Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 3: Definitions

Bu-Pj.3.3 MS.398 A means: whoever, of such kind …

Monk means: … this sort of monk is meant in this case.

MS.399 Intentionally means: knowing, perceiving, having intended,[1] having come to a conclusion, he transgresses.

MS.400 Human being[2] means: from the mindʼs first arising,[3] from the time of consciousness becoming first manifest in a motherʼs womb, until the time of death—in between these; this is called a human being.

MS.401 If (he) kills means: he cuts off the faculty of life,[4] brings it to an end, interrupts its duration.

MS.402 Or searches for someone to kill him means: a knife, a dagger, an arrow, a cudgel, a stone, a sword, poison or a rope.[5]

BD.1.127 MS.403 Or praises death means: he shows the danger in living, and speaks in praise of death.

MS.404 Or incites someone to die means: he says, “take a sword, or eat poison, or die by hanging yourself with a rope.”

MS.405 Good man, means: this is a form of address.

MS.406 What use to you is this wretched, difficult life means: wretched life means: the life of the poor is wretched compared to the life of the rich; the life of the impoverished is wretched compared to the life of the wealthy; the life of humans is wretched compared to the life of gods. Vin.3.74 MS.407 Difficult life[6] means: for one whose hands are cut off, for one whose feet are cut off, for one whose hands and feet are cut off, for one whose ears are cut off, for one whose nose is cut off, for one whose ears and nose are cut off. Because of this sort of wretchedness and because of this sort of difficult life, one says, “death is better for you than life.”

MS.408 Thinking means: mind and thought are equivalent.

MS.409 Intending means: perceiving death, intending death, aiming at death.

MS.410 In various ways means: in manifold manners.

MS.411 If he praises death means: he shows the danger in living and speaks in praise of death, saying, “When you have passed away, at the breaking up of the body after death, you will be reborn in a happy destination, in a heaven world. There you will amuse yourself and enjoy the five types of heavenly sensual pleasures.”

MS.412 If he incites someone to die means: he says, “Take a sword, or eat poison, or die by hanging yourself with a rope; or fall into a lake, into a pit, or off a cliff.”[7]

MS.413 He too means: this is said with referrence to the preceding offences entailing expulsion.[8]

MS.414 Is expelled means: just as an ordinary stone BD.1.128 which has been broken in half cannot be put together again,[9] so a monk who has intentionally killed a human being is not a recluse, not a son of the Sakyan[10]—he is therefore called one who is expelled.

MS.415 Not in communion means: communion means: a common official action, the same recital, the same training—this is called communion. He does not take part in this—he is therefore called not in communion.

Footnotes and references:


= Vin.4.290, and = Vin.3.112 in explanation of sañcetanika. At Vin.2.91 it is said that whatever transgression is committed like this, is called a legal question whether an offence be wrong.




Vin-a.437 paraphrases by paṭhamaṃ paṭisandhicittaṃ, the mind being first reinstated.


Cf. Vb.123.


Satthahāraka as we have seen is literally “sword-carrier,” so that this definition probably implies “carrying a knife … carrying a rope.” Cf. below, BD.1.133, where these items are grouped together under “a trap.”




Vin-a.443, papātā ti pabbatantare vā thalantare.


Vin-a.443 says, “like the blameworthy man who has fallen into defeat, having committed sexual intercourse, and having taken what was not given.”


This is the only Pārājika where, in the simile, the word abhabba does not occur.


Cf. Vin.1.97, where it is said that a monk who has received the upasampadā ordination should not deprive any living being (pāṇa) of life, even down to an ant or a worm.