A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 2 - Two Strokes

sapta, seven.

七七 The period of forty-nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day.

七七忌 The seventh seventh day of the masses for the dead.

七七齋 Masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times. During this period the deceased is in the antarābhava or intermediate state, known as 中有 and 中陰; at the end of forty-nine days, judgment having been made, he enters upon his next state. By observing the proper rites, his family may aid him in overcoming his perils and attaining to a happy destiny.

七丈夫 also 七士夫趣; v. 七賢七聖.

七不可避 The seven unavoidables— rebirth, old age, sickness, death, punishment (for sin), happiness (for goodness), consequences (cause and effect 因緣).

七事隨身 The seven appurtenances of a monk— the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or fly-brush), stool (niṣīdana), paper, and material for washing.

七佛 sapta Buddha. The seven ancient Buddhas, viz. Vipaśyin 毘婆尸, Śikhin 尸棄, Viśvabhū 毘舍婆, Krakucchanda 拘樓孫, Kanakamuni 倶那含牟尼 or 拘那含, Kāśyapa 迦葉, and Śākyamuni 釋迦. The last four are said to be of the present kalpa.

七佛藥師 The seven healing Buddhas, also 七躬醫王, of whom there are two descriptions, one representing them as at various places in the eastern regions of space; another gives five in the east and two in the south.

七使 The seven messengers, agents, or kleśas—desire 欲愛; anger, or hate 瞋恚; attachment, or clinging 有愛; pride or arrogance 慢; ignorance, or unenlightenment 無明; false views 見; and doubt 疑.

七例句 v. 七轉九例.

七倶胝佛母尊 Saptakotibuddha-mātṛ. The fabulous mother of seven koṭīs of Buddhas; i.e. Marīci 摩利支; also 準提 Cundī, or Cundā; or 準提觀音 Cundī-Guanyin, q.v., who is represented as of whitish color, with eighteen hands and three eyes.

七條 (衣 or 袈裟 ) The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces; the Uttara-sanga, v. 鬱.

七僧 A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven monks: 咒願師 invoker; 導師 leader; 唄師 intoner, or leader of the chanting; 散花師 flower-scatterer; 梵音師 master of sacred words, or Sanskrit; 錫杖師 shaker of the rings on the metal staff, or crozier; 堂達 distributor of missals, etc. Another division is 講師 expounder; 讀師 reader; 咒願師; 三禮師 director of the three ceremonies; 唄師; 散花師; and 堂達.

七僧法會 An assembly of a monasterial fraternity.

七僧齋 A 'western″ term meaning an endowment for a complete monastic fraternity of seven monks.

七八行 The practice of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分, and the 八正道 eight marga or noble paths.

七加行 idem 七方便 .

七勝事 The seven surpassing qualities of a Buddha; v. also 七種無上; they are his body, or person, his universal law, wisdom, perfection, destination (nirvana), ineffable truth, and deliverance.

七十 saptati' seventy.

七十三尊 The 'Diamond world' maṇḍala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy-three honoured ones.

七十二天 The seventy-two devas, namely, sixty-nine devas, the lord of Tai Shan, the god of the five roads, and 大吉祥天 Mahāśrī .

七十二字 Brahma obtained seventy-two words with which to save the world, but failing he swallowed seventy, leaving one at each side of his mouth 阿 and 漚 , i.e. 無 and 有 things are, things are not, being and non-being.

七十二歳 The age, 72, at which Buddha is reputed to have preached the Lotus Sutra.

七十五 pañcasaptati; '75.

七十五法 The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharmakośa-bhāsya, which classifies all phenomena under seventy-five categories or elements, divided into five groups; cf. 五根, 五境, 無表色. (1) Material 色法 rūpāṇi, 11 . (2) Mind 心法 cittam, 1. (3) Mental qualities 心所有法 citta-saṃprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 46. (4) Non-mental 心不相應行法 cittaviprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 14. These are the seventy-two Sarvastivadin divisions (v. Keith, B. I. , p. 201 ). (5) In addition there are three unconditioned or non-phenomenal elements 無爲法 asaṃskṛta dharma, 3 (v. Keith, p. 160) .

七善 The seven exce1lences claimed for the Buddha's teaching good in its 時 timing or seasonableness, 義 meaning, 語 expression, 濁法 uniqueness, 具足 completeness, 淸淨調柔 pure adaptability, and 凡行 its sole objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups.

七喩 The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra.

七垢 The seven defilements―desire 欲, false views 見, doubt 疑, pride 慢, arrogance 憍 torpor 隨眠, and 慳 stinginess; cf. 七使.

七夢 Ānanda's seven dreams, which are explained in the 七夢經.

七大 Earth , water, fire, wind, space (or ether), sight, and perception 地, 水, 火, 風, 空, 見, 証識; cf. 大, 五大and 六境; 見大 and 六根; 識大 and 六識.

七如衆 sapta-tathāgatāḥ. The seven tathāgatas whose names are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar (七如來寶塔) in some Buddhist temples. One list 阿彌陀, 甘露飯王, 觀音, 毘耶娑, 色妙身, 羅担納担羅耶and 寶勝. Another list gives Amitābha, Kan-lu-wang, 離怖畏, 廣博身, Miaoseshen, Baosheng (Ratnasaṃbhava) 多寶 (Prabhūtaratna).

七子 The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially care for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyeka-buddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the 藏, 通 and 別教.

七宗 The seven Japanese sects of 律 Ritsu (or Risshū), 法相 Hossō, 論 Sanron 華嚴Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon, and 禪Zen.

七寶 sapta ratna 薩不荅羅的捺 The seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are varying descriptions, e.g. 金 suvarna, gold; 銀rūpya, silver; 鐂璃 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli; 玻瓈sphaṭika, crystal; 硨磲 musāragalva, agate; 赤珠 rohita-mukta, rubies or red pearls; 瑪瑙 aśmagarbha, cornelian. Also the seven royal (cakravartin) treasures―the golden wheel; elephants; dark swift horses; the divine pearl, or beautiful pearls; able ministers of the Treasury; jewels of women; and loyal generals.

七寶樹林 The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things―a part of the "Pure-land", or Paradise.

七微 The seven atoms composing an aṇu 阿耨; 阿拏, 阿菟色. Eitel's definition is seven atoms of dust, but the definition is doubtful. This molecule is larger than an "atom" , and according to the Sarvāstivāda it is the smallest visible particle. It is also a division of a yojana.

七心界 The seven realms of vijñāna, or perception, produced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, to which is added thought, 意 根 q.v.

七情 The seven emotions : pleasure, anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, desire.

七慢 The seven pretensions or arrogances 慢 asserting superiority over inferiors and equality with equals, 過慢 superiority over equals and equality with superiors, 慢過慢 superiority over manifest superiors, 我慢 egotism or overweening pride, 增上慢 vaunting assertion of possessing the Truth, 卑慢 vaunting one's inferiority (or false humility), and 邪慢 vaunting lack of virtue for virtue.

七摩怛里 saptamātṛ. The seven divine mothers, or personified energies of the principal deities; they are associated with the worship of the god Śiva, and attend on his son Skanda or Kārttikeya, to whom at first only seven Mātṛs were assigned, but in the later mythology an innumerable number, who are sometimes represented as having displaced the original divine mothers M.W. Their names are given as (1) Cāmuṇḍā 遮文茶 or 左問拏 (2) Gaurī嬌吠哩; (3) Vaiṣṇavī 吠瑟拏微 (4) Kaumārī 嬌麼哩; (5) Indrāṇī, Aindrī, or Māhendrī 燕捺利 or 印捺哩; (6) Raudrī 勞捺哩; and (7) Vārāhī 末羅呬弭; cf. 七母天.

七支 The seven (spreading) branches—three sins of the body and four of speech, 身三 killing, robbing, adultery; 口四 lying, slander, abuse, double-tongue (or vain conversation). These are the first seven of the ten evils 十惡.

七支念誦 A method of invocation in which only seven kinds of signs and magical words are required. It is explained in the 七支念誦隨行法 part of the Vairocana Sutra.

七支業 The karma resulting from the above seven sins.

七方便 (七方便位) (1) The seven "expedient" or temporary attainments or positions of Hīnayāna, superseded in Mahayana by the 七賢 (位) or 七加行 (位) all preparatory to the 七聖 (位) (2) The seven vehicles, i.e. those of ordinary human beings, of devas, of śrāvakas, of pratyekabuddhas' and of the three bodhisattvas of the three teachings 藏, 通 and 別. (3) Also, 藏教之聲縁二人, 通教之聲縁菩三人, 別教and 圓教之二菩薩; (2) and (3) are Tiantai groups.

七星 Ursa major; Worshipped in Japan as 妙見菩薩 Wonderful Sight Bodhisattva who protects this world.

七曇 Siddham, idem. 悉曇.

七曜 The seven brilliant ones — the sun and moon, together with the five planets which are connected with fire, water, wood, metal, and earth. Their essence shines in the sky, but their spirits are over men as judges of their good and evil, and as rulers over good and evil fortune. The following list shows their names in Chinese and Sanskrit: Sun 日, 太陽; aditya 阿彌底耶
Moon月, 太陰; soma 蘇摩
Mars火星, 勢惑勞; aṅgāraka 盎哦囉迦
Mercury水星, 辰星; budha 部陀
Jupiter木星, 歳星; bṛhaspati 勿哩訶娑跛底
Venus金星, 太白; śukra 戌羯羅
Saturn土星, 鎭星; śanaiścara 賖乃以室折羅

七最勝 The seven perfections, see唯識論, 9. 安住最勝 Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature. 依止最勝 perfect reliance on, or holding fast to the great bodhi (awakened mind). 意果最勝 perfect resultant aim in-pity for all 事業最勝 Perfect in constant performance. 巧便最勝 Perfect in able device (for spiritual presentation). 廻向最勝 Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. 滿淨最勝 Perfect purity and peace.

七有 七生 The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any 欲界 desire-world. Also (1) in the hells, (2) as animals, (3) hungry ghosts, (4) gods, (5) men, (6) karma 業, and (7) in the intermediate stage.

七生 same as 七有.

七有依福業 The seven grounds for a happy karma through benevolence to the needy―almsgiving to visitors, to travelers' to the sick, to their nurses, gifts of gardens and groves to monasteries, etc., regular provision of food for them, and seasonable clothing and food for their occupants.

七歩蛇 A snake whose bite brings death before seven steps can be taken.

七母天 The seven divine mothers, also styled the seven sisters 七姉妹; v. 七摩怛里.

七姉妹 The seven sisters. See 七摩怛里.

七毘尼 The seven vinaya, v. 七滅諍法.

七治 Seven forms of punishment for monks. v. 七羯磨.

七法The seven (unavoidable) things, v. 七不避.

七法財The seven riches, or seven ways of becoming rich in the Law : 信 faith, 進 zeal, 戒 moral restraint, 漸愧 shame, 聞 obedient hearing (of the Law), 捨 abnegation, and 定慧 wisdom arising from meditation.

七淨華 See 七華.

七滅諍法 saptādhikaraṇa-śamatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from causes : from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance. The seven rules are : 現前毘尼 saṃmukha-vinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal to the law; 憶念毘尼 smṛti-vinaya, witness or proof; 不痴毘尼 amūḍha-vinaya, irresponsibility, e.g. lunacy; 自言毘尼 tatsvabhavaiṣīya-vinaya, voluntary confession; 多語毘尼 pratijñākāraka-vinaya, decision by majority vote; 罪處所毘尼 yadbhūyasikīya-vinaya, condemnation of unconfessed sin by the 白四 or jñapticaturthin method, i.e. to make a statement and ask thrice for judgment; 草覆地毘尼 tṛṇastāraka-vinaya. , i.e. covering the mud with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an elder to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute.

七災難 v. 七難 prajñā.

七無上道 idem 七種無上.

七珍 idem 七寶.

七生 idem 七有.

七百賢聖 The 700 disciples who met the second synod at Vaiśālī; also 七百結集.

七如眞The seven aspects of the bhūta-tathatā , v. 如眞 One list is 流轉如眞 實相如眞, 唯識如眞, 安立如眞, 邪行如眞, 淸淨如眞, 正行如眞. From the 唯識論 8.

七知 The seven knowings - to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, moderation, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individuals.

七祖 (1) The seven founders of the 華嚴 Huayan School, whose names are given as 馬鳴 Aśvaghoṣa, 龍樹 Nāgārjuna 杜順 (i.e. 法順) , Zhiyan 智儼, Fazang 法藏, Chengguan 澄觀 and Zongmi 宗密; (2) the seven founders of the 禪Chan School, i.e. 達磨 or 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma, Huike 慧可, Sengcan 僧璨, Daoxin 道信, Hongren 弘忍, Huineng 慧能 and Heze 荷澤 (or Shenhui 神曾); (3) The seven founders of the 淨土 Pure Land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, 世親 Vasubandhu, Tanluan 曇鸞, Daochuo 道綽, Shandao 善導, Yuanxin 源信 and Yuankong 源空 (or Faran 法然), whose teaching is contained in the Qizushengjiao 七祖聖教.

七種不淨 seven kinds of uncleanness, derived from the parental seed, parental intercourse, the womb, the prenatal blood of the mother, birth, one's own flesh, one's own putrid corpse.

七種布施 The seven kinds of almsgiving—to callers, travelers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, regular food (to monks), general alms; v. 七有, etc.

七種懺悔心 The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship : shame, at not yet being free from mortality 慚愧心; fear, of the pains of hell, etc.; turning from the evil world; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to all; gratitude to the Buddha; meditation on the unreality of the sin-nature, that sin arises from perversion and that it has no real existence.

七種捨 Seven abandonments or riddances―cherishing none and nothing, no relations with others, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of return. Another form is―cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger, etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above.

七種無上 The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha:―his body 身 with its thirty-two signs and eighty-four marks; his way 道 of universal mercy; his perfect insight or doctrine 見; his wisdom 智; his supernatural power 神 力; his ability to overcome hindrances 斷障, e.g. illusion, karma, and suffering; and his abiding place 住 i.e. Nirvana. Cf. 七勝事.

七種無常 sapta-anitya. The seven impermanences, a non-Buddhist nihilistic doctrine discussed in the 楞 伽 經 4.

七種生死 The seven kinds of mortality, chiefly relating to bodhisattva incarnation.

七種禮佛 Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha, ranging from the merely external to the highest grade.

七種自性 The seven characteristics of a Buddha's nature, v. 自性.

七種般 v. 不還.

七種衣 The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen, wool, or silk.

七種語 Buddha's seven modes of discourse: 因語 from present cause to future effect; 果語 from present effect to past cause; 因果語 inherent cause and effect; 喩語 illustrative or figurative; 不應説語 spontaneous or parabolic; 世界流語 ordinary or popular; 如意語 unreserved, or as he really thought, e.g. as when he said that all things have the Buddha-nature.

七種辯 The seven rhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas :― direct and unimpeded; acute and deep; unlimited in scope; irrefutable; appropriate, or according to receptivity; purposive or objective (i.e. nirvana); proving the universal supreme method of attainment, i.e. Mahayana.

七種食 The seven kinds of food or āhāra, sustenance :―sleep for eyes, sound for ears, fragrance for nose, taste for tongue, fine smooth things for the body, the Law for the mind, and freedom from laxness for nirvana.

七空 The seven unrealities or illusions,v.空. There are two lists:(1)相空,性自性空,行空,無行空,一切法離言説空,第一義聖智大空 and彼彼空; v.Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 1.(2) 性空, 自相空, 諸法空, 不可得空,無法空, 有法空, and 有法無法空.智度論36.

七等覺支 See 七菩提分.

七羯磨 karmavācā; the 七治The seven punishments of a monk.

七聖v.七賢七聖, 七聖財.saptadhana. The seven sacred graces variously defined, e.g. 信 faith, 戒 observation of the commandments, 聞hearing instruction, 慙 shame (for self), 愧 shame (for others); 捨 renunciation; and慧 wisdom.

七聖覺 See 七菩提分.

七聲 See 七轉九列.

七菩提分 saptabodhyaṅga, also 七菩提寶, 七覺分, 七覺支, 七等覺支. Seven characteristics of bodhi; the sixth of the 七科七道品 in the seven categories of the bodhipakṣika dharma, v. 三十七菩提分 it represents seven grades in bodhi,viz,(1)擇法覺支(or 擇法菩提分 and so throughout), dharma-pravicaya-saṃbodhyaṇga, discrimination of the true and the fa1se : (2) 精進 vīrya-saṃbodhyaṇga, zeal, or undeflected progress;(3) 喜prīti-saṃbodhyaṇga., joy, delight; (4) 輕安 or 除 praśrabdhi-saṃbodhyaṇga. Riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that they may be light, free, and at ease; (5) 念 smrti-saṃbodhyaṇga, power of remembering the various states passed through in contemplation; (6) 定 samādhi-saṃbodhyaṇga.the power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) 行捨 or 捨 upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṇga or upekṣaka, complete abandonment, auto-hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-conscious or ecstatic mind.

七華 The seven flowers of enlightenmenmt, idem. 七善提分. Another versionispure in the commandments, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana.

七葉巖 The crag at Rājagṛha on which the "seven-leaf tree" grew in the cave beneath which the first "synod" is said to have been held after the Buddha's death, to recall and determine his teaching.

七處八會 The eight assemblies in seven different places, at which the sixty sections of the 華嚴經 Avataṃsaka-sūtra are said to have been preached; the same sutra in eighty sections is accredited to the 七處九會. 七處平等相 One of the thirty-two signs on the Budda's body—the perfection of feet, hands, shoulders, and head.

七衆 The seven classes of disciples:―(1)比丘 bhikṣu,monk;(2) bhikṣuṇī a female observer of all commandments; (3) 式叉摩那śikṣamāṇa, a novice, or observer of the six commandments; (4) 沙彌 śrāmaṇera, and (5) 沙彌尼 śrāmaṇerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) 優婆塞 upāsaka, male observers of the five commandments; and (7) 優婆夷upāsikā, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai also has a four-group.

七衆溺水 The seven types who fall into the waters of this life—the first is drowned, the seventh is a Buddha; the seven are icchantika, men amd devas, ordinary believers, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; also ca11ed 七衆人.

七見 The seven heretical views, v. 見. They are 邪見 , 我見 , 常見 , 斷見 , 戒盜見, 果盜見, and 疑見.

七覺分 or 支, v. 七菩提分.

七證 (師) v. 三師七證.

七識住v. 九有情層.

七識十名 The ten names of the seventh vijñāna, v. manas 未那識.

七財 v. 七法財.

七賢 (七賢位) Also七方便位, 七加行位 The seven grades or steps in virtue preceding the entry into見道faultless wisdom, or faultlessness in its first realization. These seven are preliminary to the七聖 (七聖位). Both are grades of the倶舍 Kośa school of Hīnayāna.

七賢七聖 The 七聖 are the seven developments of holiness, which follow the 七賢. In the Huayan 華嚴school they are called 七士夫, 七大夫 or七聖人. Cf. 倶舍論25.

七趣 The seven gati or states of sentient beings- nārakagati, in hell; preta, hungry ghost; tiryagyoni, animal; manuṣya, man; ṛṣi, a genius or higher spiritual being; deva, god; asura, demon of the higher order.

七躬醫王 v. 七佛藥師.

七轉九例The seven Sanskrit cases and nine conjugations. The former are also styled 七聲 and 七例 subanta 蘇漫 (or 盤多); sometimes with the Vocative called 八轉彈. The九例 or tiṅanta 丁彦多 are also styled 二九韻, i.e. nine parasmai and nine ātmane.

七逆 (七逆罪) The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins — shedding a Buddha's blood, killing father, mother, monk, teacher, subverting or disrupting monks, killing an arhat. V. 梵綱經下.

七遮罪 concealing, or non-confession of, any one of the seven deadly sins 七逆, for which it is also used.

七重行樹 The seven avenues of gem trees in Paradise.

七金山 The seven concentric mountain ranges around Sumeru, the central mountain of a universe, each range separated from the others by a sea; see 九山八海. Their names are 持隻, 持軸, 雙木 (雙木樹), 擔見, 馬耳 , 障礙 (or 象鼻), 持地 (or 遠) 山.

七難 The seven calamities in the仁王經, 受持品 during which that sūtra should be recited: sun and moon losing their order (eclipses), conste11ations, irregular, fire, flood, wind-storms, drought, brigands Another set is — pestilence, invasion, rebe11ion, unlucky stars, eclipses, too early monsoon, too late monsoon. Another is — fire, flood, rakṣas, misrule, evil spirits, cangue and prison, and robbers.

七顚倒 v. 顛倒; viparyaya, the seven inversions, or upside-downs, i.e. contrary or false positions — 想, 見, 心, 常無常, 苦築, 淨不淨, 我無我.

乃至 (1) A translation of antaśas meaning "at least"; and (2) of yāvat, as far as.

乃至一念 Even, or at least, a thought.

乃往 As far as the past (is concerned).

Navan; nava. Nine.

九上緣惑 The nine kinds of error or illusion 見, i.e. views or mental processes, found also in higher conditions of development.

九世 In past, present, and future worlds, each has its own past, present, and future, hence nine worlds or ages.

九世間 The nine lower of the ten worlds, the highest or tenth being the Buddha-world; the nine are always subject to illusion, confused by the senses.

九住心 Nine stages of mental concentration when in dhyāna meditation, viz, 安, 攝 , 解, 轉, 伏, 息, 滅, 性, and 持 (住心).

九條衣 九條袈裟 The lowest rank of the patch-robe, v. 九品大衣.

九儀 The nine "Indian" ways of showing respect, according to Xuanzang — asking about welfare; bowing the head; holding high the hands; bowing with folded hands; bending the knee; kneeling; hands and knees on the ground; elbows and knees ditto; the whole body prostrate.

九人 v. 九孔.

九劫 The nine kalpas; though Śākyamuni and Maitreya started together, the zeal of the first enabled him to become Buddha nine kalpas sooner; see 大賓積經 111.

九十六術 Also 九十六種外道. Ninety-six classes of non-Buddhists or heretics and their practices, i.e. their six founders and each of them with fifteen schools of disciples; some say 九十五種外道.

九十八使 Also 九十八隨眠 The Hīnayāna ninety-eight tempters, or temptations, that follow men with all subtlety to induce laxity. They are the ninety-eight kleśas, or moral temptations in the realm of 見思 view and thought, or external and internal ideas.

九句因 A term in Buddhist logic; the nine possible combinations of like and unlike examples in a syllogism.

九品 Nine classes, or grades, i.e. 上上, 上中, 上下 upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, and so on with 中 and 下. They are applied in many ways, e.g. 上品上生 the highest type of incarnate being, to 下品下生, the lowest, with corresponding karma; see 九品淨土. Each grade may also be subdivided into nine, thus making a list of eighty-one grades, with similar further subdivision ad infinitum.

九品上 An abbreviation for 上品上生 the highest grade in the Pure Land, see 九品淨土.

九品大衣 The 僧伽梨 saṇghāṭī. There are nine grades of the monk's patch robe; the three lowest ranks have 9, 11, and 13 patches, two long patches to one short one; the three middle 15, 17, 19, three long to one short; and the three superior 21, 23, 25, four long to one short.

九品安養之化生 Those born by transformation from the (heavenly) lotus into the ninefold 安養 Paradise, idem 九品淨土.

九品彌陀 The nine forms of Amitābha, corresponding to the nine departments of the Pure Land; chiefly used with reference to the manual signs of his images.

九品往生 The ninefold future life, in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土. It is detailed in the sutra of this name whose full title is 阿彌陀三摩地集陀羅尼經.

九品惑 Also九品煩惱 The four 修惑, i.e. illusions or trials in the practice of religion, i.e. desire, anger, pride, ignorance; these are divided each into 九品 q.v.; hence desire has all the nine grades, and so on with the other three.

九品淨土, also 九品淨刹 , 九品安養, 九品蓮臺, 九品往生 The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitābha, the consequent aeons that are needed to approach him, and whether one's lotus will open early or late.

九品行業 The nine karma to be attained by the conduct or practice through which one may be born into the above Pure Land.

九品覺王 The king or lord of the bodhi of the Pure Land, Amitābha.

九喩 The nine similes: stars, eye-film, lamp, prestidigitation, dew, bubble, dream, lightning, cloud. There is also another group.

九因一果 Nine of the 十界 ten dhātu or regions are causative, the tenth is the effect or resultant.

九地 The nine lands, i.e. the 欲界 realm of desire or sensuous realm the four 色界 realms of form or material forms; and the four 無色界 formless realms, or realms beyond form; v. 九有, 九有情居, 禪 and 定. The nine realms are:—(1) 欲界五趣地; the desire realm with its five gati, i.e. hells, hungry ghosts, animals, men, and devas. In the four form-realms are:— (2) 離生喜樂地 Paradise after earthly life, this is also the first dhyāna, or subject of meditation, 初禪. (3) 定生喜樂地 Paradise of cessation of rebirth, 二禪. (4) 離喜妙樂地 Land of wondrous joy after the previous joys, 三禪. (5) 捨念淸淨地 The Pure Land of abandonment of thought, or recollection (of past delights), 四禪. The four formless, or infinite realms, catur arūpa dhātu, are:—(6) 空無邊處地 ākāśānantyā-yatanam, the land of infinite space; also the first samādhi, 第一定. (7) 識無邊處地 vijñānānamtyāyatanam, the land of omniscience, or infinite perception, 二定. (8) 無所有處地 ākiñcanyāyatana, the land of nothingness, 三定. (9) 非想非非想處地 naivasaṁjñānā-saṁjñāyatana, the land (of knowledge) without thinking or not thinking, or where there is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, i.e. above either; this is the 四定. Eitel says that in the last four, "Life lasts 20,000 great kalpas in the 1st, 40,000 in the 2nd, 60,000 in the 3rd, and 80,000 great kalpas in the 4th of these heavens."

九地九品思惑 v. 八十一品思惑.

九域 idem 九地 and 九界.

九執 The nine graha, i.e. "seizers" or upholders, i.e. luminaries or planets, idem 九曜.

九士生地 idem Kuśinagara; v. 拘.

九孔 Also 九入, 九竅, 九漏, 九流, 九瘡 the nine orifices, cavities, entrances, leakages, or suppurations, i.e. the two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, mouth, and two lower organs.

九字 The nine magical characters 臨兵鬪者皆陳列在前 implying that the armed forces are arrayed against the powers of evil. After reciting these words, four vertical and five horizontal lines, forming a grid, are drawn in the air to show that the forces are arrayed. It was used among Taoists and soldiers, and is still used in Japan, especially when going into the mountains.

九字曼荼羅 The nine character maṇḍala, i.e. the lotus, with its eight petals and its centre; Avalokiteśvara may be placed in the heart and Amitābha on each petal, generally in the shape of the Sanskrit "seed" letter, or alphabetic letter.

九宗 The eight sects 八宗 (q.v.) plus the 禪宗 Chan or Zen, or the Pure-land or Jōdo sect.

九尊 The nine honoured ones in the eight-petalled hall of the Garbhadhātu, i.e. Vairocana in the centre of the lotus, with four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the petals, the lotus representing the human heart; v. 五佛.

九居 v. 九有情居.

九山八海 The nine cakravāla, or concentric mountain ranges or continents, separated by eight seas, of a universe. The central mountain of the nine is Sumeru 須彌 and around it are the ranges Khadiraka 佶提羅, Īṣādhara 伊沙陀羅, Yugaṃdhara 遊乾陀羅, Sudarśaṇa 蘇達梨舍那, Aśvakarṇa 安濕縛竭拏, Nemiṃdhara 尼民陀羅, Vinataka 毘那多迦, Cakravāda 斫迦羅; v. 七金山. The Abhidharma Kośa gives a different order: Sumeru, Yugaṃdhara, Īṣādhara, Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara, with an "iron-wheel" mountain encompassing all; there are also differences in the detail.

九參上堂 The nine monthly visits or ascents to the hall for worship, every third day.

九徧知 The nine forms of complete knowledge of the four axioms and the cutting off of passion, delusion, etc., in the processes of 見 and 修, as distinct from 無學.

九徹 The nine penetrating fames of the sword of Acala, 不動明王, emblem of the destruction of illusions and hindrances in the nine realms, v. 九地; also used for the 九尊 q.v.

九心輪 The nine evolutions, or movements of the mind in perception.

九想 (九想觀) or 九相 navasaṃjñā. Meditation on a corpse in order to curb desire; one of the meditations on the unclean: vyādhmātakasaṃjñā, its tumefaction; vinīlakas., its blue, mottled colour; vipadumakas., its decay; vilohitakas., its mess of blood,etc.; vipūyakas., its discharges and rotten flesh; vikhāditakas., its being devoured by birds and beasts; vikṣiptakas., its dismembering; asthis., its bones; vidagdhakas., their being burnt and returning to dust.

九惱 also 九難, 九橫, 九罪報 The nine distresses borne by the Buddha while in the flesh, i.e. the two women Sundarā and Cañcā; others from Devadatta, Ajātaśatru, etc.; v. 智度論 9.

九慢 The nine forms of pride: that I surpass, am equal to, not so bad as others; that others surpass, are as bad as, are inferior to me; that none surpass, are equal to, or worse than me.

九方便 The nine suitable stages in religious service; cf. 大日經, 7; 作禮 salutation to the universal Triratna; 出罪 repentance and confession; 歸依 trust (in the Triratna); 施身 giving of self (to the Tathāgata); 發菩提心 vowing to devote the mind to bodhi; 隨喜 rejoicing (in all good); 勸請 beseeching (all Tathāgatas to rain down the saving law); 奉請法身 praying for the Buddha-nature in self and others for entry in the Pure Land; 迴向 demitting the good produced by the above eight methods, to others, universally, past, present, and future. This form of service is generally performed before engaging in esoteric observances. The verses in which these nine stages are presented are of a commendably devotional character.

九方便十波羅蜜菩薩 Of the ten pāramitā bodhisattvas, q.v., in the tenth or empyrean court of the Garbhadhātu, the first nine are associated with the above nine progressive steps, the tenth is associated with the last four of the nine.

九會 (九會曼陀羅) The nine groups in the diamond-realm maṇḍala.

九會說 The Huayan sutra 華嚴經 in its older sixty chuan version is said to have been delivered at eight assemblies in seven places; the newer eighty chuan at nine assemblies in seven places; cf. 九處.

九曜 九執 q.v. Navagraha. The nine luminaries: 日 Āditya, the sun; 月 Sōma, the moon; the five planets, i.e. 火星 Aṅgāraka, Mars; 水 Budha, Mercury; 木 Bṛhaspati, Jupiter; 金 Sukra, Venus; and 土 Śanaiścara, Saturn; also 羅睺 Rāhu, the spirit that causes eclipses; and 計都 Ketu, a comet. Each is associated with a region of the sky and also with a bodhisattva, etc., e.g. the sun with Guanyin, Venus with Amitābha, etc.

九有 The nine realities, states, or conditions in which sentient beings enjoy to dwell, v. next.

九有情居 (or 九有情處), 九衆生居, 九居, 九門, see also 九有, 九地, 九禪 and 九定; the nine happy abodes or states of sentient beings of the 長阿含經 9; they are the 七識住seven abodes or stages of perception or consciousness to which are added the fifth and ninth below: (1) 欲界之人天 the world and the six deva-heavens of desire in which there is variety of bodies (or personalities) and thinking (or ideas); (2) 梵衆天the three brahma heavens where bodies differ but thinking is the same, the first dhyāna heaven; (3) 極光淨天 the three bright and pure heavens where bodies are identical but thinking diners, the second dhyāna heaven; (4) 遍淨天the three universally pure heavens where bodies and thinking are the same, the third dhyāna heaven; (5) 無想天 the no-thinking or no-thought heaven, the highest of the four dhyāna heavens; (6) 空無邊處 limitless space, the first of the formless realms; (7) 識無邊處 limitless percepton, the second ditto; (8) 無所有處 nothingness, the place beyond things, the third ditto; and (9) 非想非非想beyond thought or non-thought, the fourth ditto.

九梵 The nine heavens of the fourth dhyāna heaven.

九業 The nine kinds of karma, i.e. the desire realm and the form realm each has conduct that causes karma, does not cause karma, or is neutral, making 6; in the formless realm there are non-causative deeds, neutrality, and immortality, making 9; 成實論 8.

九橫 See also 九惱.

九橫死 The nine kinds of irregular death; there are two groups, one connected with improper food or meals, another with improper medical treatment, law‐breaking, drowning, etc. .

九橫經 A sūtra translated in the later Han dynasty by 安世高 An Shigao.

九次第定 The samādhi of the nine degrees, i.e. the four dhyānas 四禪, the four realms beyond form 四無色, and the samādhi beyond sensation and thought 滅受想定; see 九有情居 and 九地.

九流 九漏 idem | 孔.

九無學 The nine grades (of arhats) who are no longer learning, having attained their goal.

九無爲 The nine kinds of, and meditations on, 無爲 q.v. There are two somewhat different groups; one has 擇滅, 非擇滅, 虛空, 空無邊處, 識無邊處, 無所有處, 非想非非想處 (v. 九有情處), 緣起支性, and 聖道支性.

九無間道 In every universe there are nine realms, in every realm there are nine illusions in practice 修, and nine ways of relief; hence the nine ways of overcoming hindrances; also there are nine uninterrupted ways of advance from one stage to another of the nine stages of the 三界 trailokya, by the wisdom of overcoming delusion in each stage; also 九無礙道 ; and cf. 九解脫道.

九界 (九界情執) The nine realms of error, or subjection to the passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm.

九瘡 idem 九孔.

九祖 (相承) The succession of nine founders of the Tiantai School; v. 天台九宗.

九種大禪 The nine kinds of Mahāyāna dhyāna for bodhisattvas, given in the 菩薩地持經 6 and in other works; they are associated with the patience 忍 pāramitā and with the dhyāna of the super-realms. The nine are meditations: (1) 自性禪 on the original nature of things, or mind as the real nature, from which all things derive; (2) 一切禪 on achieving the development of self and all others to the utmost; (3) 難禪 on the difficulties of certain dhyāna conditions; (4) 一切禪 on the entrance to all the (superior) dhyāna conditions; (5) 善人禪 on the good; (6) 一切行禪 on all Mahāyāna practices and actions; (7) 除煩惱禪 on ridding all sufferers from the miseries of passion and delusion; (8) 此世他世樂禪 on the way to bring joy to all people both in this life and hereafter; (9) 淸淨淨禪 on perfect purity in the termination of all delusion and distress and the obtaining of perfect enlightenment.

九竅 v. 九孔.

九結 The nine bonds that bind men to mortality: love, hate, pride, ignorance, (wrong)views, possessions (or grasping), doubt, envy, meanness (or selfishness). They are the 六隨眠 plus grasping, envy, and meanness.

九經 idem 九部經.

九縛一脫 The nine states of bondage and the one state of liberation. The nine states are the hells of fire, of blood, of swords; asuras, men, devas, māras, nirgranthas, form and formless states; these are all saṃsāra states, i.e. of reincarnation. The one state of freedom, or for obtaining freedom, is nirvāṇa.

九罪報 v. 九惱.

九蓮 The paradise of Amitābha, i.e. 九品蓮臺.

九華山 Formerly called 九子山, which was changed by the Tang poet Li Bai to the above; it is one of the four sacred mountains of Buddhism, situated in Anhui, and its patron Bodhisattva is Dizang 地藏.

九衆 The 七衆 q.v. plus junior monks and nuns, i.e. novices who have received the eight commandments.

九衆生居 v. 九有情居.

九解脫道 In the nine stages trailokya三界 each has its possible delusions and erroneous performances; the latter are overcome by the九無間道q.v.

九道 The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality of things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resulting in suffering; the opposite (or fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirvāṇa with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirvāṇa.

九識 The kinds of cognition or consciousness (vijñāna); those of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, mind, mānas (or阿陁那識 ādāna), i.e. mental perception; 阿賴耶 ālāya, bodhi-consciousness, and 阿摩羅識 amala, purified or Buddha-consciousness. There is considerable difference as to the meaning of the last three.

九輪 The nine wheels or circles on the top of a pagoda, also called 空輪the wheels of space; the nine should only be on the stūpa of a Buddha, others are entitled to as many as eight and a few as one.

九轍 Kumārajīva's nine divisions of the meaning of the Lotus Sūtra, whence he was styled the 九轍法師.

九道 idem 九有情居.

九部 (九部經) Nine of the Hīnayāna twelve classes of sūtras, that is, all except the 方廣, 授記 and 無門自說. Generally the term is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahāyāna division of nine of the twelve sūtras, i.e. all except the 緣起, 譬喩, 論議. These are: sūtras, the Buddha's sermons; geyas, metrical pieces; vyākaraṇas, prophecies; gāthās, chants or poems; udāṇas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivṛttakas, marratives; jātakas, stories of former lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded sūtras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v. 十二部經.

九門 v. 九有情居.

九難 v 九惱.

九類生 The nine kinds of birth; the four from the womb, egg, moisture, transformation are common to devas, earth, and the hells; the five others are birth into the heavens of form, of non-form, of thought, of non-thought, and of neither (i.e. beyond either).

九鬼 The nine classes of ghosts are of three kinds: without means, small means, rich. The first group have 炬口 burning torch-like mouths, or 鍼口 narrow needle mouths, or 臭口 stinking mouths; the second group have hair like needles, or stinking hair, or tumours; the rich ghosts haunt sacrifices to the dead, or eat human leavings, or live truculently.

九陰 The five elements together with time, space, mind (manas), and soul (ātman) according to the teaching of the "heretical" Vaiśeṣika sect; v. 鞞.

九齋日 the nine kinds of days of abstinence on which no food is eaten after twelve o'clock: noon and the commands are observed. They are: Every day of the first month, of the fifth month, of the ninth month, and the following six days of each month, 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. On these days Indra and the four deva-kings investigate the conduct of men.

To end, see through, understand, thoroughly, know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final.

了了見 The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.

了因 A revealing cause, v. 二因 , i.e. 生因 a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; and 了因 a revealing "cause", e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom.

了因佛性 The second of the three Buddha-nature "causes", i.e. 正因佛性 is the 眞如 as direct cause of attaining the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the 法身; 了因佛性 is the revealing or enlightening cause, associated with the Buddha-wisdom; 緣因佛性 is the environing cause, e.g. his goodness and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation.

了徹禪定 The mastery of abstract contemplation.

了悟 Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension.

了教 A noted disciple named Ajñāta-Kauṇḍinya, v. 阿, also known as拘鄰鄰,了本際 and 知本際. He is described as "a prince of Magadha, maternal uncle of Śākyamuni, whose first disciple he became". He is "to be reborn as Buddha under the name of Samanṭa-Prabhāsa". Eitel.

了知 Parijñā, thorough knowledge.

了義 Revelation of the whole meaning, or truth, as 不了義 is partial revelation adapted (方便) to the capacity of the hearers.

了義教 Teaching of the whole truth.

了義經 The sūtras containing it. Mahāyāna counts all Hīnayāna sutras as 不了義經; Mahāyāna sūtras are divided into both kinds according to different schools.

了達 Thorough penetration, clear understanding.

Dvā, dvau. Two; dvitīya, second.

二三 The six non-Buddhist philosophers, 二三邪徒.

二世 This life and the hereafter.

二世尊 Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna, the Buddha 多賓 in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sūtra; see also 二尊.

二世間 The two realms of conscious or sentient beings 有情世間, and unconscious or material things 器世間.

二乘 dviyāna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definitions: (1) Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna. (2) 聲聞 and 緣覺 or 聲覺二乘 . Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. (3) 二乘作佛 The Lotus Sūtra teaches that śrāvakas and pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) 三一二乘 The "two vehicles" of "three" and "one", the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of śrāvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the one being the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra which combined all three in one.

二九五部 The eighteen Hīnayāna sects and the five Vinaya 律sects.

二九韻 The eighteen 丁岸哆 tiṇanta, personal endings of the Sanskrit verb.

二二合緣 A method of meditation by coupling 法 with 身, 受, 心, respectively. Cf. 四念處觀.

二五食 The two groups of food, each of five kinds: bhojanīya, v. 蒲 cereals, fish, and flesh; and khādanīya, v. 佉fruits and sweetmeats.

二佛並坐 The two Buddhas sitting together, v. 二世尊.

二佛中門 The period between the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni and the future advent of Maitreya, i.e. the present period.

二佛性 Dual aspects of the Buddha-nature, i.e., 理佛性 the Buddha-nature which is fundamentally in all sentient beings, and 行佛性 the functioning Buddha-nature active and effective in some, but not in others, a doctrine of the 法相 school.

二佛身 v. 二身.

二修 Two kinds of devotion or practice, 專修 and 雜修 sole or single-minded, and miscellaneous or varied, defined as (1) chief or sole duty, and (2) aids thereto or adjunctive observances. Also 緣修 causative devotion of a bodhisattva in former life, and 眞修 its actual manifestation here.

二倶犯過 or 二人倶犯 A term applied by Tiantai in criticism of Huayan, which while it is a 圓敎 perfect or complete doctrine, yet has the "crudities" of the 別敎 and comes short of the really perfect Lotus doctrine.

二假 Two hypotheses in the 唯識論1:— (1) 無體隨情假the non-substantial hypothesis, that there is no substantial entity or individuality, i.e. no 見分 and 相分, no 實我 and 實法, no real subject and object but that all is transient subject and object, but that all is transient emotion; (2) 有體施設假 the factual hypothesis, that there is entity or individuality, subject and object, etc.

二光 The dual lights, i.e. 色光 the halo from a Buddha's body and 心光 the light from his mind. Also 常光 the constant halo from the bodies of Buddhas and 神通光 the supernatural light sent out by a Buddha (e.g. from between his eyebrows) to illuminate a distant world.

二入 The two ways of entering the truth:— 理入 by conviction intellectually, 行入 by (proving it in) practice.

二八 The sixteen meditations. V. 十六觀.

二六 Twelve.

二六之緣 idem 十二因緣.

二六之願 the twelve vows of 藥師.

二六時中 during the twelve (=twenty-four) hours of the day.

二凡 The two external and internal, or ordinary ranks, 外凡 and 内凡, in the first forty of the fifty-two stages 位; the 外凡 are ordinary believers who pursue the stages of 十信; the 内凡 are the zealous, who are advancing through the next three groups of stages up to the fortieth.

二出 The two modes of escape from mortality, 堅出 the long way called the 聖道門 or 自力敎, i.e. working out one's own salvation; and 橫出 the across or short way of the Pure-land sect or 他力敎 faith in or invocation of another, i.e. Amitābha.

二利 The dual benefits, or profits: benefiting or developing oneself and others; 自利 in seeking enlightenment in bodhisattvahood, 利他 in saving the multitude. Hīnayāna "seeks only one's own benefit"; the bodhisattva rule seeks both one's own benefit and that of others, or personal improvement for the improving of others.

二力 Dual powers; there are three definitions: (1) 自力 one's own strength, or endeavours, i.e. salvation by cultivating 戒, 定, and 慧; 他カ another's strength, e.g. the saving power of Amitābha. (2) 思擇力 Power of thought in choosing (right principles); 修習力 power of practice and performance. (3) 有力 and 無力 positive and negative forces: dominant and subordinate; active and inert energy.

二加 The dual aid bestowed by the Buddha, 顯加 manifest or external aid bestowed by the Buddha, in the blessings and powers of this life; 冥加 invisible aid bestowed by the Buddha, in getting rid of sins, increasing virtue, etc.

二勝果 The two surpassing fruits, or rewards given by Buddha, i.e. final nirvāṇa and perfect enlightenment.

二十 viṃśati. Twenty.

二十二品 Twenty-two of the 三十七道品 q.v.; they are 四念處, 四正勤、四如意, 足五根 and 五力.

二十二根 The twenty-two roots, organs, or powers, v. 根. They are: (1) 眼根 eye, cakṣurindriya; (2) 耳 根 ear, śrotrendriya; (3) 鼻根 nose, ghrāṇendriya; (4) 舌根 tongue, jihvendriya; (5) 身根 body, kāyendriya; (6) 意根 mind, manaīndriya (the above are the 六根); (7) 女根 female organ, strīndriya; (8) 男根 male organ, puruṣendriya; (9) 命根 life, jīvitendriya; (10) 苦根 suffering (or pain), duḥkhendriya; (11) 樂根 pleasure, sukhendriya; (12) 憂根 sorrow, daurmanasyendriya; (13) 喜根 joy, saumanas-yendriya; (14) 捨根 abandoning, upekṣendriya (from 10 to 14 they are the 五受); (15) 信根 faith, śraddhendriya; (16) 精進根 zeal, vīryendriya; (17) 念根 memory, smṛtīndriya; (18) 定根 meditation, or trance, samādhīndriya; (19) 慧根 wisdom, prajñendriya (these are the 信等之五根); (20) 未知當知根 the power for learning (the Four Noble Truths) anājñātamājñāsyāmīndriya; (21) 巳知根 the power of having learned (them), ājñendriya; (22) 具知根 the power of perfect knowledge (of them), ājñātādvīndriya (these three are called the 無漏根) .

二十二門 The Abhidharma-kośa divides the eighteen realms 十八界 into twenty-two categories. Also, there are twenty-two modes or processes in the perfect development of a Buddha and his works.

二十五條 The monk's twenty-five-patch garment, v. 袈.

二十五圓通 The twenty-five kinds of perfect understanding of the truth; they refer to the 六塵, 六根, 六識, and 七大; disciples of the Buddha are said each to have acquired a special knowledge of one of these twenty-five and to have been recognized as its authority, e. g. Guanyin of the ear, Dignāga of sound, etc.

二十五方便 Tiantai's twenty-five aids to meditation, v. 止觀.

二十五有 The twenty-five forms of existence, fourteen in the desire realms 欲界, seven in the realms of form 色界, and four in the formless realms 無色界, v. 有.

二十五神 The twenty-five guardian deities who protect any keeper of the commandments, i.e. five for each of the commandments against killing, robbing, adultery, lying, and drinking.

二十五菩薩 The twenty-five bodhisattvas who protect all who call on Amitābha i. e. 觀音, 大勢至, 藥王, 藥上, 普賢, 法自在, 師子吼, 陀羅尼, 虛空藏, 佛藏, 菩藏, 金藏, 金剛藏, 山海慧, 光明王, 華嚴王, 衆賓王, 月光王, 日照王, 三昧王, 定自在王, 大自在王, 自象王, 大威德王 and 無邊身菩薩.

二十五點 Each of the five 更 night watches is divided into five making twenty-five dian.

二十億耳 Sroṇakoṭīviṁśa. Defined as the most zealous of Śākyamuni's disciples, who became an arhat. Having lived in a heaven for ninety-one kalpas, where his feet did not touch the ground, he was born with hair on his soles two inches long, an omen which led his father and brothers to endow him with twenty kotis of ounces of gold, hence this name. v. 智度論 22.

二十八天 The twenty-eight heavens, or devalokas: six of the desire-world 欲界, eighteen of the form-world 色界, and four arūpa or formless heavens 無色界. The heavens of the world of form are sixteen according to the 薩婆多部 Sarvāstivāda School, seventeen according to 經部 Sūtra School, and eighteen according to the 上座 Sthavirāḥ.

二十八宿 The twenty-eight nakṣatras or constellations, divided into four mansions of seven each, referred to East, or Spring; South, Summer; West, Autumn; and North, Winter. The month-names derived from them differ slightly in form. E.: 角 Citrā, 亢 Niṣṭyā (or Svāti), 氏 Viśākhā, 房 Anurādhā, 心Rohiṇī, Jyeṣṭhaghnī (or Jyesthā), 尾 Mūlabarhaṇī (or Mūla), 箕 Pūrva-Aṣādha. N.: 斗 Uttara-Aṣāḍhā, 牛 Abhijit, 女Śravaṇā, 盧Śraviṣṭha (or Dhaniṣṭhā) 危Śatabhiṣā, 室 Pūrva-Proṣṭhapada, 壁 Uttara-Proṣṭhapada. W.: 奎 Revatī, 婁 Aśvayuj (or Aśvinī), 胃 Apabharaṇī (or Bharaṇī), 昴 Kṛttikā, 畢 Rohiṇī, 觜 Invakā (or Mṛgaśiras), 參 Bāhu (or Ārdrā). S.: 井 Punarvasu, 鬼 Tiṣya (or Puṣya), 柳 Aśleṣā, 星 Maghā, 張 Pūrva-Phalgunī, 翼 Uttara-Phalgunī, 軫 Hastā.

二十八有 or 生The twenty-eight forms of existence, or birth. 二十九有 the twenty-ninth is the non-existent; v. 有.

二十八祖 The twenty-eight Buddhist patriarchs as stated by the Mahāyānists. The Tiantai school reckons twenty-three, or twenty-four, with the addition of Śaṇakavāsa, contemporary with his predecessors, but the Chan school reckons twenty-eight: (1) Mahākāśyapa, 摩訶迦葉 (摩訶迦葉波); (2) Ānanda, 阿難; (3) Śāṇakavāsa, 商那和修; 4) Upagupta, 優婆毱多; (5) Dhṛṭaka, 提多迦; (6) Mikkaka, or Miccaka, or Micchaka, 彌遮迦; (7) Vasumitra, 婆須蜜; (8) Buddhanandi, 佛陀難提; (9) Buddhamitra, 伏駄蜜多; (10) Pārśva, or Pārśvika, 波栗溼縛or 脇尊者; (11) Puṇyayaśas 那尊耶舍; (12) Aśvaghoṣa, 馬鳴大士; (13) Kapimala, 迦毘摩羅; (14) Nāgārjuna, 龍樹; (15) Kāṇadeva, 迦那提婆; (16) Rāhulata, 羅睺羅多; (17) Saṅghanandi, 僧伽難提; (18) Gayāśata, 伽耶舍多; (19) Kumārata, 鳩摩羅多; (20) Jayata, 闍夜多; (21) Vasubandhu, 婆修盤頭; (22) Manorhita, 摩撃羅; (23) Haklena, 鶴輸勒; (24) Ārasiṁha, 師子尊者; (25) Basiasita, 婆舍新多; (26) Puṇyamitra, 不如密多; (27) Prajñātāra, 般若多羅; (28) Bodhidharma, 菩提達磨.

二十八藥叉 The twenty-eight yakṣas.

二十八部衆 The thousand-hand Guanyin has twenty-eight groups of 大仙衆great ṛṣis or genii, under the direction of the 孔雀王 Peacock king, Mayūrarāja; also each of the 四天王 mahārājas, or guardians of the four regions, has the same provision of demons, known as 鬼神衆 company of spirits.

二十唯識 The name of the 唯識二十論.

二十天 The twenty devas. (1) 大梵天王 (Mahābrahman), (2) 帝釋尊天(Śakra devānām Indra), (3) 多聞天王 (Vaiśravana, 毘沙門, or Dhanada), (4) 持國天王(Dhṛtarāṣṭra), (5) 增長天王 (Virūḍhaka), (6) 廣目天王 (Virūpākṣa), (7) 金剛密迹(?Gunyapati), (8) 摩醯首羅 (Maheśvara), (9) 散脂 (迦) 大將 (Pañcika), (10) 大辯才天 (Sarasvatī), (11) 大功德天 (Lakṣmī), (12) 韋驛天神 (Skanda), (13) 堅牢地神 (Pṛthivī), (14) 善提樹神 (Bodhidruma, or Bodhi-vṛkṣa), (15) 鬼子母神 (Hāritī), (16) 摩利支天 (Marīci), (17) 日宮天子 (Sūrya), (18) 月宮天子 (Candra, etc. There are many different names), (19) 裟竭龍王(Sāgara), (20) 閣摩羅王 (Yama-rāja).

二十智 The twenty kinds of wisdom or knowledge as denied by Tiantai i.e. the Hīnayāna (or三藏) with seven kinds, 通教 five, 別教four, and 圓教 four; cf. 智.

二十犍度 The twenty skandhas intp. as 章篇 sections or chapters, i.e. the thirty-one to the fifty-three chuan of the 四分律, beginning with受戒犍度 and ending with 雜犍度; they are twenty sections containing rules for the monastic life and intercourse.

二十部 The eighteen Hīnayāna sects, together with the two original assemblies of elders.

二受 The dual receptivity or karma of pleasure and pain, the physical and the mental, i.e. 身 and 心.

二吉羅 The two duṣkṛta, doing evil and speaking evil; v. 突吉羅 .

二和 The double harmony or unity, i. e. 理 and 事, indicating those who are united in doctrine and practice, or the saṅgha.

二善 The two good things, 定善 the good character that arises from meditation or contemplation mdash especially of the Pure Land; 散善 the good character attainable when, though not in meditation, one controls oneself in thought, word, and deed;. Also 未生善 the good character not yet evolved; and 已生善 the good character already evolved;. Also 事理善 goodness in theory and practice.

二因 Two causes, of which there are various definitions: (1) 生因 The producing cause (of all good things); and 了因 the revealing or illuminating cause i.e. knowledge, or wisdom. (2) 能生因 The 8th 識 q. v.: the cause that is able to produce all sense and perceptions, also all good and evil; and 方便因 the environmental or adaptive cause, which aids the 8th 識, as water or earth does the seed, etc. (3) 習因 or 同類因 Practice or habit as cause e. g. desire causing desire; and 報因 or 果熟因 the rewarding cause, or fruit-ripening cause, e. g. pleasure or pain caused by good or evil deeds. (4) 正因 Correct or direct cause i.e. the Buddha-nature of all beings; and 緣因 the contributory cause, or enlightenment (see 了因 above) which evolves the 正因 or Buddha-nature by good works. (5) 近因 Immediate or direct cause and 遠因 distant or indirect cause or causes.

二圓 The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待 comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection.

二嚴 The dual adornment, that of 智慧 wisdom and that of 福德; good deeds, 涅槃經 27.

二土 There are three groups: 性土 and 相土 : the former is the ubiquitous, unadulterated or innocent 法性之理 dharma-name, or essence of things; the latter is the form-nature, or formal existence of the dharma, pure or impure according to the mind and action of the living. The 淨土 and 穢土 are Pure-land or Paradise; and impure land, e.g. the present world. In the Pure-land there are also 報土 , the land in which a Buddha himself dwells and 化土 in which all beings are transformed. There are other definitions, e. g. the former is Buddha's Paradise, the latter the world in which he dwells and which he is transforming, e. g. this Sahā-world.

二執 The two (erroneous) tenets, or attachments: (1) 我執 or 人執 that of the reality of the ego, permanent personality, the ātman, soul or self. (2) 法執 that of the reality of dharma, things or phenomena. Both are illusions. "All illusion arises from holding to the reality of the ego and of things."

二報 The dual reward. (1) 依報 or 依果 The material environment on which a person depends, resulting from former karma, e.g. country, house, property, etc. (2) 正報 or 正果 his direct reward, i. e. his body, or person.

二增菩薩 The two superior kinds of bodhisattvas, 智增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in wisdom (chiefly beneficial to self); 悲增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in pity for others and devotion to their salvation.

二天 The two devas. (1) 日天 and 月天Sun-deva and Moon-deva. (2) 同生天A deva born simultaneously with the individual and 同名天 a deva with the same name as the individual; both devas have the duty of watching over the individual. (3) 梵天 and 帝釋天 Brahma and Indra.

二天三仙 The two devas are Maheśvara and Viṣṇu; the three ṛṣi are Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha; v. 迦, 優, and 勒.

二女 The two sisters, one the deva 功德女 "merit" or "achieving", who causes people to acquire wealth; the other, 黑闇女 the "dark" one, who causes them to spend and waste; these sisters always accompany each other.

二如 There are various definitions of the two aspects of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā. (1) (a) 不變眞如 The changeless essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) 隨緣眞如 its conditioned or ever-changing forms, as in the phenomenal world, e.g. the waves. (2) (a) 離言眞如 The inexpressible absolute, only mentally conceivable; (6) 依言眞如 aspects of it expressible in words, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) 空眞如 The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear mirror; (b) 不空眞如 the absolute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of the universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) 在纏眞如The Buddha-nature in bonds, i.e. all beings in suffering; (b) 出纏真如the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) 有垢眞如The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened man, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots in the mud; (b) 無垢眞如 the pure Buddha-nature, purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) 安立 and 非安立眞如 similar to the first definition given above.

二妙 The dual "marvel" of the Lotus sūtra, the 相待妙 or comparative view, i.e. compared with all previous teaching, which is the rough groundwork; and the 絕待妙 or view of it as the perfection of teaching; hence it is "wonderful" in comparison with all previous doctrine, and absolutely 'wonderful' in itself; cf. 二圓.

二始 The two beginnings, i.e. of Hīnayāna, by the preaching of the 阿含 Āgama sūtras; and of Mahāyāna by the preaching of the 華嚴 Avataṁsaka sūtra.

二字 Double-letters, i.e. a monk-because a monk's name consists of two characters.

二字文殊 The two-character Mañjuśrī.

二學 The two kinds of study or learning: (a) reading and reciting, (b) meditation and thought.

二宗 Two theories or schools stated by the Huayan (Kegon) school as 法相宗 and 法性宗 q.v., known also as 相宗 and 性宗. There are ten point of difference between them. Another division is the 空宗 and 性宗 q. v.

二密 The two esoteric aspects, i.e. 理密 and 事密 , the former referring to the doctrine, the latter to the esoteric acts of a Tathāgata.

二尊 The two honoured ones, Śākyamuni and Amitābha.

二尊一教 (or 致) The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as one in teaching.

二尊二教 The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as teacher and saviour, with reference to the teaching of the way of salvation of the first, and the consequent saving vows of the second.

二世尊二師 The two sages, or preceptors in the Lotus Sūtra, Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna. Also sages and ordinary preceptors.

二序 The two kinds of introductory phrase: (a) the ordinary opening phrase of a sutra— "Thus have I heard"; and (b) specific openings referring to the circumstances in which the sūtra was produced.

二往 再往 Twice over, a second time.

二德 The two kinds of power or virtue are 智德 and 斷德; also 悲德 and 智德; also 性德 and 修德; q.v. and v. 德.

二心 The two minds, 眞心 the original, simple, pure, natural mind of all creatures, the Buddha-mind, i.e. 如來藏心; and 妄心 the illusion-mind, which results in complexity and confusion. Also, 定心 the meditative mind, or mind fixed on goodness; and the 散心 the scattered, inattentive mind, or mind that is only good at intervals.

二忍 The two patiences or endurances: 衆生忍 patience towards all under all circumstances; 無生(法)忍 calm rest, as a bodhisattva、in the assurance of no (re-) birth, i.e. in immortality. Also 安受苦忍 patience under suffering, and 觀察法忍 imperturbable examination of or meditation in the law or of all things. Also, physical and mental patience, or endurance.

二悟 The two awakenings, or kinds of entry into bodhisattvahood, i.e. 頓悟 immediate and 漸悟 gradual.

二惑 The two aspects of illusion: 見惑 perplexities or illusions and temptations arise from false views or theories. 思惑 or 修惑, ditto from thoughts arising through contact with the world, or by habit, such as desire, anger, infatuation, etc. They are also styled 理惑 illusions connected with principles and 事惑 illusions arising, in practice; v. 見思.

二愛 The two kinds of love, 欲愛 ordinary human love springing from desire; 法愛 bodhisattva or religious love, i.e. desiring to save all creatures.

二應身 The two kinds of transformation-body of a Buddha, i.e. 勝應身 the Buddha's surpassing body as seen by bodhisattvas, and 劣應身 the Buddha's inferior human body as seen by ordinary people.

二戒 The two grades of commandments, or prohibitions, e. g. 十戒 and 具足戒 for monks; 五戒 and 八戒 for the laity; 邪戒 and 正戒 heretical rules and correct rules; and numerous other pairs.

二我 (二我見) The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) 人我見 The erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the like view that anything exists with an independent nature.

二我執 The two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) 具生我執 the natural, or instinctive cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) 分別我執 the same idea developed as the result of (erroneous) reasoning. Cf. 二法執.

二持 The two values of the commandments: (a) 止持 prohibitive, restraining from evil; (b) 作持 constructive, constraining to goodness.

二教 Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order.

二時 The two times or periods— morning and evening. Also 迦羅 kāla, a regular or fixed hour for meals, and 三昧耶 samaya, irregular or unfxed hours or times.

二智 The two kinds of wisdom; there are various pairs. The Huayan school uses 如理智 and 如量智; the Faxiang (法相) uses 根本智 and 後得智; the Tiantai uses 權智 and 實智. (1) (a) 如理智 or 根本智, 無分別智, 正體智, 眞智, 實智 is Buddha-wisdom, or Bodhisattva real wisdom; (b) 如量智 or 後得智, the same wisdom in its limitation and relation to ordinary human affairs. (2) (a) 實智 Absolute wisdom and (b) 權智 or 方便智 | relative or temporal wisdom. (3) (a) 一切智 wisdom of the all, (b) 一切種智 wisdom of all the particulars.

二智圓滿 The two kinds of Tathāgata-wisdom, 實 and 權 absolute and functional (or relative), both perfect and complete.

二果 Sakṛdāgāmin; v. 裟 and 斯. The second "fruit" of the four kinds of Hīnayāna arhats, who have only once more to return to mortality. Also the two kinds of fruit or karma: (a) 習氣果 The good or evil characteristics resulting from habit or practice in a former existence; (b) 報果the pain or pleasure resulting (in this life) from the practices of a previous life.

二根 The two "roots" or natural powers. (1) (a) 利根 keen, able (in the religion); (b) 鈍根 dull. (2) (a) 正根; 勝義根The power or ability which uses the sense organs to discern the truth; (b) 扶根; 扶 (or浮) 塵根the sense organs 五根 as aids. (3) The male and female sexual organs.

二業 Two classes of karma. (1) (a) 引業 leads to the 總報, i.e. the award as to the species into which one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) 滿業 is the 別報 or fulfillment in detail, i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g. clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) 善業 and (b) 惡業 Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) 助業 Aids to the karma of being reborn in Amitābha's Pure—land e. g. offerings, chantings, etc.; (b) 正業 thought and invocation of Amitābha with undivided mind, as the direct method.

二檀 The two dāna 檀那, i. e, kinds of donating, or almsgiving: (a) 世間檀 ordinary alms, and (b) 出世間檀 spiritual, or other-worldly gifts.

二求 The two kinds of seeking: 得求 seeking to get (e.g. pleasure) and 命求 seeking long life.

二法執 The two tenets in regard to things; of. 二我執, i.e. 倶生法執 the common or natural tendency to consider things as real; 分別法執 the tenet of the reality of things as the result of false reasoning and teaching.

二法身 Contrasted types of the Dharmakāya; five pairs are given, 理法身 and 智法身; 果極 and 應化法身 ; 自性法身 and 應化法身 ; 法性法身 and 方便法身 ; 理法身 and 事法身 ; cf. 法身.

二河白道 The two rivers and the white path, i.e. the path leading to life between the rivers of desire and hatred, which are compared to water and fire.

二流 The two ways in the current of transmigration: 順流 to flow with it in continual re-incarnation; 逆流 resist it and seek a way of escape by getting rid of life's delusions, as in the case of the saints.

二涅槃 Two Nirvanas, v. 二種涅槃.

二漏 The two conditions relating to the passions and delusions: 有漏 the condition in which they can prevail; 無漏 that in which they cannot prevail.

二無常 Two kinds of impermanence, immediate and delayed. 念念無常 things in motion, manifestly transient; 相續無常 things that have the semblance of continuity, but are also transient, as life ending in death, or a candle in extinction.

二無我 The two categories of anātman: — 人無我 no (permanent) human ego, or soul; 法無我 no (permanent) individuality in or independence of self or of things.

二無我智 The wisdom that recognizes the two categories of anātman, v. 四諦.

二無記 The two neutrals, or indeterminates which cannot be noted as good or evil.

二煩惱 The two kinds of kleśa, i.e. passions, delusions, temptations, or trials. (1) (a) 根本煩惱 The six fundamental kleśas arising from the six senses; (b) 隨煩惱 the twenty consequent kleśas arising out of the six. (2) (a) 分別起煩惱 Kleśa arising from false reasoning; (b) 倶生起煩惱 that which is natural to all. (3) (a) 大煩惱地法The six great, e.g. extravagance, and (b) 小煩惱地法 ten minor afflictions, e.g. irritability. (4) (a) 數行煩惱 Ordinary passions, or temptations; (b) 猛利煩惱fierce, sudden, or violent passions, or temptations.

二犯 The two kinds of sin, 止犯 and 作犯.

二王 The two guardian spirits represented on the temple gates, styled Vajrayakṣa 金剛夜叉 or 神 or 夜叉神.

二現 The two kinds of manifestation, or appearance, 須現 the necessary appearance in the flesh of the Buddha for ordinary people, and 不須現 the non-necessity for this to those of spiritual vision.

二百五十戒 The 250 commandments, or 具足戒 perfect or complete commandments, which are obligatory on monks and nuns. They are 四波羅夷 or 四根本極惡the four pārājika; 十三殘 thirteen saṅghāvaseṣa; 二不定法 two aniyata; 三十捨隨 thirty naiḥsargikāḥ-pāyattikāḥ; 九十波逸提ninety prāyaścittikāḥ; 四提舍尼four pratideśanīya; 百衆學 hundred śikṣākaraṇīya, and 七滅諍 seven kinds of vinaya for ending disputes.

二益 The dual advantages or benefits: profitable to the life which now is, and that which is to come.

二相 The two forms, or characteristics, of the bhutatathata, universal and particular. The 起信論 gives (a) 淨智相 pure wisdom, cf. ālaya-vijñāna, out of whose primary condition arise (b) 不思議用相 inconceivable, beneficial functions and uses. The same śāstra gives also a definition of the 眞如 as (a) 同相 that all things, pure or impure, are fundamentally of the same universal, e.g. clay which is made into tiles; (b) 異相 but display particular qualities, as affected by pure or impure causes, e.g. the tiles. Another definition, of the 智度論 31, is (a) 總相 universals, as impermanence; (b) 別相 particulars, for though all things have the universal basis of impermanence they have particular qualities, e.g. earth-solidity, heat of fire, etc.

二眞如 v. 二如 and 眞如.

二礙 idem 二障.

二祖 The second patriarch of the Chan school, Huike 慧可.

二祖斷臂 the second patriarch in China 慧可 of the Chan school, who, to induce bodhidharma to receive him, is said to have cut of his left arm in the snow in order to prove his firmness and determination.

二福 The bliss of the gods, and the bliss of the saints 聖; v. also 福.

二福田 The two fields for the cultivation of happiness: (a) 學人田 the eighteen Hīnayāna classes of those under training in religion; (b) 無學人田 the nine divisions of those no longer in training, i.e. who have completed their course. Also (a) 悲田 the pitable or poor and needy, as the field or opportunity for charity; (b) 敬田the field of religion and reverence of the Buddhas, the saints, the priesthood.

二種 Two kinds or classes For those not given below see under二, etc., as for instance 二種世間 see under二世間.

二種佛境 The two Buddha-domains: (a) 證境 the Buddha's domain or state of absolute enlightenment; (b) 化境 the domain that the Buddha is transforming.

二種供養 The two forms of service, or offerings: (1) (a) 出纏供養 to those who have escaped from the toils, e.g. Buddhas; (b) 在纏供養 to those still living in the toils. (2) (a) 財供養 offerings of goods; (b) 法供養 of the Buddha-truth.

二種光明 The two kinds of light: (1) (a) 色光明 physical light; (b) 智慧光明 or 心光明 wisdom or mental light. (2) (a) 魔光 Māra's delusive light; (b) 佛光 the true light of the Buddha. (3) (a) 常光The constant or eternal light; (b) 現起光 the light in temporary manifestations.

二種因果 Two aspects of cause and effect, a division of the 四諦 "four noble truths" (a) 世間因果 in the present life, the 苦諦 being the effect, and the 集諦 the cause; (b) 出世間因果 in the future life, the 滅諦, extinction (of passion, or mortality) being the fruit, and the 道諦 the " eightfold noble path " the cause.

二種子 Two kinds of seed: (1) (a) 本有種子 the seed or latent undivided (moral) force immanent in the highest of the eight 識, i.e. the ālaya-vijñāna; (b) 新薰種子the newly influenced, or active seed when acted upon by the seven other 識, thus becoming productive. (2) (a) 名言種子 The so-called seed which causes moral action similar to 本有種子, e.g. good or evil seed producing good or evil deeds; (b) 業種子 karma seed, the sixth 識 acting with the eighth.

二種寂靜 Two kinds of seclusion, or retirement from the world: Bodily withdrawal into seclusion. Spiritual withdrawal from all evil, and into meditation.

二種布施 Two kinds of charity: (1) (a) goods; (b) the saving truth. (2) (a) 淨施 Pure charity, expecting no return; (b) the opposite.

二種心相 Two kinds of mind: mind in its inner character and influence; in its outer manifestations.

二種忍辱 Two kinds of patience, or endurance: (a) of the assaults of nature, heat, cold, etc.; (b) of human assaults and insults.

二種性 Two kinds of seed-nature, the character of the ālaya seed and its development: (1) (a) 性種子 The original good seed-nature; (b) 習種子 the seed-nature in practice or development. (2) (a) 本性住種性 The immanent abiding original good seed-nature; (b) 習所成種性 the seed productive according to its ground. (3) (a) 聖種性 The seed-nature of the saints, by which they attain nirvana; (b) 愚夫種性 the seed-nature in the foolish and ignorant.

二種授記 Two classes of Buddha's predictions of a disciple's destiny, 無餘授記prediction in finality, or complete detail; 有餘授記 partial, or incomplete prediction.

二種施 v. 二種布施.

二種死 The two kinds of death, 命盡死 natural death, and 外緣死 violent death, or death from external cause.

二種比丘 Two classes of monks: 多聞比丘 monks who hear and repeat many sūtras, but are not devoted doers; 寡淺比丘 monks who read and repeat few sutras but are devoted in their lives.

二種淸淨 Two kinds of purity, according to the Huayan sūtra; 自性淸淨 natural purity, i.e. the natural 眞如 purity; and 離垢淸淨 acquired purity through avoiding pollution.

二種涅槃 Two nirvanas: (1) 有餘涅槃 also 有餘依 That with a remnant; the cause 因 has been annihilated, but the remnant of the effect 果 still remains, so that a saint may enter this nirvana during life, but have to continue to live in this mortal realm till the death of his body. (2) 無餘涅槃 or 無餘依 Remnantless nirvāṇa, without cause and effect, the connection with the chain of mortal life being ended, so that the saint enters upon perfect nirvāṇa on the death of the body; cf. 智度論 31. Another definition is that Hīnayāna has further transmigration, while Mahāyāna maintains final nirvana. "Nothing remnaining" is differently interpreted in different schools, by some literally, but in Mahāyāna generally, as meaning no further mortal suffering, i.e. final nirvāṇa.

二種灌頂 Two forms of esoteric baptism, v. 灌.

二種舍利 Two kinds of relics— the whole body, or parts of it. Also, the Buddha's physical remains or relics, and the sutras, which form his spiritual (dharmakāya) remains.

二種菩薩 Monastic and lay bodhisattvas.

二種菩薩身 A bodhisattva's mortal and immortal bodies.

二種病 Two kinds of sickness: physical and mental or spiritual.

二種聖 Two classes of saints or, preachers: those who preach and those who preach without words.

二種資糧 The two kinds of (spiritual) provender: charity and wisdom.

二種邪見 The two false views, one that of a nihilistic school which denied that earthly happiness is dependent on a moral life; the other a materialistic school which maintained the moral life in the interests of self, sought earthly happiness, and failed to apprehend nirvāṇa.

二種闡提 (二種一闡提) Two kinds of icchantika, q.v.: (a) the utterly depraved, abandoned, and blasphemers of Buddha-truth; (b) bodhisattvas who refuse to enter upon their Buddhahood in order to save all beings.

二空 The two voids, unrealities, or immaterialities; v. 空. There are several antitheses: (1) (a) 人空; 我空 The non-reality of the atman, the soul, the person; (6) 法空 the non-reality of things. (2) (a) 性空 The Tiantai division that nothing has a nature of its own; (b) 相空 therefore its form is unreal, i.e. forms are temporary names. (3) (a) 但空 Tiantai says the 藏 and 通 know only the 空; (b) 不但空 the 別 and 圓 have 空, 假, and 中 q.v. (4) (a) 如實空 The division of the 起信論 that the 眞如 is devoid of all impurity; (b) 如實不空 and full of all merit, or achievement.

二空觀 Two kinds of meditation on the 'void', or unreality: (a) 無生觀 the meditation that things are unproduced, having no individual or separate natures, i.e. that all things are void and unreal; cf. 性空; (b) 無相觀 that they are therefore formless, cf. 相空. Also 人 and 法空觀 see above.

二答 Two kinds of reply, one by words, the other by signs.

二經體 The two bodies or elements in a sūtra: 文 and 義 the words and the meaning, or ideas.

二罪 The two classes of offence: (a) 性罪 crime which is wrong in itself, e.g. murder, etc.; (b) 遮罪 crime not wrong in itself, e.g. taking alcohol, but forbidden by the Buddha for the sake of the other commandments; transgression of this is therefore a sin against the Buddha.

二美 Two excellent things, i.e. meditation and wisdom.

二義 The two meanings or teachings, partial and complete; v. 二教.

二翼 A pair of wings: charity and wisdom.

二聖 Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna 多寶.

二脇士 二挾侍 The two attendants by the side of Amitābha, i.e. 觀音 Guanyin and 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta; also the two by Yaoshi, the Master of Medicine, i.e. 日光 sunlight and 月光 moonlight; also the two by Śākyamuni, i.e. 文殊 Mañjuśrī and 普賢 Samantabhadra.

二般若 Two kinds of prajñā, or wisdom. (1) (a) 共般若 The prajñā of the three stages of śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and imperfect Bodhisattva schools; (b) 不共般若 the prajñā of the perfect Bodhisattva teaching—a Tiantai division. (2) (a) 世間般若 temporal prajñā; (b) 出世間般若 supernatural. (3) (a) 實相般若 The first part of the Prajñāpāramitā; (b) 觀照般若 the second part.

二色身 The two rūpakāya or incantation-bodies of a Buddha, his 報身 and 應身 or saṁbhogakāya and nirmāṇakāya, as distinguished from 法身 the dharmakāya.

二處三會 The two places from which the Buddha is supposed to have preached the Lotus Sūtra, i.e. the Vulture Peak, the sky, and again the Vulture Peak; the three assemblies are (1) those he addressed from the Peak, chapters 1 to the middle of the eleventh chapter; (2) those addressed from the sky, to the end of the twenty-second chapter; and (3) again those on the Vulture Peak, from the twenty-third chapter to the end.

二苦 Two kinds of suffering: within, e.g. sickness, sorrow; from without, e.g. calamities.

二藏 The two piṭakas or tripiṭakas, i.e. the Buddhist canon: (a) 聲聞藏 the Śrāvaka, or Hīnayāna canon: (b) 菩薩藏 the Bodhisattva, or Mahāyanā canon.

二衆 The two groups: the monks, or clergy; the laity who observe the five and the eight commands.

二行 Two classes of conduct: following wrong views; following wrong desires, or emotions. There are other pairs.

二衣 The two kinds of clothing: (a) 制衣 the regulation three robes for monks and five for nuns, which must be worn; (b) 聽衣optional garments.

二見 Two (wrong) views: (1) Looking on people grudgingly with regard to almsgiving and preaching the Buddha-truth. (2) (a) 有見 Holding to the real existence of (material) things; (b) 無見 holding to their entire unreality. (3) (a) 斷見 Holding to the view of total annihilation; (b) 常見 to that of permanence or immortality.

二覺 The two enlightenments: (1) The 起信論 has two—(a) 本覺 the immanent mind in all things, e.g. "which lighteth every man that cometh into the world", also defined as the 法身 dharmakāya; (b) 始覺 initial enlightenment or beginning of illumination; this initiation leads on to Buddhahood, or full enlightenment. (2) (a) 等覺 The fifty-first stage of a bodhisattva's 行 位 practice; (b) 妙覺 the fifty-second stage, or enlightenment of Buddhahood.(3) (a)自覺 A Buddha's own or natural enlightenment; (b) 覺他 his enlightening of all others.

二觀 The two universal bases of meditation: 事觀 the external forms, or the phenomenal, and 理觀 the real or underlying nature, i. e. practice and theory.

二解脫 Two kinds of deliverance, mukti or mokṣa: (1) (a) 有爲解脫 Active or earthly deliverance to arhatship; (b) 無爲解脫 nirvana-deliverance. (2) (a) 性淨解脫 The pure, original freedom or innocence; (b) 障盡解脫 deliverance acquired by the ending of all hindrances (to salvation). (3) (a) 慧解脫 The arhat's deliverance from hindrances to wisdom; (b) 具解脫 his complete deliverance in regard to both wisdom and vision 慧 and 定. (4) (a) 時解脫 The dull who take time or are slow in attaining to 定 vision; (b) 不時解脫 the quick or clever who take "no time". (5) (a) 心解脫 A heart or mind delivered from desires; (b) 慧解脫 a mind delivered from ignorance by wisdom.

Two kinds of statement, or definition: 遮 latent or negative and 表 patent or positive; e. g. 不生不滅 is a negative statement, 知見覺照 is a positive statement.

二語 Double-tongued; also 二舌.

Two forms of statement: (a) 俗諦 saṃvṛti-satya, also called 世諦, 世俗諦, 覆俗諦, 覆諦, meaning common or ordinary statement, as if phenomena were real; (b) 眞諦 paramartha-satya, also called 第一諦, 勝義諦, meaning the correct dogma or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is 王法 and 佛法, royal law and Buddha law.

Ālaya-vijñāna and mano-vijñāna; i. e. 阿梨耶 | and 分別事 |; v. 識.

The two protectors: the inner, oneself, by studying and following the Law; the outer, those who supply what is needful for one's body and mind, e. g. supporters.

The two kinds of poverty: of goods, and of the religion.

Two ways of passing over (to bliss): 豎 the lengthwise, or long way (of Hīnayāna); and 橫 the crosswise, or short way of Mahāyāna.

A man's two legs, compared to goodness and wisdom, 福 being counted as the first five of the pāramitās, 智 as the sixth; v. 六度. 二足尊 The honoured one among bipeds or men, i. e. a Buddha; cf. 兩足.

Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) 分段身 The varied forms of the karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) 變易身 the transformable, or spiritual body. (2) (a) 生身 The earthly body of the Buddha; (b) 化身 his nirmāṇakāya, which may take any form at will. (3) (a) 生身 his earthly body; (b) 法身 his moral and mental nature—a Hīnayāna definition, but Mahāyāna takes his earthly nirmāṇakāya as the 生身 and his dharmakāya or that and his saṃbhogakāya as 法身. (4) 眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya. (5) (a) 實相身 The absolute truth, or light, of the Buddha, i. e. the dharmakāya; (b) 爲物身 the functioning or temporal body. (6) (a) 眞身 the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya; (b) 化身 the nirmāṇakāya. (7) (a) 常身 his permanent or eternal body; (b) 無常身 his temporal body. (8) (a) 實身 and 化身 idem 二色身.

The two wheels of a cart compared by the Tiantai school to 定 (or to its Tiantai form 止觀) and 慧 meditation and wisdom; see 止觀 5. Also 食 food and 法 the doctrine, i. e. food physical and spiritual.

The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.

The two sides, extremes, or antitheses.

二邊(1) (a) 有邊 That things exist; (6) 無邊 that since nothing is self-existent, things cannot be said to exist. (2) (a) 增益邊 The plus side, the common belief in a soul and permanence; (b) 損減邊 the minus side, that nothing exists even of karma. (3) (a) 斷邊見 and (b) 常邊見 annihilation and immortality; v. 見.

二部五部 The two are the divisions which took place immediately after the Buddha's death into (a) the elder monks or intimate disciples, and (b) the general body of disciples, styled respectively 上座 and 大衆 q.v.; the five are the divisions, which are said to have occurred a century later, into Dharma-guptah 曇無德, Mulasarvastivadah 薩婆多, Mahisasakah 彌沙塞, Kasyapiyah迦葉遣 and Vatsiputriya 姿麤富羅.

二量 The two "measurings," or parts of a syllogism : (a) 現量 appearance, e.g. smoke; (b) 比量 inference, e.g. fire from smoke.

二門 Two doors, entrances, schools, etc. There are many such pairs.

二際 The two borders, or states: according to Hīnayāna, nirvana and mortality; according to Mahāyāna the two are one.

二障 The two hindrances:(1) (a) 煩惱障 The passions and delusion which aid rebirth and hinder entrance into nirvana; (b) 智障 or所知障, worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real, a hindrance to true wisdom. (2) (a) 煩惱障 as above; (b) 解脱障 hindrances to deliverance. (3) (a)理障 hindrances to truth; (b) 事障 hindrances of the passions, etc.

二頓 The two immediate or direct ways to perfection, as defined by Jingxi 荊溪 of the Huayan school; the gradual direct way of the Lotus; the direct way of the Huayan sutra, which is called the 頓頓頓圓, while that of the Lotus is called the 漸頓漸圓.

二類各生 The Pure Land will not be limited to those who repeat the name of Amitābha according to his eighteenth vow; but includes those who adopt other ways (as shown in his nineteenth and twentieth vows).

二類種子 v. 二種子.

二食 The two kinds of food: (1) (a) The joy of the Law; (b) the bliss of meditation. (2) (a)The right kind of monk's livelihood - by mendicancy; (b) the wrong kind - by any other means.

二餘 see 餘.

二鳥 The drake and the hen of the mandarin duck who are always together, typifying various contrasted theories and ideas, e.g. permanence and impermanence, joy and sorrow, emptiness and non-emptiness, etc.

二鼠 The black and white rats - night and day.

manuṣya; nara; puruṣa; pudgala. Man, the sentient thinking being in the desire-realm, whose past deeds affect his present condition.

人尊 The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha.

人分陀利華 A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitābha. 人師子; 人師(or 獅)子.

人雄師子 A Lion among men, a Buddha.

人樹 The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

人尊牛王 The Lord of the herd. These and other similar terms are applied to the Buddha.

人尊三惡 The three most wicked among men: the Icchantika; v. 一闡提: the slanderers of Mahayana, and those who break the four great commandments.

人中尊 The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha.

人中分陀利華 A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitabha.

人中師子 人師(or 獅)子; 人雄師子 A Lion among men, a Buddha.

人中樹 The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

人乘 One of the five vehicles, v. 五乘, that of the five commandments, the keeping of which ensures rebirth in the world of men.

人人本具 Every man has by origin the perfect Buddha-nature.

人仙 The ṛṣi jina, or immortal among men, i.e. the Buddha; also a name for Bimbisāra in his reincarnation.

人伽藍 This is given by Eitel as 'Narasaṃghārāma of Kapisa,' But this is doubtful.

人吉庶 mānuṣa-kṛtya; demons shaped like men; domestic slaves, introduced into Kashmir by Madhyāntika; also intp. as "work to be done by men."

人因 The causative influences for being reborn as a human being, i.e. a good life. Those in positions of honour have obtained them by former deeds of benevolence, reverence to Buddhas and monks, patience, humility, devotion to the sutras, charity, morality, zeal and exhortation, obedience, loyalty - hence they have obtained affluence, long life, and are held in high regard. Those in mean condition are thus born because of the opposite characteristics in previous incarnation.

人執 The (false) tenet of a soul, or ego, or permanent individual, i.e. that the individual is real, the ego an independent unit and not a mere combination of the five skandhas produced by cause and in effect disintegrating; v. 我執.

人天 Men and devas.

人天乘 Two of the 五乘 q.v.

人天教 Two of the 五教 q.v.

人天眼目 A summary of the teaching of the 禪 Chan sect by Zhizhao 智照 of the Song dynasty.

人天勝妙善果 The highest forms of reincarnation、i.e. those of devas and men.

人定 The third beat of the first watch, 9-11 p.m., when men are settled for the night.

人寳 The treasure of men, Buddha.

人尊 idem 人中尊.

人師 A leader or teacher of men.

人師子 nṛsiṃha. The Lion of men, Buddha as leader and commander.

人獅子 Same as 人師子.

人我 Personality, the human soul, i.e. the false view, 人我見 that every man has a permanent lord within 常一生宰, which he calls the ātman, soul, or permanent self, a view which forms the basis of all erroneous doctrine. Also styled 人見; 我見; 人執; cf. 二我.

人有 Human bhāva or existence, one of the 七有.

人法 Men and things; also, men and the Buddha's law, or teaching.

人無我 Man as without ego or permanent soul; cf. 人我 and 二無我. Other similar terms are 衆生無我; 生空; 人空 and我空.

人無我智 The knowledge, or wisdom, of anātman, cf. 人無我.

人空 Man is only a temporary combination formed by the five skandhas and the twelve nidānas, being the product of previous causes, and without a real self or permanent soul. Hīnayāna is said to end these causes and consequent reincarnation by discipline in subjection of the passions and entry into nirvana by the emptying of the self. Mahāyāna fills the "void" with the Absolute, declaring that when man has emptied himself of the ego he realizes his nature to be that of the absolute, bhūtatathatā; v. 二空.

人空觀 The meditation on, or insight into the selflessness of person 人空.

人莽娑 Human māṃsa or flesh.

人摩娑 Human māṃsa or flesh.

人藥王 Human-touch healing prince, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation, whose touch healed all diseases, as did the application of his powdered bones after his decease in that incarnation.

人趣 人道 The human stage of the six gati, or states of existence.

人身 The human body, or person.

人身牛Cattle in human shape, stupid ignorant, heedless.

人雄師子 idem 人中師子.

人非人 A being resembling but not a human being, i.e. a kinnara.

人頭幢 A human head at the top of a daṇḍa or flagpole, used as one of Yama's symbols; v. 檀茶 (or 檀拏).

人鬼 Men and disembodied spirits, or demons; disembodied ghosts.

To enter, entry, entrance; come, bring or take in; at home; awaken to the truth; begin to understand; to relate the mind to reality and thus evolve knowledge.

六入 The "six entries" ṣaḍāyatana, which form one of the links in the chain of causaton, v. 十二因緣 the preceding link being觸contact, and the succeeding link 識 perception. The six are the qualities and effects of the six organs of sense producing sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought (or mental presentations). v. also 二入.

入不二門 To enter the school of monism, i.e. that the 一實one great reality is universal and absolute without differentiation.

入住出三心 Entrance, stay, exit; v. 入心.

入佛 The bringing in of an image of a Buddha.

入佛供養 The ceremony of bringing in a Buddha's image.

入佛平等戒 The Buddha-law by which all may attain to Buddhahood.

入信 To believe, or enter into belief.

入出二門 The two doors of ingress and egress, i.e. enter the gate of self-purification and adornment, then go forth 出 to benefit and save others.

入嚩羅 . Flaming, blazing, glowing (jvālā).

入堂 v. 入衆.

入堂五法 v. 入衆.

入塔 To inter the bones or body of a monk in a dagoba; v. 入骨.

入壇 To go to the altar (for baptism, in the esoteric sect).

入定 To enter into meditation by tranquillizing the body, mouth (i.e. lips), and mind, 身口意.

入室 To enter the master's study for examination or instruction; to enter the status of a disciple, but strictly of an advanced disciple. To receive consecration.

入寂 To inter into rest, or nirvana; also, to die. Also 入滅 or 入寂滅.

入唐八家 The eight Japanese who came to China in the Tang dynasty and studied the 密教esoteric doctrine.

入心 To enter the heart, or mind; also used for 入地 entering a particular state, its three stages being 入住出 entry, stay, and exit.

入我我入 He in me and I in him, i.e. the indwelling of the Buddha, any Buddha, or the Buddhas.

入文解釋 The method in expounding scriptures of giving the main idea before proceeding to detailed exposition.

入流 Srota-apama, v. 須陀洹.

入滅 idem 入寂.

入王宮聚落衣 The monk's robe, worn equally for a palace, or for begging in town or hamlet.

入重玄門 To enter again through the dark gate into mortality, e.g. as a bodhisattva does, even into the hells, to save the suffering. Another interpretation is the return of a bodhisattva to common life for further enlightenment.

入聖 To become an arhat.

入衆 To enter the assembly (of monks); also 交衆.

入衆五法 Five rules for the entrant - submission, kindness, respect, recognition of rank or order, and none but religious conversation.

入觀 To enter into meditation; it differs from 入定 as 定 means 自心之寂靜 complete stillness of the mind, while 觀 means 自觀照理 thought and study for enlightenment in regard to truth.

入道 To become a monk, 出家入道; to leave home and enter the Way.

入骨 To inter the bones (of a monk) in a stūpa, or a grave.

入龕 Entering, or putting into the casket (for cremation); i.e. encoffining a dead monk.

aṣṭa, eight.

八不 The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of the Mādhyamika or Middle School 三論宗. The four pairs are "neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going." These are the eight negations; add "neither cause nor effect"and there are the 十不 ten negations; v. 八迷.

八不中觀 See 八不正觀.

八不正觀 Meditation on the eight negations 八不. These eight, birth, death, etc., are the 八迷 eight misleading ideas, or 八計 eight wrong calculations. No objection is made to the terms in the apparent, or relative, sense 俗諦, but in the real or absolute sense 眞諦 these eight ideas are incorrect, and the truth lies between them ; in the relative, mortality need not be denied, but in the absolute we cannot speak of mortality or immortality. In regard to the relative view, beings have apparent birth and apparent death from various causes, but are not really born and do not really die, i.e. there is the difference of appearance and reality. In the absolute there is no apparent birth and apparent death. The other three pairs are similarly studied.

八不可越 idem 八敬戒.

八不思議 The eight inexpressibles, or things surpassing thought, i.e. eight qualities of the ocean (depth, extent, etc.) in illustration of nirvāṇa; v. 大海.

八不正見 The teaching of the 大集經 26, on the eight incorrect views in regard to (1) 我見 the existence of a permanent ego; (2) 衆生見 the five skandhas as not the constituents of the living; (3)壽命見 fate, or determination of length of life; (4) 士夫見a creator; (5)常見 permanence; (6) 斷見 annihilation; (7) 有見 the reality of things; (8) 無見 their unreality.

八不淨 The eight things "unclean" to monks, of which there are different groups. 0ne group is - to keep gold, silver, male slaves, female slaves, cattle, stores, or to trade or farm. Another is - to own cultivated lands, to farm, keep supplies of grain and silk, servants, animals or birds, money, cushions and pans, and furniture and gilded beds.

八不顯實 By the eight negations of the Mādhyamika doctrine, the true reality of things is shown.

八中洲 Each of the "four continents" has two other continents, i.e. Jambudvīpa has Cāmara and Varacāmara; Pūrvavideha has Deha and Videha; Aparagodānīya has Śaṭhā and Uttaramantriṇaḥ; and Uttarakuru has Kuravaḥ and Kaurava; v. 四洲.

八乾 The eight skandhas, or sections of the Abhidharma, v. 八犍度.

八事隨身 The eight appurtenances of a monk - three garments, bowl, stool, filter, needle and thread, and chopper.

八五三二 The four special characteristics of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, i.e. 八識, 五法, 三性, and 二無我 q.v.

八交道 The eight roads in the eight directions, bounded with golden cords, mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra as in certain Buddha-realms.

八佛 Eight Buddhas of the eastern quarter.

八位 The classification or grades of disciples according to the Tiantai 圓教 perfect teaching, i.e. (1) 觀行卽 grade of the five classes, or stages, of lay disciples; (2) 相似卽 grade of the ten classes of or ordinary monks and nuns; above these are the 分眞卽bodhisattva stages of those progressing towards Buddhahood i.e. (3) 十住, (4) 十行, (5) 十廻向, (6) 十地, (7) 等覺, and (8) the perfect or Buddha stage 究竟卽, i.e. 妙覺. Cf. 六卽.

八位胎藏 The eight stages of the human foetus: 羯羅藍 kalala, the appearance after the first week from conception; 額部曇 arbuda, at end of second week; 閉尸 peśī, third; 健南 ghana, fourth; 鉢羅奢法 praśākhā, limbs formed during fifth week; sixth, hair, nails, and teeth; seventh, the organs of sense, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue; and eighth, complete formation.

八倒 v. 八顚倒.

八億四千萬念 The myriads of "thoughts", or moments in a single day and night, each with its consequences of good and evil; probably 8,400,000,000 is meant.

八勝處 The eight victorious stages, or degrees, in meditation for overcoming desire, or attachment to the world of sense; v. 八解脫.

八十 aśīti, eighty.

八十一品思惑 The eighty-one kinds of illusion, or misleading thoughts, arising out of desire, anger, foolishness, and pride - nine grades in each of the nine realms of desire, of form and beyond form.

八十一法 The eighty-one divisions in the Prajñā-pāramitā sūtra 大般若經 comprising form 色; mind 心; the five skandhas 五陰; twelve means of sensation 入; eighteen realms 界; four axioms 諦; twelve nidānas因緣; eighteen śūnya 空; six pāramitā 度, and four jñāna 智. Also 八十一科.

八十種好 八十隨形好 The eighty notable physical characteristics of Buddha; cf. 三十二相.

八十華嚴經 The translation of the Hua-yen 華嚴經 in eighty chüan, made by Śikṣānanda in the T'ang dynasty.

八十誦律 The original Vinaya recited by the Buddha's disciple Upāli eighty times during the summer retreat, while the Tripiṭaka was being composed after the Buddha's death.

八句義 The eight fundamental principles, intuitional or relating to direct mental vision, of the Ch'an (Zen) School, 禪宗 q.v.; they are 正法眼藏; 涅槃妙心; 實相無情;微妙法門; 不立文字; 教外別傳; 直指人心; 見性成佛.

八味 The eight savours (or pleasures) of the Buddha's nirvāṇa: 常住 perpetual abode, 寂滅extinction (of distress, etc.), 不老 eternal youth, 不死 immortality, 淸淨 purity, 虛通 absolute freedom (as space), 不動 imperturbility, and 快樂 joy.

八囀聲 (八囀) The eight cases of nouns in Sanskrit, termed Subanta, 蘇漫多, i.e. nirdeśa, upadeśana, kartṛkaraṇa, sampradāna, apādāna, svāmivacana, saṁnidhānārtha, āmahtraṇa.

八圓 Eight fundamental characteristics of a 圓教 complete or perfect school of teaching, which must perfectly express 教, 理, 智, 斷, 行, 位, 因, and 果.

八塔 idem 八大靈塔.

八墮 idem 八波羅夷.

八多羅樹 As high as eight tāla (palmyra) trees, very high.

八大地獄 (八大) The eight great naraka, or hot hells: (1) sañjīva 等活 hell of rebirth into (2) kāla-sūtra 黑繩, i.e. the hell of black cords or chains; (3) saṅghāta 衆合, in which all are squeezed into a mass between two mountains falling together; (4) raurava 號呌; hell of crying and wailing; (5) mahāraurava 大號呌 hell of great crying; (6) tapana 炎熱 hell of burning; (7) pratāpana 大熱 hell of fierce heat; (8) avīci 無間 unintermitted rebirth into its sufferings with no respite. v. 地獄 and 八寒地獄.

八大明王 The eight diamond-kings, or bodhisattvas, in their representations as fierce guardians of Vairocana 大日; 金剛手 is represented as 降三世; 妙吉祥; as 大威德;虛空藏as大笑; 慈氏 as 大輪; 觀自在 as 馬頭; 地藏 as 無能勝明; 除蓋障 as 不動尊 and 普賢as歩擲.

八大在我 The eight great powers of personality or sovereign independence, as one of the four qualities 常樂我淨 of nirvāṇa: powers of self-manifolding, infinite expansion, levitation and transportation, manifesting countless forms permanently in one and the same place, use of one physical organ in place of another, obtaining all things as if nothing, expounding a stanza through countless kalpas, ability to traverse the solid as space. v. 涅槃經 23.

八大菩薩 see 八大明王. Another group is given in the 八大菩薩曼荼羅經; another in the 樂師經 translated by Yijing; another in the 八大菩薩經 translated by Faxian; and there are other groups.

八大觀音 The eight Shingon representations of Guanyin: as one of the above 八大明王, as the white-robed one, as a rākṣasī, as with four faces, as with a horse's head, as Mahāsthāmaprāpta 大勢至, and as Tārā 陀羅.

八大辛苦 idem 八苦.

八大童子 The eight messengers of 不動明王, also known as 八大金剛童子; Mañjuśrī also has eight.

八大金剛明王 or 八大金剛童子The eight attendants on 不動明王 (cf. 八大明王). They are 慧光, 慧喜, 阿耨達多, 指德, 烏倶婆迦, 淸德, 矜羯羅, and制吒迦.

八大靈塔 The eight great "spirit", or sacred stūpas erected at (1) Kapilavastu, Buddha's birthplace; (2) Magadha, where he was first enlightened; (3) the deer-park Benares, where he first preached; (4) Jetavana, where he revealed his supernatural powers; (5) Kanyākubja (Kanauj), where he descended from Indra's heavens; (6) Rājagṛha, where Devadatta was destroyed and the Saṅgha purifed; (7) Vaiśāli, where he announced his speedy nirvana; (8) Kuśinagara, where he entered nirvāṇa. There is another slightly variant list.

八字 The eight leading characters of the 聖行 chapter in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 生滅滅巳寂滅爲樂, the teaching of the sūtra is death, or nirvāṇa, as entry into joy.

八字布字 The eight magic words to be placed on eight parts of the body.

八字文殊法 The eight-word dhāraṇī, esoteric methods connected with Vairocana and Mañjuśrī.

八天 The eight devalokas, i.e. four dhyāna devalokas of the region of form, and four arūpalokas; 四禪天 and 四空處.

八定 The eight degrees of fixed abstraction, i.e. the four dhyānas corresponding to the four divisions in the heavens of form, and the four degrees of absolute fixed abstraction on the 空 or immaterial, corresponding to the arūpadhātu, i.e. heavens of formlessness.

八宗 or 八家 Eight of the early Japanese sects: 倶舍 Kusha, 成實 Jōjitsu, 律 Ritsu, 法相Hossō, 三論 Sanron, 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon.

八宗九宗 八家九宗 The eight Japanese schools 八宗 with the Zen 禪 school added. The first four are almost or entirely extinct.

八寒八熱 The eight cold and eight hot hells.

八寒地獄 Also written 八寒冰地獄. The eight cold narakas, or hells: (1) 頞浮陀 arbuda, tumours, blains; (2) 泥羅浮陀 nirarbuda, enlarged tumors; 疱裂bursting blains; (3) 阿叱叱 aṭaṭa, chattering (teeth); (4) 阿波波 hahava, or ababa, the only sound possible to frozen tongues; (5) 嘔侯侯ahaha, or hahava, ditto to frozen throats; (6) 優鉢羅 utpala, blue lotus flower, the flesh being covered with sores resembling it; (7) 波頭摩padma, red lotus flower, ditto; (8) 分陀利puṇḍarīka, the great lotus, ditto. v. 地獄 and大地獄.

八尊重法 idem 八敬戒.

八師 The eight teachers―murder, robbery, adultery, lying, drinking, age, sickness, and death; v. 八師經.

八忍 The eight kṣānti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two realms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the truth of the Four Axioms, 四諦; these four give rise to the 四法忍, i.e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道法忍, the endurance or patient pursuit that results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are called the 四類忍. By patient meditation the 見惑 false or perplexed views will cease, and the八智 eight kinds of jñāna or gnosis be acquired; therefore 智 results from忍 and the sixteen, 八忍八智 (or 觀), are called the 十六心, i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of 見道, when 惑 illusions or perplexities of view are destroyed. Such is the teaching of the 唯識宗. The 八智 are 苦, 集, 滅,道法智 and 苦, etc. 類智.

八念法 Or 八念門. Eight lines of thought, in the智度論 21 , for resisting Māra-attacks and evil promptings during the meditation on impurity, etc.; i.e. thought of the Buddha, of the Law (or Truth), the fraternity, the commandments, alms-giving, the devas, breathing, and death. There are also the 大人八念 , i.e. that truth 道 is obtained through absence of desire, contentment, aloneness, zeal, correct thinking, a fixed mind, wisdom, and inner joy. v. 八念經.

八思巴 Also 發思巴 Bashpa, Phagspa, Baghcheba, Blo-gros-rgyal-mtshah, Chos-rgyal-ḥphags-pa. A śramaṇa of Tibet, teacher and confidential adviser of Kublai Khan, who appointed him head of the Buddhist church of Tibet A.D. 1260. He is the author of a manual of Buddhist terminology彰所知論 and translated another work into Chinese. In A.D. 1269 he constructed an alphabet for the Mongol language, "adapted from the Tibetan and written vertically," and a syllabary borrowed from Tibetan, known by the name of Hkhor-yig, for which, however, the Lama Chos-kyi-hod-zer 1307-1311 substituted another alphabet based on that of Śākya-paṇḍita.

八慢 The eight kinds of pride, māna, arrogance, or self-conceit, 如慢 though inferior, to think oneself equal to others (in religion); 慢慢 to think oneself superior among manifest superiors; 不如慢 to think oneself not so much inferior among manifest superiors; 增上慢 to think one has attained more than is the fact, or when it is not the fact; 我慢 self-superiority, or self-sufficiency; 邪慢 pride in false views, or doings; 憍慢 arrogance; 大慢 extreme arrogance.

八憍 The eight kinds of pride, or arrogance, resulting in domineering: because of strength; of clan, or name; of wealth; of independence, or position; of years, or age; of cleverness, or wisdom; of good or charitable deeds; of good looks. Of these, eight birds are named as types: 鴟梟 two kinds of owl, eagle, vulture, crow, magpie, pigeon, wagtail.

八成 idem 八相成道. 八成立因 The eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism.

八戒 (八戒齋) The first eight of the ten commandments, see 戒; not to kill; not to take things not given; no ignoble (i.e. sexual) conduct; not to speak falsely; not to drink wine; not to indulge in cosmetics, personal adornments, dancing, or music; not to sleep on fine beds, but on a mat on the ground; and not to eat out of regulation hours, i.e. after noon. Another group divides the sixth into two―against cosmetics and adornments and against dancing and music; the first eight are then called the eight prohibitory commands and the last the 齋 or fasting commandment. Also 八齋戒; 八關齋 (八支齋) ; cf. 八種勝法.

八教 The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation.

八敬戒 The eight commands given by the Buddha to his foster-mother, i.e. aunt, when she was admitted to the order, and which remain as commands to nuns: (1) even though a hundred years old a nun must pay respect to a monk, however young, and offer her seat to him; (2) must never scold a monk; (3) never accuse, or speak of his misdeeds; but a monk may speak of hers; (4) at his hands obtain reception into the order; (5) confess sin (sexual or other) before the assembly of monks and nuns; (6) ask the fraternity for a monk as preceptor; (7) never share the same summer resort with monks; (8) after the summer retreat she must report and ask for a responsible confessor. Also 八敬法; 八不可越法 (or 八不可過法) ; 八尊重法; v. 四分律 48.

八支 idem 八正道 also the eight sections of the 八支 śāstra; also a term for the first eight commandments.

八方上下 The four quarters, the four 維 half-quarters and above and below, i.e. the universe in all directions.

八方天 The eight heavens and devas at the eight points of the compass: E., the Indra, or Śakra heaven; S., the Yama heaven; W., the Varuna, or water heaven; N., the Vaiśramana, or Pluto heaven; N.E., the Īśāna, or Śiva heaven; S.E., the Homa, or fire heaven; S.W., the Nirṛti, or Rakṣa heaven; N.W., the Vāyu, or wind heaven. All these may be considered as devalokas or heavens.

八時 An Indian division of the day into eight "hours", four for day and four for night.

八智 The 四法智 and 四類智; see 八忍.

八會 The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra, as delivered at eight assemblies.

八棄 idem 八波羅夷.

八正道 (八正道分) Āryamārga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" for the arhat to nirvāṇa; also styled 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八游行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道. The eight are: (1) 正見Samyag-dṛṣṭi, correct views in regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) 正思 Samyak-saṁkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) 正語 Samyag-vāc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) 正業 Samyak-karmānta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) 正命 Smnyag-ājīva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) 正精進 Samyag-vyāyāma, correct zeal, or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvāṇa. (7) 正念 Samyak-smṛti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false. (8) 正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or abstraction. The 正 means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being 邪 or heterodox, and wrong.

八正道經 Buddha-bhāṣita-aṣṭaṅga-samyaṅ-mārga-sūtra. Tr. by An Shigao of the Eastern Han B.N.659; being an earlier translation of the Samyuktāgama 雜阿含經.

八水 Eight rivers of India—Ganges, Jumna, 薩羅? Sarasvatī, Hiraṇyavatī or Ajiravatī, 魔河? Mahī, Indus, Oxus, and Sītā.

八法 The eight dharmas, things, or methods. There are three groups: (1) idem 八風 q.v. (2) 四大and 四微 q.v. (3) The eight essential things, i.e. 教 instruction, 理 doctrine, 智 knowledge or wisdom attained, 斷 cutting away of delusion, 行 practice of the religious life, 位 progressive status, 因 producing 果 the fruit of saintliness. Of these 教理行果 are known as the 四法.

八波羅夷 or 八重罪 The eight pārājika, in relation to the sins of a nun; for the first four see 四波羅夷; (5) libidinous contact with a male; (6) any sort of improper association (leading to adultery); (7) concealing the misbehaviour (of an equal, or inferior); (8) improper dealings with a monk.

八海 v. 九山八海.

八無暇 The eight conditions of no leisure or time to hear a Buddha or his truth, idem 八難.

八無礙 The eight universalized powers of the六識 six senses, 意根 the mind and the 法界 dharmadhātu.

八熱地獄 v. 八大地獄.

八犍度 The eight skandhas or sections of the Abhidharma, i.e. miscellaneous; concerning bondage to the passions, etc.; wisdom; practice; the four fundamentals, or elements; the roots, or organs; meditation; and views. The 八犍論 in thirty sections, attributed to Kātyāyana, is in the Abhidharma.

八王子 The eight sons of the last of the 20,000 shining Buddhas 燈明佛 born before he left home to become a monk; their names are given in the first chapter of the Lotus sūtra. In Japan there are also eight sons of a Shinto deity, reincarnated as one of the six Guanyin.

八王日 The eight royal days, i.e. the solstices, the equinoxes, and the first day of each of the four seasons.

八由行 also 八直行 (or 道) idem 八正道.

八相成道 (八相) also 八相示現 Eight aspects of the Buddha's life, which the 起信論 gives as: (1) descent into and abode in the Tuṣita heaven; (2) entry into his mother's womb; (3) abode there visibly preaching to the devas; (4) birth from mother's side in Lumbinī; (5) leaving home at 19 (or 25) as a hermit; (6) after six years' suffering attaining enlightenment; (7) rolling the Law-wheel, or preaching; (8) at 80 entering nirvāṇa. The 四教義 group of Tiantai is slightly different — descent from Tuṣita, entry into womb, birth, leaving home, subjection of Māra, attaining perfect wisdom, preaching, nirvana. See also the two 四相, i.e. 四本相 and 四隨相.

八神變 idem 八變化.

八祖相承 The succession of the eight founders of the esoteric sect, 眞言 or Shingon, i.e. 大日, 金剛, 龍猛, 龍智, 金剛智, 不空, 惠果 and the Japanese 弘法.

八禁 idem 八戒.

八福生處 The eight happy conditions in which he may be reborn who keeps the five commands and the ten good ways and bestows alms: (1) rich and honourable among men; (2) in the heavens of the four deva kings; (3) the Indra heavens; (4) Suyāma heavens; (5) Tuṣita heaven; (6) 化樂nirmāṇarati heaven, i.e. the fifth devaloka; (7) 他化 Paranirmita-vaśavartin, i.e. the sixth devaloka heaven; (8) the brahma-heavens. 八福田 The eight fields for cultivating blessedness: Buddhas; arhats (or saints); preaching monks (upādhyāya); teachers (ācārya); friars; father; mother; the sick. Buddhas, arhats, and friars (or monks in general) are termed 敬田 reverence-fields; the sick are 悲田 compassion-fields; the rest are 恩田grace- or gratitude- fields. Another group is: to make roads and wells; canals and bridges; repair dangerous roads; be dutiful to parents; support monks; tend the sick; save from disaster or distress; provide for a quinquennial assembly. Another: serving the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha; the Law; the Order; parents; the monks as teachers; the poor; the sick; animals.

八種別解脫戒 Differentiated rules of liberation for the eight orders—monks; nuns; mendicants; novices male; and female; disciples male; and female; and the laity who observe the first eight commandments.

八種勝法 The eight kinds of surpassing things, i.e. those who keep the first eight commandments receive the eight kinds of reward―they escape from falling into the hells; becoming pretas; or animals; or asuras; they will be born among men, become monks, and obtain the truth; in the heavens of desire; in the brahma-heaven, or meet a Buddha; and obtain perfect enlightenment.

八種粥 The eight kinds of congee, or gruel, served by the citizens to the Buddha and his disciples when in retreat in the bamboo grove of Kāśī; they were of butter, or fats, or hempseed, milk, peas, beans, sesamum, or plain gruel.

八種 (布) 施 Eight causes of giving―convenience; fear; gratitude; reward-seeking; traditional (or customary); hoping for heaven; name and fame; personal virtue.

八種授記 The eight kinds of prediction―made known to self, not to others; to others not to self; to self and others; unknown to self or others; the near made known but the remote not; the remote made known but not the intermediate steps; near and remote both made known; near and remote both not made known.

八種法 idem 八戒; also eight divisions of the 五十法 q.v. | | 清風 Pleasant breezes from the eight directions of the compass.

八穢 Eight things unclean to a monk: buying land for self, not for Buddha or the fraternity; ditto cultivating; ditto laying by or storing up; ditto keeping servants (or slaves); keeping animals (for slaughter); treasuring up gold, etc.; ivory and ornaments; utensils for private use.

八童子 idem 八大金剛童子.

八筏 The eight rafts, idem 八正道 The eightfold noble path.

八纏The eight entanglements, or evils: to be without shame; without a blush; envious; mean; unregretful; sleepy (or indolent); ambitious; stupid (or depressed).

八聖 The 四向 and 四果 of śrāvakas.

八聖 (道支) idem 八正道.

八背捨 idem 八解脫.

八臂天 The eight-arm deva; an epithet of Brahma as Nārāyaṇadeva 那羅延天 creator of men.

八自在 idem 八變化 and 八大自在.

八色幡 The Amitābha eight pennons of various colours, indicating the eight directions of space.

八苦 The eight distresses―birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meeting with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas.

八菩薩 idem 八大菩薩.

八萬 An abbreviation for 八萬四 (八萬四千) The number of atoms in the human body is supposed to be 84,000. Hence the term is used for a number of things, often in the general sense of a great number. It is also the age apex of life in each human world. There are the 84,000 stūpas erected by Aśoka, each to accommodate one of the 84.000 relics of the Buddha's body; also the 84,000 forms of illumination shed by Amitābha; the 84,000 excellent physical signs of a Buddha; the 84,000 mortal distresses, i.e. 84,000 煩惱 or 塵勞; also the cure found in the 84,000 methods, i.e. 法藏, 法蘊, 法門, or教門.

八萬十二 An abbreviation for 八萬四千法藏 the 84,000 teachings or lessons credited to the Buddha for the cure of all sufferings, and the二部經 12 sūtras in which they are contained.

八萬威儀 The bodhisattva's 80,000 duties.

八葉 The eight lotus-petals, a name for Sumeru.

八葉院 is the central court of the 胎藏界with Vairocana as its central figure, also termed 八葉蓮臺 or 八葉座 An esoteric name for the heart is the eight-petal fleshly heart, and being the seat of meditation it gives rise to the term eight-leaf lotus meditation.

八覺 The eight (wrong) perceptions or thoughts, i.e. desire; hate; vexation (with others); 親里 home-sickness; patriotism (or thoughts of the country's welfare); dislike of death; ambition for one's clan or family; slighting or being rude to others. 華嚴經 13.

八解脫 aṣṭa-vimokṣa, mokṣa, vimukti, mukti. Liberation, deliverance, freedom, emancipation, escape, release―in eight forms; also 八背捨 and cf. 解脫 and 八勝處. The eight are stages of mental concentration: (1) 内有色想觀外色解脱 Liberation, when subjective desire arises, by examination of the object, or of all things and realization of their filthiness. (2) 内無色想觀外色解脫 Liberation, when no subjective desire arises, by still meditating as above. These two are deliverance by meditation on impurity, the next on purity. (3) 淨身作證具足住解脫 Liberation by concentration on the pure to the realization of a permanent state of freedom from all desire. The above three "correspond to the four Dhyānas". (Eitel.) (4) 空無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of the infinity of space, or the immaterial. (5) 識無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of infinite knowledge. (6) 無所有處解脫Liberation in realization of nothingness, or nowhereness. (7) 非想非非想處解脫 Liberation in the state of mind where there is neither thought nor absence of thought. These four arise out of abstract meditation in regard to desire and form, and are associated with the 四空天. (8) 滅受 想定解脫 Liberation by means of a state of mind in which there is final extinction, nirvāṇa, of both sensation, vedanā, and consciousness, saṁjñā.

八觸 Eight physical sensations which hinder meditation in its early stages: restlessness, itching, buoyancy, heaviness, coldness, heat, roughness, smoothness. 止觀 8.

八論 The eight śāstras ; there are three lists of eight; one non-Buddhist; one by 無着 Asaṅga, founder of the Yoga School; a third by 陳那 Jina Dinnāga. Details are given in the 寄歸傳 4 and 解纜鈔 4.

八諦 The eight truths, postulates, or judgments of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, i.e. four common or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postulates on reality, considering the nominal as real, e.g. a pot; (2) common doctrinal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four noble truths 四諦; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the material. The second abstract or philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the 四諦; (7) on the void, the immaterial, or reality; and (8) on the pure inexpressible ultimate or absolute.

八識 The eight parijñāna, or kinds of cognition, perception, or consciousness. They are the five senses of cakṣur-vijñāna, śrotra-v., ghrāna-v., jihvā-v., and kāya-v., i.e. seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touch. The sixth is mano-vijñāna, the mental sense, or intellect, v. 末那. It is defined as 意 mentality, apprehension, or by some as will. The seventh is styled kliṣṭa-mano-vijñāna 末那識 discriminated from the last as 思量 pondering, calculating; it is the discriminating and constructive sense, more than the intellectually perceptive; as infected by the ālaya-vijñāna., or receiving "seeds" from it, it is considered as the cause of all egoism and individualizing, i.e. of men and things, therefore of all illusion arising from assuming the seeming as the real. The eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, 阿頼耶識 which is the storehouse, or basis from which come all "seeds"of consciousness. The seventh is also defined as the ādāna 阿陀那識 or "laying hold of" or "holding on to" consciousness.

八識心王 The eight fundamental powers of the 八識 and 八識心所 the eight powers functioning, or the concomitant sensations.

八識體一 The eight perceptions are fundamentally unity, opposed by the 唯識 school with the doctrine 八識體別 that they are fundamentally discrete.

八辯 Eight characteristics of a Buddha's speaking: never hectoring; never misleading or confused; fearless; never haughty; perfect in meaning; and in flavour; free from harshness; seasonable (or, suited to the occasion).

八變化 Eight supernatural powers of transformation, characteristics of every Buddha: (1) to shrink self or others, or the world and all things to an atom; (2) to enlarge ditto to fill all space; (3) to make the same light as a feather; (4) to make the same any size or anywhere at will; (5) everywhere and in everything to be omnipotent; (6) to be anywhere at will, either by self-transportation, or bringing the destination to himself, etc; (7) to shake all things (in the six, or eighteen ways); (8) to be one or many and at will pass through the solid or through space, or through fire or water, or transform the four elements at will, e.g. turn earth into water. Also 八神變; 八自在.

八輪 The eight (spoke) wheel, idem 八正道.

八輩 The eight grades, i.e. those who have attained the 四向 and 四果.

八迷 The eight misleading terms, which form the basis of the logic of the 中論, i.e. 生 birth, 滅 death, 去 past, 來 future, 一 identity, 異 difference, 斷 annihilation, 常 perpetuity (or eternity). The 三論宗 regards these as unreal; v. 八不中道.

八游行 idem 八正道.

八道 (八支 or 八船 or 八行) idem 八正道.

八遮 A 三論 term for 八不中道 q.v.

八邪 The eight heterodox or improper practices, the opposite of the eight correct paths八正道.

八部 (八部衆) The eight classes of supernatural beings in the Lotus sūtra: 天 deva, 龍 nāga, 夜叉yakṣa, 乾闥婆 gandharva, 阿修羅 asura, 迦樓羅 garuḍa, 緊那羅 kinnara, 摩喉羅迦 mahoraga. Also called 天龍八部 and 龍神八部.

八部鬼衆 The eight groups of demon-followers of the four mahārājas, i.e. gandharvas, piśācas, kumbhāṇḍas, pretas, nāgas, pūtanas, yakṣas, and rākṣasas.

八重眞寶 The eight weighty and truly precious things, i.e. the eight metals, which depend for evaluation on gold, the highest and greatest, used to illustrate the Buddha as supreme and the other classes in grades beneath him. Also 八重無價, i.e. the eight priceless things.

八門 (八門二悟 or 八門兩益) Eight kinds of syllogisms in Buddhist logic; v. 因明八正理諭. (1) 能立a valid proposition; (2) 能破 an invalid proposition; (3) 似能立 doubtful, or seemingly valid but faulty; (4) 似能破 seemingly invalid, and assailable; (5) 現量manifest, or evidential; (6) 比量 inferential; (7) 似現量 seemingly evidential; (8) 似比量 seemingly inferential.

八關齊 idem 八戒齊.

八難 The eight conditions in which it is difficult to see a Buddha or hear his dharma: in the hells: as hungry ghosts; as animals; in Uttarakuru (the northern continent where all is pleasant); in the long-life heavens (where life is long and easy); as deaf, blind, and dumb; as a worldly philosopher; in the intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor. Also 八無暇.

八音 The eight tones of a Buddha's voice―beautiful, flexible, harmonious, respect-producing, not effeminate (i.e. manly), unerring, deep and resonant.

八顚倒 The eight upside-down views: heretics believe in 常樂我淨 permanence, pleasure, personality, and purity; the two Hīnayāna vehicles deny these both now and in nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna denies them now, but asserts them in nirvāṇa. Also 八倒.

八風 The eight winds, or influences which fan the passions, i.e. gain, loss; defamation, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy. Also 八法.

八魔 The eight Māras, or destroyers: 煩惱魔 the māras of the passions; 陰魔 the skandha-māras, v. 五陰; 死魔 death-māra ; 他化自在天魔 the māra-king. The above four are ordinarily termed the four māras: the other four are the four Hīnayāna delusions of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. 無常 impermanence; 無樂 joylessness; 無我 impersonality; 無淨 impurity; cf. 八顚倒 .

八齋 (八齋戒) idem 八戒齋.

刀山 The hill of swords in one of the hells.

刀途 The gati or path of rebirth as an animal, so called because animals are subjects of the butcher's knife.

刀風 The wind that cuts all living beings to pieces—at the approach of a world-kalpa's end; also described as the disintegrating force at death.

bala; power, strength, of which there are several categories: 二力 power of choice and of practice; 三力 the power of Buddha; of meditation (samādhi) and of practice. 五力 pañcabala, the five powers of faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom. 六力 A child's power is in crying; a woman's in resentment; a king's in domineering; an arhat's in zeal (or progress); a Buddha's in mercy; and a bhikṣu's in endurance (of despite) . 十力 q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

力士 力者 vīra. A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod. Used for the Licchavi, also 離車; 梨車 (or 黎車); 栗呫媻. The terms 力士城 and 力士生地 are defined as Kuśinagara.

力者法師 A monk who degrades himself by becoming a fighter (e.g. boxer), or a slave.

力波羅蜜 The vīrya-pāramitā.

力波羅蜜菩薩 The bodhisattva vīrya-pāramitā. One of the twenty-eight honoured ones in the Garbhadhātu group.

力無畏 (力無所畏) The 力 is intp. as the ten powers of a Buddha, the 無所畏 are his four qualities of fearlessness.

力生 Power-born; one who is born from the Truth, a monk.

Daśa, ten, the perfect number.

十一 ekādaśa, eleven.

十一切處 Ten universals, or modes of contemplating the universe from ten aspects, i.e. from the viewpoint of earth, water, fire, wind blue, yellow, red, white, space, or mind. For example, contemplated under the aspect of water, then the universe is regarded as in flux and change. Also called 十禪支, 十遍處定. It is one of the 三法.

十一面觀音 The eleven-faced Guanyin, especially connected with tantric performances, ekādaśamukha; there are three or more sūtras on the subject.

十三 Trayodasa; thirteen.

十三佛 The thirteen Shingon rulers of the dead during the forty-nine days and until the thirty-third commemoration. The thirteen are 不動明王, 釋迦文殊, 普賢, 地藏, 彌勤, 藥師, 觀音, 勢至, 阿彌陀, 阿閦/, 大日and 虛空藏; each has his place, duties, magical letter, signs, etc.

十三力 The thirteen powers or bodhisattva balas of the Pure land school: 因力, 緣力, 意力, 願力, 方力, 常力, 善力, 定力, 慧力, 多聞力, 持戒忍辱精進禪定力, 正念正觀諸通明力, and如法調伏諸衆生力.

十三宗 The thirteen Buddhist schools of China v. 宗派.

十不二門 The school of the ten pairs of unified opposites founded by Jingxi 荊溪 on the teaching of the Lotus sūtra. There are several books bearing the name. The unifying principle is that of the identity of contraries, and the ten apparent contraries are matter and mind, internal and external, 修證 practice and proof (or realization), cause and effect, impurity and purity, objective and subjective, self and other, 三業 action, speech, and thought, 權實 relative and absolute, the fertilized and the fertilizer (i.e. receiver and giver). There are several treatises on the subject in the Canon.

十不善業 (or 十不善道) idem 十惡 (十惡業).

十不悔戒 The ten rules which produce no regrets—not to kill, steal, fornicate, lie, tall of a fellow -Buddhist's sins, deal in wine, praise oneself and discredit others, be mean, be angry, defame the Triratna (Buddha, Law, Fraternity).

十乘 (十乘觀) A T'ien-t'ai mode of meditation in ten "vehicles" or stages, for the attainment of bodhi.

十乘床 The comfort or ease of progress produced by the ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 is compared to a couch or divan.

十乘風 The ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 like a breeze blows away error and falsity as dust.

十事功德 The bodhisattva-merit resulting from the attainment of the ten groups of excellences in the southern version of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra 南本涅盤經 19-24. There is an unimportant 十事經 not connected with the above.

十事非法 Ten unlawful things said to have been advocated by the Vaiśālī monks, which led to the calling of the second Council.

十二 dvādaśa, twelve.

十二不律儀 idem 十二惡律儀.

十二佛 The twelve Buddhas of the esoteric sect placed three on the east, one in each of the other seven directions, and one each for zenith and nadir.

十二光佛 Amitābha's twelve titles of light. The無量壽經上 gives them as 無量光佛, etc., i.e. the Buddha of light that is immeasurable boundless, irresistible, incomparable, yama (or flaming), pure, joy, wisdom, unceasing, surpassing thought, ineffable, surpassing sun and moon. Another list is given in the 九品往生阿彌陀...經.

十二分經 (or 十二分教) idem 十二部經.

十二因緣 Dvādaśaṅga pratītyasamutpāda; the twelve nidānas; v. 尼 and 因; also 十二緣起; 因緣有支; 因緣率連; 因緣棘園; 因緣輪; 因緣重城; 因緣觀; 支佛觀. They are the twelve links in the chain of existence: (1) 無明avidyā, ignorance, or unenlightenment; (2) 行 saṃskāra, action, activity, conception, "dispositions," Keith; (3) 識 vijñāna, consciousness; (4) 名色 nāmarūpa, name and form; (5) 六入 ṣaḍāyatana, the six sense organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; (6) 觸 sparśa, contact, touch; (7) 受 vedanā, sensation, feeling; (8) 愛 tṛṣṇā, thirst, desire, craving; (9) 取 upādāna, laying hold of, grasping; (10) 有 bhava, being, existing; (11) 生 jāti, birth; (12) 老死 jarāmaraṇa, old age, death. The "classical formula" reads "By reason of ignorance dispositions; by reason of dispositions consciousness", etc. A further application of the twelve nidānas is made in regard to their causaton of rebirth: (1) ignorance, as inherited passion from the beginningless past ; (2) karma, good and evil, of past lives; (3) conception as a form of perception; (4) nāmarūpa, or body and mind evolving (in the womb); (5) the six organs on the verge of birth; (6) childhood whose intelligence is limited to sparśa, contact or touch; (7) receptivity or budding intelligence and discrimination from 6 or 7 years; (8) thirst, desire, or love, age of puberty; (9) the urge of sensuous existence; (10) forming the substance, bhava, of future karma; (11) the completed karma ready for rebirth; (12) old age and death. The two first are associated with the previous life, the other ten with the present. The theory is equally applicable to all realms of reincarnation. The twelve links are also represented in a chart, at the centre of which are the serpent (anger), boar (ignorance, or stupidity), and dove (lust) representing the fundamental sins. Each catches the other by the tail, typifying the train of sins producing the wheel of life. In another circle the twelve links are represented as follows: (1) ignorance, a blind woman; (2) action, a potter at work, or man gathering fruit; (3) consciousness, a restless monkey; (4) name and form, a boat; (5) sense organs, a house; (6) contact, a man and woman sitting together; (7) sensation, a man pierced by an arrow; (8) desire, a man drinking wine; (9) craving, a couple in union; (10) existence through childbirth; (11) birth, a man carrying a corpse; (12) disease, old age, death, an old woman leaning on a stick. v. 十二因緣論 Pratītya-samutpāda śāstra.

十二地 To the 十地 add 等覺 and妙覺 q.v.

十二願 (十二大願 or 十二上願) The twelve vows of the Master of Healing; v. 藥師.

十二天 The twelve devas (especially of the Shingon sect): Brahmā; the deva of earth; of the moon; of the sun; Indra; of fire; Yama; of the rakṣas (or demons); of water; of wind; Vaiśramaṇa (wealth); and Maheśvara (Śiva). Also 十二大天衆.

十二宮 The twelve zodiacal mansions: east-gemini 夫婦 or 雙女; aries 羊; taurus 牛; west-libra 秤; scorpio 蝎; Sagittarius 弓 or人馬; south―aquarius 甁; pisces 魚; capri-cornus 密牛; north―cancer螃蟹; leo 獅子; virgo (or twin maidens 雙女). They are used in the vajradhātu group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, E.W.S.N.

十二惡律儀 The twelve bad occupations: sheep-butcher; poulterer (or hen-breeder); pork butcher; fowler; fisherman; hunter; thief; executioner; jailer; juggler; dog-butcher; beater (i.e. hunt servant).

十二法人 Those who follow the twelve practices of the ascetics: (1) live in a hermitage; (2) always beg for food; (3) take turns at begging food; (4) one meal a day; (5) reduce amount of food; (6) do not take a drink made of fruit or honey after midday; (7) wear dust-heap garments; (8) wear only the three clerical garments; (9) dwell among graves; (10) stay under a tree; (11) on the dewy ground; (12) sit and never lie.

十二火天 The homa-, or fire-spirits; Whose representations, colours, magic words, signs, symbols, and mode of worship are given in the 大日經疏20. Also 十二火尊; 十二種火法. The twelve fire-spirits are: (1) Indra or Vairocana, the discoverer or source of fire, symbolizing 智 knowledge; (2) the moon 行滿 which progresses to fullness, with mercy as root and enlightenment as fruit, i,e. Buddha; (3) the wind, represented as a half-moon, fanner of fame, of zeal, and by driving away dark clouds, of enlightenment; (4) the red rays of the rising sun, rohitaka, his swords (or rays) indicating 議 wisdom; (5) 沒M004101拏 a form half stern, half smiling, sternly driving away the passions and trials; (6) 忿怒 irate, bellowing with open mouth, showing four teeth, flowing locks, one eye closed; (7) 闍吒羅 fire burning within, i.e. the inner witness, or realization; (8) 迄灑耶 the waster, or destroyer of waste and injurious products within, i.e. inner purification; (9) 意生 the producer at will, capable of all variety, resembling Viśvakarman, the Brahmanic Vulcan; (10) 羯羅微 the fire-eater; (11) untraceable; (12) 謨賀那 the completer, also the subduer of demons.

十二無爲 v. 十二眞如.

十二燈 The twelve lamps used in the cult of the Master of Healing 藥師.

十二獸 The twelve animals for the "twelve horary branches" with their names, hours, and the Chinese transliterations of their Sanskrit equivalents; v. 大集經 23 and 56. There are also the thirty-six animals, three for each hour. The twelve are: Serpent 蛇 巳, 9-11 a.m. 迦若; Horse 馬午, 11-1 noon 兜羅; Sheep 羊未, 1―3 p.m. 毘梨支迦; Monkey 猴申, 3-5 p.m. 檀尼毘; Cock 鶏酉, 5-7 p.m. 摩迦羅; Dog 大戌, 7-9 p.m. 鳩槃; Boar 豕亥, 9-11 p.m.彌那; Rat 鼠子, 11-1 midnight 彌沙; Ox 牛丑 1-3 a.m. 毘利沙; Tiger (or Lion) 虎寅, 3―5 a.m. 彌倫那; Hare 兎卯, 5-7 a.m. 羯迦吒迦; Dragon 龍辰, 7-9 a.m 絲阿.

十二眞如 The twelve aspects of the bhūtatathhatā or the ultimate, which is also styled the 十二無為 "inactive" or nirvana-like: and the 十二空 "void" or immaterial: (1) The chen ju itself; (2) 法界 as the medium of all things; (3) 法性 as the nature of all things; (4) 不虛妄性 its reality contra the unreality of phenomena; (5) 不變異性 its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal variation; (6) 平等性 as universal or undifferentiated; (7) 離生性 as immortal, i.e. apart from birth and death, or creation and destruction; (8) 法定 as eternal, its nature ever sure; (9) 法住 as the abode of all things; (10) 實際 as the bounds of all reality; (11) 虛空界 as the realm of space, the void, or immateriality; (12)不思議界 as the realm beyond thought or expression.

十二神(十二神明王) The twelve spirits connected with the cult of 藥師 the Master of Healing. Also 十二神將. They are associated with the twelve hours of the day, of which they are guardian spirits. Their names are as follows: 宮 (or 金) 毘羅 Kumbhīra; 伐折羅 Vajra; 迷企羅 Mihira; 安底羅 Aṇḍīra; 頞儞羅 Anila; 珊底羅 Śaṇḍila; 因陀羅 Indra; 波夷羅Pajra; 摩虎羅 Mahoraga; 眞達羅 Kinnara; 招杜羅 Catura; and 毘羯羅 Vikarāla.

十二禽 idem 十二獸.

十二種火法 v. 十二火天.

十二空 v. 十二眞如.

十二緣起;十二輪 十二門; idem十二因緣.

十二藥叉大將 idem 十二神.

十二部經 Twelve divisions of the Mahāyāna canon: (1) 修多羅 sūtra; (2) 祇夜 geya; (3) 伽陀 gāthā; (4) 尼陀那 nidāna, also 因緣; (5) 伊帝目多 itivṛttaka; (6) 闍多伽 jātaka; (7) 阿浮達摩 adbhuta-dharma, i.e. the 阿毘達摩 abhidhama; (8) 阿波陀那 avadāna; (9) 優婆提舍 upadeśa; (10) 優陀那udāna; (11) 毘佛略 vaipulya; (12) 和 伽羅 vyākaraṇa. Cf. 九部經.

十二遊經 Dvādaśaviharaṇa sūtra. The life of Śākyamuni to his twelfth year, translated by Kālodaka A.D. 392.

十二門 idem 十二因緣.

十二門論 Dvāda-śanikāya Śastra. One of the 三論, composed by Nāgārjuna, translated by Kumārajīva A.D. 408. There are several works on it.

十二願王 The twelve-vow king, i.e. Yao Shih 藥師, the Master of Healing.

十五 Pañcadaśa, fifteen.

十五尊 The fifteen honoured ones, with whom certain 眞言 Shingon devotees seek by yoga to become united; of the fifteen, each represents a part of the whole, e.g. the eyes, ears, mouth, hands, feet, etc. v. 瑜祇經 in its 金剛薩埵 , etc., chapter.

十五尊觀音 The fifteen kinds of Guanyin's images—normal face, with thousand hands, horse's head, eleven faces, as Cundā (Marīci), with the 如意 talismanic wheel, net, white robe, leaf robe, moon, willow, fruit, as Tārā, with azure neck, and as Gandharāja.

十五智斷 The fifteen days of the waxing moon are likened to the fifteen kinds of increasing wisdom 智, and the fifteen waning days to the fifteen kinds of deliverance from evil 斷.

十住 The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva-wisdom, prajñā 般若, are the 十住; the merits or character attained are the 十地 q.v. Two interpretations may be given. In the first of these, the first four stages are likened to entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Kṣatriya prince. The ten stages are (1) 發心住 the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) 治地住 clear understanding and mental control; (3) 修行住 unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) 生貴住 acquiring the Tathāgata nature or seed; (5) 方便具足住 perfect adaptability and resemblance in self-development and development of others; (6) 正心住 the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) 不退住 no retrogression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) 童眞住 as a Buddha-son now complete; (9) 法王子住 as prince of the law; (10) 灌頂住 baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of kings. Another interpretation of the above is: (1) spiritual resolve, stage of śrota-āpanna; (2) submission to rule, preparation for Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (3) cultivation of virtue, attainment of Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (4) noble birth, preparation for the anāgāmin stage; (5) perfect means, attainment of anāgāmin stage; (6) right mind, preparation for arhatship; (7) no-retrogradation, the attainment of arhatship; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabuddhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood; (10) baptism as the summit of attainment, the conception of Buddhahood.

十住心 Ten stages of mental or spiritual development in the 眞言 Shingon sect, beginning with the human animal and ending with perfect enlightenment; a category by the Japanese monk 弘法 Kōbō, founded on the 大日經,十心品.

十住毘婆沙論 Daśabhūmivibhāsā śāstra. A commentary by Nāgārjuna on the 十住經 and the 十地經, said to contain the earliest teaching regarding Amitābha; translated by Kumārajīva circa A.D. 405.

十佛 There are several, groups; that of the Huayan sūtra is Kāśyapa, Kanakamuni, Krakucchanda, Viśvabhū, Śikhin, Vipaśyi, Tiśya (or Puṣya), Tissa, ? Padma, and Dīpaṅkara. Another group is that of the Amitābha cult, one for each of the ten directions. There are other groups.

十來 (十來偈) The ten rhymes in "lai", a verse which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of moral determinism, i.e. that the position anyone now occupies is solely the result of his character in past lives; heredity and environment having nothing to do with his present condition, for, whether in prince or beggar, it is the reward of past deeds.

' The upright from the forbearing come,
The poor from the mean and greedy come,
Those of high rank from worshippers come,
The low and common from the Prideful come,
Those who are dumb from slanderers come,
The blind and deaf from unbelievers come,
The long-lived from the merciful come,
The short-lived from life, takers come,
The deficient in faculties from command-breakers come,
The complete in faculties from command-keepers come.
'' 端正者忍辱中來.

十使 十大惑; 十根本煩惱 The ten messengers, deluders, fundamental passions; they are divided into five sharp and five dull; the five 鈍使 dull ones are desire, hate, stupidity, pride, and doubt; the five sharp 利使 are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁見, v. 見.

十信 The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten 位 in the fifty-two bodhisattva positions: (1) 信 faith (which destroys illusion and results in); (2) 念 remembrance, or unforgetfulness; (3) 精進 zealous progress; (4) 慧 wisdom; (5) 定 settled firmness in concentration; (6) 不退 non-retrogression; (7) 護法 protection of the Truth; (8) 廻向 reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth; (9) 戒 the nirvāṇa mind in 無為 effortlessness; (10) 願 action at will in anything and everywhere.

十八 aṣṭādaśa, eighteen.

十八不共法 āveṇikadharma, or buddhadharma, the eighteen different characteristics of a Buddha as compared with bodhisattvas, i.e. his perfection of body (or person), mouth (or speech), memory, impartiality to all, serenity, self-sacrifice, unceasing desire to save, unfagging zeal therein unfailing thought thereto, wisdom in it, powers of deliverance, the principles of it, revealing perfect wisdom in deed, in word, in thought, perfect knowledge of past, future, and present, v. 智度論 26.

十八圓淨 The eighteen perfections of a buddha's sambhogakāya, v. 三身. Also 十八圓滿.

十八天 Brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of form, rūpadhātu, three of the first dhyāna, 梵衆天; 梵輔天; 大梵天; three of the second, 少光天; 無量光天; 光音; three of the third, 少淨天; 無量淨天; 徧淨天; and nine of the fourth, 無雲天; 福生天; 廣果天; 無想天; 無煩天; 無熱天; 善見天; 善現,天; 色究竟天 ."Southern Buddhism knows only sixteen. Those two which Northern Buddhists added are Punya-prasava 福生 and Anabhraka 無雲." Eitel.

十八宗 The eighteen Japanese Buddhist sects, i.e. 三論; 法相; 華嚴; 律; 倶舍; 成實; 天台; 眞言; 融通念佛; 淨土; 眞; 日蓮; 時; 臨濟; 曹洞; 黃檗; 普化; and 修驗宗.

十八應眞 The eighteen arhats.

十八物 The eighteen things a monk should carry in the performance of his duties—willow twigs, soap, the three garments, a water-bottle, a begging-bowl, mat, staff, censer, filter, handkerchief, knife, fire-producer, pincers hammock, sutra, the vinaya, the Buddha's image, and bodhisattva image or images; cf. 梵綱經 37.

十八生處 The eighteen Brahmalokas, where rebirth is necessary, i.e. where mortality still exists.

十八界 The eighteen dhātu, or realms of sense, i.e. 六根, 六境, 六識 the six organs, their objects or conditions, and their perceptions.

十八經 (十八大經); 十八明處 The eighteen Indian non-Buddhist classics, i.e. the four vedas, six śāstras, and eight śāstras.

十八賢 (十八聖 or 十八衆); 十八境界; 十八有學 v. 有學.

十八部 The eighteen schools of Hīnayāna as formerly existing in India; v. 小乘.

十八重地獄 The eighteen layers of hells, which are described by one writer as the conditions in which the six sense organs, their six objects, and the six perceptions do not harmonize. Another says the eighteen are the hell of knives, the boiling sands, the boiling excrement, the fiery carriage, the boiling cauldron, the iron bed, etc.

十八道 In the two maṇḍalas, Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu, each has nine central objects of worship. The Shingon disciple devotes himself to meditation on one of these eighteen each day.

十六 ṣoḍaśa Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number, just as ten is the perfect number in the Huayan sūtra and generally, see 大日經疏 5.

十六心 i.e. the 八忍 and 八智.

十六天 (十六大天) The sixteen devas are E. Indra and his wife; S.E. the fire deva and his wife; S. Yama and his wife; S.W. Yakṣa-rāja (Kuvera) and wife; W. the water deva and his nāga wife (Śakti); N.W. the wind deva and wife; N. Vaiśramaṇa and wife; N.E. Īśāna and wife.

十六師 The sixteen non-Buddhist "heretical" Indian philosophers.

十六曾 The sixteen lessons of the Prajñā-pāramitā.

十六行 (十六心行) ; 十六諦觀 idem 十六行相. The sixteen行相 of the Four Axioms 四諦, i.e. four forms of considering each of the axioms, associated with 見道.

十六善神 Two lists are given, one of sixteen 大將 mahārājas; another of sixteen 善神 good spirits or gods; all of them are guardians of the good and enemies of evil.

十六國王 十六大國 The sixteen ancient kingdoms of India whose kings are addressed in the 仁王經 2; i.e. Vaiśālī, Kośala, Śrāvastī, Magadha, Bārāṇasi, Kapilavastu, Kuśinagara, Kauśāmbī, Pañcāla, Pāṭaliputra, Mathurā, Uṣa (Uśīra), Puṇyavardhana, Devāvatāra, Kāśī, and Campā.

十六大力 The sixteen great powers obtainable by a bodhisattva, i.e. of will, mind, action, shame (to do evil), energy, firmness, wisdom, virtue, reasoning, personal appearance, physical powers, wealth, spirit, magic, spreading the truth, subduing demons.

十六想觀 idem 十六觀.

十六王子 (十六王子佛); 十六沙彌 The sixteen princes in the Lotus Sūtra who became Buddhas after hearing their father preach it.

十六知見 十六神我 The sixteen heretical views on me and mine, i.e. the ego in self and others, determinism or fate, immortality, etc.; v. 智度論 25.

十六菩薩 十六大士 (or 十六正士) The sixteen bodhisattvas; there are two groups, one of the 顯教 exoteric, one of the 密教 esoteric cults; the exoteric list is indefinite; the esoteric has two lists, one is of four bodhisattvas to each of the Buddhas of the four quarters of the Diamond Realm; the other is of the sixteen who represent the body of bodhisattvas in a 賢 kalpa, such as the present: E. 彌勒, 不空, 除憂, 除惡; S. 香象, 大精進, 虛 空藏智幢; W. 無量光, 賢護, 網明, 月光; N. 無量意 (文殊), 辨積, 金剛藏普賢.

十六觀 The sixteen meditations of Amitābha on the setting sun, water (as ice, crystal, etc. ), the earth, and so on.

十六資具 Sixteen necessaries of a strict observer of ascetic rules, ranging from garments made of rags collected from the dust heap to sleeping among graves.

十利 There are many groups of ten profitable things or advantages, e.g. ten in regard to edibles, ten to congee, to learning, to study of the scriptures, to wisdom, to zeal, etc.

十力 Daśabala. The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind. See the 智度論 25 and the 倶舍論 29.

十力教 The religion of Him who has the ten powers, i.e. Buddhism.

十力尊 (十力無等) The honoured (unequalled) possessor of the ten powers, Buddha.

十力迦葉 Daśabala-Kāśyupa, one of the first five disciples.

十力明 The ten powers and ten understandings of a Buddha.

十功德 (十功德論) Ten merits (or powers) commended by the Buddha to his bhikṣus—zealous progress, contentment with few desires, courage, learning (so as to teach), fearlessness, perfect observance of the commands and the fraternity, regulations, perfect meditation, perfect wisdom, perfect liberation, and perfect understanding of it.

十劫 The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitābha made his forty-eight vows, or 十劫正覺attained complete bodhi, hence he is styled 十劫彌陀. These ten kalpas as seen by Puxian are十劫須臾 but as a moment.

十勝行 The ten pāramitās observed by bodhisattvas, see 十地 and 十住. Hīnayāna has another group, adding to the four 梵福 q. v. the six of sacrificing one's life to save mother; or father; or a Buddha; to become a monk: to induce another to become a monk; to obtain authority to preach.

十名 idem 十號.

十問 The ten questions to the Buddha, put into the mouth of Vajrapāṇi, which, with the answers given, form the basis of the 大日經. What is (or are) (1) the nature of the bodhi-mind? (2) its form or forms? (3) the mental stages requisite to attainment? (4) the difference between them? (5) the time required? (6) the character of the merits attained? (7) the activities or practices necessary? (8) the way of such practices? (9) the condition of the uncultivated and cultivated mind? (10) the difference between it and that of the follower of Yoga?

十善正法 (十善) The ten good characteristics, or virtues, defined as the non-committal of the 十惡 ten evils, q. v. Tiantai has two groups, one of ceasing 止 to do evil, the other of learning to do well 行.

十善位 十善戒力; 十善王 The position, or power, attained in the next life by observing the ten commandments here, to be born in the heavens, or as rulers of men.

十善巧 The ten good crafts, or meditations of pratyeka-buddhas, i. e. on the five skandhas, twelve 處, eighteen 界, twelve 因緣, etc.

十善戒 The ten commandments (as observed by the laity).

十善業 (十善業道) The excellent karma resulting from practice of the ten commandments.

十善菩薩 The bodhisattvas of the 十信位 q. v.

十四 caturdaśa, fourteen.

十四佛國往生 The fourteen other-world realms of fourteen Buddhas, i. e. this realm of Śākyamuni and thirteen others.

十四神九王 The fourteen devas and nine dragon and other kings, who went in the train of Mañjuśrī to thank the Buddha at the last of his Huayan addresses; for list see 唐華嚴經 61.

十四變化 The fourteen transformations that are connected with the four dhyāna heavens.

十四難 The fourteen difficult questions of the "heretics" to which the Buddha made no reply, for, as it is said, the questions were no more properly put than if one asked " How much milk can you get from cow's horn?" They are forms of: All is permanent, impermanent, both or neither; all changes, changes not, both, neither; at death a spirit departs, does not, both, neither; after death we have the same body (or personality) and spirit, or body and spirit are different.

十地 daśabhūmi; v. 十住. The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the十四向 he proceeds to the 十地. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles 三乘 are: (1) 乾慧地 dry wisdom stage, i. e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) 性地 the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the 四善根; (3) 八人地 (八忍地), the stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) 見地 of freedom from wrong views; (5) 薄地 of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice; (6) 離欲地 of freedom from the remaining three; (7) 巳辨地 complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) 辟支佛地 pratyeka-buddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) 菩薩地 bodhisattvahood; (10) 佛地 Buddhahood. v. 智度論 78. II. 大乘菩薩十地 The ten stages of Mahāyāna bodhisattva development are: (1) 歡喜地 Pramuditā, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) 離垢地 Vimalā, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) 發光地 Prabhākarī, stage of further enlightenment; (4) 焰慧地 Arciṣmatī, of glowing wisdom; (5) 極難勝地 Sudurjayā, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) 現前地 Abhimukhī, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) 遠行地 Dūraṁgamā, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 不動地 Acalā, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) 善慧地 Sādhumatī, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the 十力 ten powers; (10) 法雲地 Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās, v. 波. Each of the 四乘 or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The 聲聞乘十地 ten Śrāvaka stages are: (1) 受三歸地 initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha; (2) 信地 belief, or the faith-root; (3) 信法地 belief in the four truths; (4) 内凡夫地 ordinary disciples who observe the 五停心觀, etc.; (5) 學信戒 those who pursue the 三學 three studies; (6) 八人忍地 the stage of 見道 seeing the true Way; (7) 須陀洹地 śrota-āpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvāṇa; (8) 斯陀含地 sakrdāgāmin, only one more rebirth; (9) 阿那含地 anāgāmin, no rebirth; and (10) 阿羅漢地 arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the pratyekabuddha 緣覺乘十地 are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eightfold noble path; (6) of the three realms 三法界; (7) of the nirvāṇa state; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remaining influence of former habits. V. 佛乘十地 The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, māra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group 十地十心, see 十心; and there are other groups.

十地品 The twenty-second chapter of the sixty-chapter version of the 華嚴經, the twenty-sixth of the eighty-chapter version.

十地願行 The vow of bodhisattvas to attain the十地 by fulfilling the ten pāramitās, v. 十波.

十地心 Ten stages of mind, or mental development, i.e. (1) 四無量心 the four kinds of boundless mind; (2) 十善心 the mind of the ten good qualities; (3) 明光心 the illuminated mind; (4) 焰慧心 the mind of glowing wisdom; (5) 大勝心 the mind of mastery; (6) 現前心 the mind of the open way (above normal definitions); (7) 無生心 the mind of no rebirth; (8) 不思議心 the mind of the inexpressible; (9) 慧光心 the mind of wisdom-radiance; (10) 受位心 the mind of perfect receptivity. v. also 十心.

十境 Ten objects of or stages in meditation觀 in the Tiantai school, i.e. 陰境 the five skandhas; 煩惱境 life's distresses and delusion; 病患境 sickness, or duḥkha, its cause and cure; 業相境 age-long karmaic influences; 魔事境 Māra affairs, how to overthrow their rule; 禪定境 the conditions of dhyāna and samādhi; 諸見境 various views and doubts that arise; 慢境 pride in progress and the delusion that one has attained nirvāṇa; 二乘境 temptation to be content with the lower nirvāṇa, instead of going on to the greater reward; 菩薩境 bodhisattvahood; see the 止觀 5.

十夜念佛 (十夜) The ten nights (and days) from the sixth to the fifteenth of the tenth moon, when the Pure-land sect intones sūtras.

十大弟子 The ten chief discip1es of Śākyamuni, each of whom was master of one power or gift. Śāriputra of wisdom; Maudgalyāyana of supernatural powers; Mahākāśyapa of discipline; Aniruddha of 天眼 deva vision; Subhūti of explaining the void or immaterial; Pūrṇa of expounding the law; Kātyāyana of its fundamental principles; Upāli of maintaining the rules; Rāhula of the esoteric; and Ānanda of hearing and remembering.

十大惑 idem 十使.

十大願 The ten vows of Puxian 普賢, or Samantabhadra.

十如是 The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of thing, according to the 方便chapter of the Lotus sūtra: 相如是 form; 性如是 nature; 體如是 corpus or embodiment; 力如是 powers; 作如是 function; 因如是 primary cause; 果如是 environmental cause; 果如是 effect; 報如是 karmic reward; 本末究竟等 the inseparability, or inevitability of them all.

十如來地 v. 十地.

十妙 The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the 迹v traceable or manifested and 本門妙 the fundamental. The 迹門十妙 are the wonder of: (1) 境妙 the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha, and all things as a unity; (2) 智妙 a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) 行妙 his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) 位妙 his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. 十住 and十地; (5) 三法妙 his three laws of 理, 慧, and truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) 感應妙 his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) response or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (8) 說法妙 his preaching; (9) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (10) 利益妙 the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The 本門十妙 are the wonder of (1) 本因妙 the initial impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood; (2) 本果妙 its fruit or result in eternity, joy, and purity; (3) 國土妙 his (Buddha) realm; (4) 感應妙 his response (to human needs); (5) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (6) 說法妙 his preaching; (7) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (8) 涅槃妙 his nirvāṇa; (9) 壽命妙 his (eternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as progressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the Lotus sūtra.

十宗 The ten schools of Chinese Buddhism: I. The (1) 律宗 Vinaya-discipline, or 南山|; (2) 倶舍 Kośa, Abhidharma, or Reality (Sarvāstivādin) 有宗; (3) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect founded on this śāstra by Harivarman; (4) 三論宗 Mādhyamika or 性空宗; (5) 法華宗 Lotus, "Law-flower" or Tiantai 天台宗; (6) 華嚴Huayan or法性 or賢首宗; ( 7) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana or 慈恩宗 founded on the唯識論 (8) 心宗 Ch'an or Zen, mind-only or intuitive, v. 禪宗 ; (9) 眞言宗 (Jap. Shingon) or esoteric 密宗 ; (10) 蓮宗 Amitābha-lotus or Pure Land (Jap. Jōdo) 淨士宗. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 9th are found in Japan rather than in China, where they have ceased to be of importance. II. The Hua-yen has also ten divisions into ten schools of thought: (1) 我法倶有 the reality of self (or soul) and things, e.g. mind and matter; (2) 法有我無 the reality of things but not of soul; (3) 法無去來 things have neither creation nor destruction; (4) 現通假實 present things are both apparent and real; (5) 俗妄眞實 common or phenomenal ideas are wrong, fundamental reality is the only truth; (6) things are merely names; (7) all things are unreal 空; (8) the bhūtatathatā is not unreal; (9) phenomena and their perception are to be got rid of; (10) the perfect, all-inclusive, and complete teaching of the One Vehicle. III. There are two old Japanese divisions: 大乘律宗, 倶舎宗 , 成實 宗 , 法和宗 , 三論宗 , 天台宗 , 華嚴宗 , 眞言宗 , 小乘律宗 , and 淨土宗 ; the second list adds 禪宗 and omits 大乘律宗. They are the Ritsu, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Hossō, Sanron, Tendai, Kegon, Shingon, (Hīnayāna) Ritsu, and Jōdo; the addition being Zen.

十寶 The ten precious things; 十寶山 the ten precious mountains, or mountain of ten precious things; v. 十善 and 十善王.

十山王 The spirit king of each of the ten mountains―Himālaya, Gandhamādana, Vaidharī, 神仙山, Yugaṅdhara, Aśvakarṇa, Nemindhara, Cakravāḍa, Ketumatī, and Sumeru.

十師 The ten monks necessary for a full ordination of a monk, i.e. 三師七證 three leaders and seven witnesses.

十度 The ten pāramitās or virtues transporting to nirvāṇa; idem 十波羅蜜 q.v.

十度三行 each of the pāramitās has three forms of observance, e.g. the first, 施 dāna or giving has 財施 almsgiving, 法施 truth-giving, and 無畏施 courage-giving. The three forms differ with each pāramitā.

十弟子 The ten acolytes or attendants on an ācārya, or superior religious teacher, in his ceremonial offices, following the pattern of the ten principal disciples of Śākyamuni.

十德 The ten virtues, powers, or qualities, of which there are several groups, e.g. in the 華嚴經,十地品 there are 法師十德 the ten virtues of a teacher of the Law, i.e. he should be well versed in its meaning; able widely to publish it; not be nervous before an audience; be untiring in argument; adaptable; orderly so that his teaching can be easily followed; serious and dignified; bold and zealous; unwearied; and enduring (able to bear insult, etc.). The 弟子十德 ten virtues or qualities of a disciple according to the 大日經疏 4, are faith; sincerity; devotion to the trikāya; (seeking the) adornment of true wisdom; perseverance; moral purity; patience (or bearing shame); generosity in giving; courage; resoluteness.

十心 The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. One is from the 止觀 4, minds ignorant and dark; affected by evil companions; not following the good; doing evil in thought, word, deed; spreading evil abroad; unceasingly wicked; secret sin; open crime; utterly shameless; denying cause and effect (retribution)―all such must remain in the flow 流 of reincarnation. The second group (from the same book) is the 逆流 the mind striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation; it shows itself in devout faith, shame (for sin), fear (of wrong-doing), repentance and confession, reform, bodhi (i.e. the bodhisattva mind), doing good, maintaining the right law, thinking on all the Buddhas, meditation on the void (or, the unreality of sin). The third is the 眞言 group from the 大日經疏 3; the "seed" heart (i.e. the original good desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flower, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the heart of settled judgment (or resolve).

十快 The ten inexpressible joys of the Pure-land; also 十樂.

十念 The ten repetitions of an invocation, e.g. namo Amitābha.

十念往生 These ten invocations will carry a dying man with an evil karma into the Pure-land.

十念成就 See 十念往生, but cf. 十聲.

十念處 A bodhisattva's ten objects of thought or meditation, i.e. body, the senses, mind, things, environment, monastery, city (or district), good name, Buddha-learning, riddance of all passion and delusion.

十念血脉 The arteries of the "ten invocations", i.e. the teacher's giving and the disciple's receiving of the law.

十忿怒明王 The ten irate rājas, or protectors, whose huge images with many heads and limbs are seen in temples; perhaps the ten krodha gods of the Tibetans (Khro-bo); their names are 焰鬘得迦 Yamāntaka; 無能勝 Ajita; 鉢納 鬘得迦 ? Padmāhtaka; 尾覲那得迦 Vighnāntaka; 不動尊 Acala; 吒枳 ? Dākinī; 儞羅難拏 ? Nīladaṇḍa; 大力, 送婆 Sambara; and縛日羅播多羅 Vīrabhadra.

十恩 Ten kinds of the Buddha's grace: his (1) initial resolve to universalize (his salvation); (2) self-sacrifice (in previous lives); (3) complete altruism; (4) his descent into all the six states of existence for their salvation; (5) relief of the living from distress and mortality; (6) profound pity; (7) revelation of himself in human and glorified form; (8) teaching in accordance with the capacity of his hearers, first hīnayāna, then māhayāna doctrine; (9) revealing his nirvāṇa to stimulate his disciples; (10) pitying thought for all creatures, in that dying at 80 instead of at 100 he left twenty years of his own happiness to his disciples; and also the tripiṭaka for universal salvation.

十惑 idem 十使.

十惡 Daśākuśala. The ten "not right" or evil things are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perverted views; these produce the ten resultant evils 十惡業 (道) Cf. 十善; 十戒.

十惱亂 The ten disturbers of the religious life: a domineering (spirit); heretical ways; dangerous amusements; a butcher's or other low occupation; asceticism (or selfish hīnayāna salvation); (the condition of a) eunuch; lust; endangering (the character by improper intimacy); contempt; breeding animals, etc. (for slaughter).

十成 Entirely completed, perfect.

十戒 Śikṣāpada. The ten prohibitions (in Pāli form) consist of five commandments for the layman: (1) not to destroy life 不殺生 pāṇātipātāveramaṇi; (2) not to steal 不倫盜 adinnādānāver; (3) not to commit adultery 不婬慾 abrahmacaryaver.; (4) not to lie 不妄語musāvādāver.; (5) not to take intoxicating liquor 不飮酒 suramereyya-majjapamādaṭṭhānāver. Eight special commandments for laymen consist of the preceding five plus: (6) not to eat food out of regulated hours 不非時食 vikāla-bhojanāver.; (7) not to use garlands or perfumes 不著華鬘好香塗身 mālā- gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣanaṭṭhānā; (8) not to sleep on high or broad beds (chastity) 不坐高廣大牀 uccāsayanā-mahāsayanā. The ten commandments for the monk are the preceding eight plus: (9) not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical performances, not to see or listen to such 不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nacca-gīta-vādita-visūkadassanāver.; (10) to refrain from acquiring uncoined or coined gold, or silver, or jewels 不得捉錢金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-paṭīggahaṇāver. Under the Māhayāna these ten commands for the monk were changed, to accord with the new environment of the monk, to the following: not to kill, not to steal, to avoid all unchastity, not to lie, not to slander, not to insult, not to chatter, not to covet, not to give way to anger, to harbour no scepticism.

十支論 The ten Yoga books, the foundation work being the 瑜伽論, the other ten are 百法論, 五蘊論, 顯揚論, 攝大乘論, 雜集論, 辨中邊論, 二十唯識論, 三十唯識論, 大莊嚴論, and 分別瑜伽論 .

十教 v. 十宗.

十方 The ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass and the nadir and zenith. There is a Buddha for each direction 十方十佛.

十方世界 The worlds in all directions.

十方佛土 A Buddha-realm, idem 大千世界.

十方常住僧物 十方現前僧物 see 四種僧物.

十普門 The ten universals of a bodhisattva: 慈悲普 universal pity; 弘誓門 vow of universal salvation; 修行門 accordant action; 斷惑門 universal cutting off of delusions; 入法門門 freedom of entry into all forms of truth; 神通門 universal superhuman powers; 方便門 universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others; 說法門 powers of universal explication of the truth; 供養諸佛門 power of universal service of all Buddhas; 成就衆生門 the perfecting of all beings universally.

十智 The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一 切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊 諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas."

十根本煩惱 idem 十使.

十樂 v. 十快.

十殊勝語 The ten rare or surpassing terms connected with the ten surpassing laws; they are given in Xuanzang's translation of Vasubandhu's 攝論釋.

十殿閻王 The ten Yama courts, cf. 十王.

十法 The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order.

十法界 The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the hells (or purgatories), pretas, animals, asmas, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric teaching there is a series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, 權佛 relative Buddhas, 實佛 absolute Buddhas.

十法行 Ten ways of devotion to the Buddhist sutras: to copy them; serve the places where they are kept, as if serving the Buddha's shrine; preach or give them to others; listen attentively to their exposition; read; maintain; discourse on them to others; intone them; ponder over them; observe their lessons.

十波羅夷 The ten pārājikas, or sins unpardonable in a monk involving his exclusion from the community; v. 十重禁戒.

十波羅蜜 (or 密多) The ten are the six pārāmitas with four added. The six are charity (or almsgiving), purity (or morality), patience, zealous progress, meditation, wisdom; i.e. 施, 戒, 忍, 辱, 精進, 禪, 慧. The four additions are 方便; 願; 力 and 智 upāya, adaptability (or, teaching as suited to the occasion and hearer): praṇidhāna, vows; bala, force of purpose; and jñāna, knowledge. Also 十度.

十無二 Ten powers only possessed by Buddhas: (1) prediction; (2) knowing and fulfilling the desires of the living; (3)-(10) are various forms of omniscience, i.e. (3) of all Buddha-realms and their inhabitants; (4) their natures; (5) good roots; (6) laws; (7) wisdom; (8) every moment; (9) evolving domains, or conditions; (10) language, words, and discussions. v. 宗鏡錄 99.

十無盡戒 idem 十重禁戒.

十無盡藏 The ten boundless treasuries of a bodhisattva: (1) 信 belief and faith; (2) 戒 the commandments; (3) 慚 shame of past misdeeds; (4) 愧blushing over the misdeeds of others; (5) hearing and knowledge of the truth; (6) giving; (7) wisdom; (8) memory; (9) keeping and guarding the sūtras; (10) powers of expounding them. 華 嚴經 20.

十無礙 The ten unhindered transformations and ubiquitous powers of a Buddha.

十牛圖 (十牛圖序) The ten ox-pictures, the first, a man looking for an ox, then seeing its tracks, then seeing the ox, catching it, feeding it, riding it home, ox dies man lives, both dead, return whence they came and enter the dust.

十玄 ; 十玄門 (十玄緣起) The ten philosophic ideas expressed in two metrical versions, each line ending with 門. v. 玄門.

十王 The ten kings presiding over the ten departments of purgatory.

十甘露王 The king of the ten sweet dews, i.e. Amitābha.

十界 idem 十法界.

十界皆成佛 The teaching of the Lotus sūtra of universalism, that all become Buddha.

十界能化菩薩 Bodhisattvas, above the 初地, who have reached the stage of transforming beings in all the ten kinds of realms.

十發趣心 The ten directional decisions: (1) renouncement of the world; (2) observance of the commandments; (3) patience or endurance; (4) zealous progress; (5) meditation; (6) wisdom or understanding; (7) 願心 the will for good for oneself and others; (8) 護心 protection (of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha); (9) 喜心 joy; (10) 頂心 highest wisdom. v. 梵綱經, 心地品.

十眞如 The ten aspects of the bhūtatathatā or reality attained by a bodhisattva during his fifty-two stages of development, cf. 十地 and 十障, each of which is associated with one of these zhenru: (1) 遍行眞如 the universality of the zhenru; (2) 最勝眞如 its superiority over all else; (3) 流眞如 its ubiquity; (4) 無攝受眞如 its independence or self-containedness; (5) 無別眞如 subjective indifferentiation; (6) 無染淨眞如 above differences of impurity and purity; (7) 法無別眞如 objective indifferentiation; (8) 不增減眞如 invariable, i.e. can be neither added to nor taken from; (9) 智自在所依 the basis of all wisdom; (10) 業自在等所依眞如 and all power. The above are the 別教 group from the 唯識論 10. Another group, of the 圓教, is the same as the 十如是 q.v.

十眼 The ten kinds of eyes: (1) 肉眼 eyes of flesh; (2) 天眼 deva eyes; (3) 慧眼 wisdom eyes; (4) 法眼 dharma eyes; (5) 佛眼 Buddha eyes; (6) 智眼 eyes of judgment; (7) 光明眼 eyes shining with Buddha-light; (8) 出生死眼 immortal eyes; (9) 無碍眼 unhindered eyes; (10) 一切智眼 omniscient eyes.

十禪支 v. 十一切處.

十科 十條 The ten rules for translation. v. 翻譯名義集 3.

十種不淨 The deluded, e.g. the hīnayānists, because of their refusal to follow the higher truth, remain in the condition of reincarnation and are impure in ten ways: in body, mouth, mind, deed, state, sitting, sleeping, practice, converting others, their expectations.

十種所觀法 Ten meditations on each of the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地 and 等覺.

十種方便 Ten kinds of suitable aids to religious success: almsgiving (or self-sacrifice); keeping the commandments; forbearance; zealous progress; meditation; wisdom; great kindness; great pity; awaking and stimulating others; preaching (or revolving) the never receding wheel of the Law.

十種智力 The ten kinds of wisdom and power, v. 十智 and 十力.

十種智明 Ten kinds of bodhisattva wisdom, or omniscience, for the understanding of all things relating to all beings, in order, to save them from the sufferings of mortality and bring them to true bodhi. The ten are detailed in the Hua-yen 華嚴 sūtra in two groups, one in the 十明品 and one in the 離世間品.

十種行願 The ten vows of Puxian 普賢.

十種觀法 idem 十乘觀法.

十種魔軍 idem 十軍.

十緣生句 Ten illusions arising from environmental conditions: sleight of hand; mirage; dreams; reflections or shadows; gandharva cities (or cities of the sirens, seen in the sea-mist); echoes; the moon reflected in water; floating bubbles; motes (muscae volitantes); fire-wheel (made by revolving a flare).

十緣觀 十喩觀 A meditation or reflection on the ten illusions 十緣生句.

十纒 The ten bonds that bind men to mortality — to be shameless, unblushing, envious, mean, regretful, torpid, busy, absorbed, angry, secretive (of sin).

十羅刹女 The ten rākṣasī, or demonesses mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra 陀羅尼品. They are now represented in the temples, each as an attendant on a Buddha or bodhisattva, and are chiefly connected with sorcery. They are said to be previous incarnations of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas with whom they are associated. In their evil state they were enemies of the living, converted they are enemies of evil. There are other definitions. Their names are: (1) 藍婆 Lambā, who is associated with Śākyamuni; (2) 毘藍婆 Vilambā, who is associated with Amitābha; (3) 曲齒 Kūṭadantī, who is associated with 藥師 Bhaiṣajya; (4) 華齒 Puṣpadanti, who is associated with 多賓 Prabhūtaratna; (5) 黑齒 Makuṭadantī, who is associated with 大日 Vairocana; (6) 多髮 Keśinī, who is associated with 普賢 Samantabhadra; (7) 無厭足 ? Acalā, who is associated with 文殊 Mañjuśrī; (8) 持瓔珞 Mālādharī, who is associated with 彌勒Maitreya; (9) 皐帝 Kuntī, who is associated with 觀音 Avalokiteśvara; (10) 奪一切衆生精氣 Sarvasattvaujohārī, who is associated with 地 藏 Kṣitigarbha.

十萬 A lakh, i.e. an 億 or 洛叉.

十萬億佛土 The Happy Land, i.e. Amitābha's Paradise in the West, beyond ten thousand million Buddha-realms.

十號 Ten titles of a Buddha: 如來 Tathāgata; 應供 Arhat; 正徧知 Samyak‐sambuddha; 明行足 Vidyācaraṇa-saṁpanna; 善逝 Sugata; 世間解 Lokavid.; 無上士 Anuttara; 調御丈夫 Puruṣa-damya-sārathi; 天人師 Śāstā deva-manuṣyāṇām; 佛世尊 Buddha-lokanātha, or Bhagavān.

十行 The ten necessary activities in the fifty-two stages of a bodhisattva, following on the 十信and 十住; the two latter indicate personal development 自利. These ten lines of action are for the universal welfare of others 利他. They are: joyful service; beneficial service; never resenting; without limit; never out of order; appearing in any form at will; unimpeded; exalting the pāramitās amongst all beings; perfecting the Buddha-law by complete virtue; manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality.

十見 The ten (wrong) views; see 五見and add 貪, 恚 , 慢 , 無明 and 疑見 desire, hate, pride, ignorance, and doubt.

十誡 idem 十戒.

十護 The ten guardians of the law, assistants to the 十大明王.

十身 Ten aspects of the Buddhakaya 佛身 q.v.

十軍 The ten armies of Māra, which the Buddha attacks and destroys; the armies are desire, anxiety, hunger and thirst, longing, torpidity, fear, doubt, poison, gain, haughtiness (i.e. disdaining monks).

十輪 idem 十種智力; v. 十力.

十通 Ten supernatural powers, e.g. of seeing, hearing, appearance, etc.; cf. 五神通.

十進九退 The Buddha's teaching is so difficult that of ten who enter it nine fall away.

十道 The ten (good) ways for deliverance from mortality- not to kill, steal, act wrongly, lie, be double-tongued, be of evil speech, slander, covet, be angry, look wrongly (or wrong views).

十過 Ten faults in eating flesh, and ten in drinking intoxicants.

十處定 v. 十一切處.

十重禁戒 The ten pārājika, or a monk's most serious sins; also 十波羅夷; 波羅闍巳迦. They are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, selling wine, talking of a monk's misdeeds, self-praise for degrading others, meanness, anger at rebuke, vilifying the Triratna. The esoteric sect has a group in regard to giving up the mind of enlightenment, renouncing the Triratna and going to heretical sects, slandering the Triratna, etc. Another group of ten is in the 大日經 9 and 17; cf. 十波羅夷.

十重罪 idem 十惡, 十不善.

十重障 The ten weighty bodhisattva hindrances, according to the 別教, which are respectively overcome by entry into the 十地; v. 成唯識論 9; the first is 異生性 the natural heart hindering the 聖性 holy heart, etc.; v. 十障.

十金剛心 Ten characteristics of the "diamond heart" as developed by bodhisattva: (1) complete insight into all truth; (2) saving of all creatures; (3) the glorifying of all Buddha-worlds; (4) supererogation of his good deeds; (5) service of all Buddhas; (6) realization of the truth of all Buddha-laws; (7) manifestation of all patience and endurance; (8) unflagging devotion to his vocation; (9) perfection of his work; (10) aiding all to fulfill their vows and accomplish their spiritual ends. 華嚴經 55.

十金剛心向果 Ten "fruits" that accrue to the resolute "diamond-heart" of a bodhisattva: faith; meditation; refection on the doctrine; thoroughness in contemplation; straight-forward progress to Buddhahood; no retrogression; the Mahāyāna spirit (of universal salvation); freedom from externals (or impressions); wisdom; firm establishment; v. 梵網經, 心地品.

十長養心 The ten kinds of well-nourished heart, essential to entry into the cult of the higher patience and endurance: a heart of kindness; of pity; of joy (in progress toward salvation of others); renunciation; almsgiving; delight in telling the doctrine; benefiting or aiding others to salvation; unity, or amity; concentration in meditation; wisdom; v. 梵綱經,心地品.

十門 The ten "doors" or connections between事 and 理; 事 is defined as 現象 form and 理 as 本體 substance; the common illustration of wave and water indicates the idea thus expressed. The 理事無礎十門 means that in ten ways form and substance are not separate, unconnected entities. (1) li the substance is always present with shih the phenomena; (2) shih is always present with li; (3) shih depends on li for its existence; (4) the shih can reveal the li; (5) the shih (mere form, which is unreal) can disappear in the li;(6) the shih can conceal the li; (7) the true li is the shih; (8) the shih is li; (9) the true li (or reality) is not the shih; (10) the shih is not the (whole) li; v. 華嚴大疏 2. 周遍含容觀十門 The fifth of the five 觀 meditations of the 華嚴宗, i.e. on li and shih, e.g. (1) the li is as the shih; (2) the shih is as the li; 理如事, 事如理 and so on. The 止觀十門 in the 宗鏡録35, also deals with li and shih chiefly for purposes of meditation. Another group, the 華嚴釋經十門, treats of the Canon and the schools.

十障 Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of 十地 overcome these ten hindrances and realize the十眞如 q.v. The hindrances are: (1) 異生性障 the hindrance of the common illusions of the unenlightened, taking the seeming for real; (2) 邪行障 the hindrance of common unenlightened conduct; (3) 暗鈍障 the hindrance of ignorant and dull ideas; (4) 細惑現行障 the hindrance of the illusion that things are real and have independent existence; (5)下乘涅槃障 the hindrance of the lower ideals in Hīnayāna of nirvāṇa; (6) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the ordinary ideas of the pure and impure; (7) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the idea of reincarnation; (8) 無相加行障 the hindrance of the continuance of activity even in the formless world; (9) 不欲行障 the hindrance of no desire to act for the salvation of others; (10) 法未自在障 the hindrance of non- attainment of complete mastery of all things. v. 唯識論 10.

十願王 The king of the ten vows, Puxian普賢, or Samantabhadra.

十齋日 (十齋) The ten 'fast' days of a month are 1, 8, 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 28, 29, and 30. In certain periods flesh was forbidden on these days, also all killing, hunting, fishing, executions, etc.

十齋佛 (十齋日佛) The ten Buddhas or bodhisattvas connected with the ten days of fasting days who in turn are 定光, 藥師, 普賢, 阿彌陀, 觀音, 勢至, 地藏毘慮遮那, 藥王, 釋迦.

To divine, foretell.

卜羯姿 pukkaśa; also 補羯姿 A degraded caste of sweepers, or scavengers, and bearers of corpses.

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