Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550 | ISBN-13: 9788120811553

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

प्रच्छन्नं वा प्रकाशं वा तन्निषेवेत यो नरः ।
तस्य दण्डविकल्पः स्याद् यथेष्टं नृपतेस्तथा ॥ २२८ ॥

pracchannaṃ vā prakāśaṃ vā tanniṣeveta yo naraḥ |
tasya daṇḍavikalpaḥ syād yatheṣṭaṃ nṛpatestathā || 228 ||

If a man has recourse, either openly or secretly, to this (vice), the form of punishment inflicted upon him shall be in accordance with the King’s discretion.—(228)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

The term ‘vikalpaka’ means variants forms.

It depends entirely upon the King’s wish. (?)

From the words ‘learn the law relating to gambling’ (221) onwards, there are only two or three verses that are injunctive, the others are purely declamatory.—(228)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

“Rāghavānanda and Nandana point out that not only corporeal punishment (according to verse 224), but also a fine may be inflicted,”—(Buhler).

This verse is quoted in Vivādaratnākara (p. 611), which explains ‘yatheṣṭam’ as ‘in accordance with the king’s wish’;—in Vīramitrodaya (Rājanīti, p. 153), which adds the following notes:—‘Yatheṣṭami.e. after duly examining the nature of the guilt, whatever punishment,—corporal or monetary—the king decides to inflict, that is to be regarded as lawful;—and in Vyavahāra-Bālambhaṭṭī (p. 880).


Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 9.227-228)

See Comparative notes for Verse 9.227.

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