fire-pearl, or ruby; the ball on top of a pagoda, see 水圓.

火生三昧 A flame-emitting samādhi, the power to emit flames from the body for auto-holocaust, or other purposes. It is especially associated with 不動尊 q. v. and Shingon practice of the yoga which unites the devotee to him and his powers.

火界 The realm of fire, one of the realms of the four elements 四大, i. e. earth, water, fire, and wind. Cf. 火院.

火界咒 A dharai of 不動尊 q. v.

火界定 agni-dhātu-samādhi; the meditation on the final destruction of the world by fire.

火神 The gods of fire, stated as numbering forty-four in the Vedic pantheon, with Mahābrahmā as the first; of these the Vairocana sutra takes twelve, i. e. 大因陀羅; 行滿; 摩嚕多; 盧醯多; 沒口栗拏; 忿怒; 闍吒羅; 吃灑耶; 意生; 羯攞微; (11th unknown); 謨賀那. Cf. 火尊; 火天.

火祠法 The directions for the fire sacrifices in the Atharva-veda, the fourth Veda; the esoteric sect has also its 火法 for magical purposes.

火種居士 Brahmans, servers of the sacred fire.

火羅 hora, hour, hours, time; astrologically a horoscope; said to be the country where 一行 Yixing studied astronomy.

火聚 Accumulated fires (of hell); accumulating one's own hell-fires; the body as a heap of fire, i. e. to be feared; the fires of angry passions.

火聚仙 This genius and his wife are shown above Vaisramana in the Garbhadhātu.

火聚佛頂 光聚佛頂; 放光 or 放光佛頂 One of the five 佛預, i. e. one of the incarnations of Śākyamuni, whose Indian name is given as 帝聚羅研羯羅縛哩底 Tejorāśi-cakravarttī, called by Shingon 神通金剛; this incarnation is placed fourth on Śākyamuni's left in the Garbhadhātu.

火舍 A kind of censer, made in two superimposed circles with a cover.

火葬 jhāpita, 荼毘; 閣維 cremation, the relics 舍利 being buried.

火蛇 Fire-vomiting serpents in the hells.

火血刀 The hells, animals, and hungry ghosts, i. e. the fiery, bloody, and knife-sharp destinies, the 三惡道.

火車 The fiery chariot (belonging to the hells); there is also the 火車地獄 hell of the fire-chariot, and the fire-pit with its fiery wheels; the sufferer first freezes, then is tempted into the chariot which bursts into flames and he perishes in the fire pit, a process each sufferer repeats daily 90 koṭīs of times.

火輪 Whirling fire, e. g. fire whirled in a circle, the whole circle seeming to be on fire, emblem of illusion; a fire wheel.

火輪印 A sign made by putting the doubled fists together and opening the index fingers to form the fire-sign, a triangle.

火塗 (or 火道) The fiery way, i. e. the destiny of the hot hells, one of the three evil destinies.

火辨 Citrabhānu, 質呾羅婆拏 described as one of the ten great writers of the Indian 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, a contemporary and colleague of Vasubandhu; but the description is doubtful.

火鈴 Fire-bell-in warning to be careful of fire.

火院 The 'fire-court', a kind of contemplation, in which the devotee sees himself encircled by fire after circumambulating three times to the right while making the fire-sign. Also 火界; 金剛炎.

火頂山 A peak near Tiantai, where the founder of that school overcame Māra.

火頭 A monastery cook.

火頭金剛 One of the Ming Wang 明王 v. 烏芻瑟摩.

火食 Burnt offerings, as in the homa worship.

Claws, talons; servants.

爪土 (爪上土) The quantity of earth one can put on a toe-nail, i. e. in proportion to the whole earth in the world, such is the rareness of being reborn as a human being; or, according to the Nirvana Sutra 33, of attaining nirvana.

爪塔 A stūpa, or reliquary, for preserving and honouring the nails and hair of the Buddha, said to be the first Buddhist stūpa raised.

爪淨 Nail 'cleaned', i. e. fruit, etc., that can be peeled with the nails, one of the five kinds of 'clean' food.

爪犢 The long-nailed ascetic Brahmacārī (of the) Vātsīputrīyaḥ; it is said that his nails were a treatise and his hair a discourse 爪章髮論.

pitṛ, 比多 Father.

父母 pitṛ-mātṛ, father and mother, parents; 無明 ignorance is referred to as father, and 貪愛 desire, or concupiscence, as mother, the two— ignorance and concupiscence— being the parents of all delusion and karma. Samādhi is also referred to as father, and praj na (wisdom) as mother, the parents of all knowledge and virtue. In the vast interchanges of rebirth all have been or are my parents, therefore all males are my father and all females my mother: 一切男女我父母 see 心地觀經 2.

父城 The paternal or native city, especially Śākyamuni's, Kapilavastu.

A slice, slip, card; brief, few.

片禪 A brief samādhi, or meditation.

Tooth, teeth; toothed; a broker.

牙菩薩 The bodhisattva fiercely showing his teeth in defence of the Buddha, also styled 金剛藥叉; he is east of the Buddha in the Vajradhātu.

go, gaus; ox, bull, bullock, etc. A term applied to the Buddha Gautama as in 牛王 king of bulls, possibly because of the derivation of his name; the phrase 騎牛來牛 (or 騎牛覔牛) to ride an ox, to seek an ox, means to use the Buddha to find the Buddha.

牛戒 To live as a cow, eating grass with bent head, etc. — as certain Indian heretics are said to have done, in the belief that a cow's next reincarnation would be in the heavens.

牛毛塵 go-rājas, the amount of dust that can rest on the top of a cow's hair, i. e. seven times that on a sheep's.

牛狗外道 go-vrauka, or kukkura-vratika. Heretics who lived as oxen or dogs.

牛王 The king of bulls, i. e. a Buddha, or bodhisattva; it is applied to Gautama Buddha, possibly derived from his name.

牛王尊者 牛呞; 牛相; 牛跡 Gavāṃpati, v. 憍焚波提 and 牛跡比丘.

牛皮 ox hide— mortal happiness injures the wisdom-life of gods and men, just as ox hide shrinks and crushes a man who is wrapped in it and placed under the hot sun.

牛糞 gomaya, cow-dung, considered in India as clean and cleansing; used by the esoterics for 'cleansing' altars.

牛糞種 The first Gotama ancestor of Śākyamuni, who is reputed to have sprung from cow-dung in the Sugar-cane garden, probably a mere tradition that the family sprang from herdsmen.

牛羊眼 (牛羊心眼) Only the eyes (i. e. vision, or insight) of oxen and sheep.

牛角 Ox-horns, a synonym for things that are even, or on a level.

牛角一觸 The ox that by merely touching a monk's robe with its horn was transformed into a deva.

牛角娑羅林 Ox-horns śāla grove, said to be a couple of śāla or teak trees shaped like ox-horns, which grew near Kuśinagara, under which the Buddha preached the Nirvana Sutra. He is reported to have entered nirvana in a grove of eight śāla trees standing in pairs.

牛角山 v. 牛頭山.

牛貨洲 Godānīya, 瞿伽尼 (or 瞿耶尼, or 瞿陀尼) ; 倶助尼; 遇嚩柅; Aparagodāna, 阿鉢唎瞿陀尼, the western of the four continents into which every world is divided, where oxen are the principal product and medium of exchange.

牛跡 Ox-tracks, i. e. the teaching of a Buddha the 牛王 royal bull.

牛跡比丘 the bhikṣu Gavāṃpati, 憍梵波提 q. v., also styled 牛王 (尊者), said to have been a disciple of Śākyamuni; also styled 牛呞 ruminating like a cow, and 牛相 cow-faced: so born because of his previous herdsman's misdeeds.

牛車 Bullock cart, the 自牛車 white bullock cart as the one universal vehicle of salvation, v. 火宅.

牛頭 The ox-head lictors in the hells.

牛頭山 Gośṛṇga 瞿室{M044209}伽 a mountain 13 li from Khotan. One of the same name exists in Kiangning in Kiangsu, which gave its name to a school, the followers of 法融 Fa-jung, called 牛頭山法 Niu-t'ou shan fa, or 牛頭禪 (or 牛頭宗); its fundamental teaching was the unreality of all things, that all is dream, or illusion.

牛頭大王 The guardian deity of the Jetavana monastery, and an incarnation of 藥師 q. v.

牛頭栴檀 牛檀栴檀; 牛檀香 gośīrṣa-candana, ox-head sandal-wood, also styled 赤栴檀 red sandal-wood; said to come from the Ox-head mountains, and if rubbed on the body to make one impervious to fire, also generally protective against fire, curative of wounds and generally medicinal. 'The first image of Śākyamuni was made of this wood. ' Eitel. 西域記 10.

牛驢二乳 The milk of cow and ass, the one turns to 'curd', the other to 'dung ', i. e. alike in appearance, but fundamentally different, as is the case with the Buddha's teaching and that of outsiders.

牛黃加持 (or 牛王加持) Cow-bezoar aid, a charm used for childless women to obtain children— the four words should be written with cow bezoar on birch-bark and carried on the person.

rāja, king, prince, royal; to rule.

王三昧 三昧王三昧; 三昧王 The king of samādhis, the highest degree of samādhi, the 首楞嚴定 q. v. The first is also applied to invoking Buddha, or sitting in meditation or trance.

王仙 A royal ṛṣi, i. e. a sovereign who retires from the world and attains to the five transcendent powers.

王古 Wanggu, name of a President of the Board of Rites during the Sung dynasty, who was also a devout Buddhist, end of eleventh century.

王日 idem 八王日.

王日休 Wang Rixiu, a 進士 doctor who became a devout and learned follower of Amida and Guanyin; he was of 龍舒 Longshu, was also known as 虛中 Xuzhong, and compiled the 大阿彌陀經 1160-2.

王曷邏閣伐彈那 Rājyavardhana, tr. by 王增 Wang Tseng. A brother of Harshavardhana, king of Kanyākubja.

王法 Royal law, the law by which a king should rule his country.

王法經 A sutra on royal law, tr. by Yijing; there are other treatises on it.

王膳 A royal feast referred to in the Lotus Sutra, where the hungry people feared to accept the King's feast till he came himself and called them; i. e. the feast of Buddhahood and the Buddha's call.

王舍城 Rājagṛha. King Bimbisāra is said to have removed his capital here from Kuśāgrapura, v. 矩 and 吉, a little further eastward, because of fire and other calamities. Rājagṛha was surrounded by five hills, of which Gṛdhrakūṭa (Vulture Peak) became the most famous. It was the royal city from the time of Bimbisara 'until the time of Aśoka'. Its ruins are still extant at the village of Rājgir, some sixteen miles S. S. W. of Bihār; they 'form an object of pilgrimages for the Jains'. Eitel. The first synod is said to have assembled here.

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