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Verse 9.90

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

त्रीणि वर्षाण्युदीक्षेत कुमार्यर्तुमती सती ।
ऊर्ध्वं तु कालादेतस्माद् विन्देत सदृशं पतिम् ॥ ९० ॥

trīṇi varṣāṇyudīkṣeta kumāryartumatī satī |
ūrdhvaṃ tu kālādetasmād vindeta sadṛśaṃ patim || 90 ||

Having reached puberty, the maiden may wait for three years; after that time, she shall procure a suitable husband.—(90)

 

Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

Puberty’— menstruation; after menstruation she may stay in her father’s house ‘for three years’; after that, in the event of a distinguished bridegroom not forthcoming, she shall choose a ‘suitable husband’— one who is her equal in caste.—(90)

 

Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

This verse is quoted in Parāśaramādhava (Ācāra, p. 484);—in Vīramitrodaya (Saṃskāra, p. 772);—in Hemādri (Kāla, p. 805)—in Smṛticandrikā (Saṃskāra, p. 217);—and in Saṃskāra-ratnamālā (p. 501).

 

Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 9.90-92)

Mahābhārata (13.44.15).—(Same as Manu, but reading ‘svayam bhartāramarjayet’ for the last foot.)

Baudhāyana (4.10.14).—‘Three years let a marriageable damsel wait for the order of her father. But after that time, let her choose for herself, in the fourth year, a husband of the same caste. If no one of equal rank is to be found, she may take even one destitute of good qualities.’

Gautama (18-20).—‘A marriageable maiden who is not given in marriage shall allow three monthly periods to pass, and afterwards unite herself, of her own will, to a blameless man, giving up the ornaments received from her father or his family.’

Vaśiṣṭha (17.67-68).—‘A maiden who has attained puberty shall wait for three years;—after three years, she may herself take a husband of equal caste.’

Viṣṇu (24.40).—‘When she has allowed three monthly periods to pass without being married, let her choose a husband for herself; three monthly periods having passed, she has, in every case, full power to dispose of herself as she thinks best.’

Yājñavalkya (1.64).—‘If there are no persons to give her away, the maiden shall herself take a suitable husband.’

Nārada (12.22-23).—‘If no such person be in existence as should marry her, let the maiden approach the King, and let her, with his permission, betake herself to a bridegroom of her own choice, who belongs to her own caste, and is a suitable match in point of descent, morality, age and sacred learning. Let her discharge her religious duties in common with him, and bear children to him.’

Yama (Vīramitrodaya-Saṃskāra, p. 773).—‘If, for twelve years, the girl remains unmarried in her father’s house, the guilt of embryo-killing falls upon the father, and the maiden shall choose her own husband.’

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