Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

ग्रीष्मे पञ्चतपास्तु स्याद् वर्षास्वभ्रावकाशिकः ।
आर्द्रवासास्तु हेमन्ते क्रमशो वर्धयंस्तपः ॥ २३ ॥

grīṣme pañcatapāstu syād varṣāsvabhrāvakāśikaḥ |
ārdravāsāstu hemante kramaśo vardhayaṃstapaḥ || 23 ||

During summer he shall keep five fires; during the rains, he shall have the sky for his shelter; and during the winter he shall keep wet clothes: gradually increasing his austerities.—(23 ).


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

He shall heat himself with five fires; he shall kindle, four fires close to himself on his four sides and shall expose himself to the sun at the head.

During the rainy season, he shall have the sky for his sole shelter; i.e., he shall live in a place where the rain falls, and he shall not hold the umbrella or any such thing to ward off the rain.

During the winter’,—i.e., whenever it is cold; i.e., during the two seasons of Hemanta and Śiśira (Winter and Midwinter)—he shall have his clothes wet.

Gradually’— In due course.—(23).


Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 6.23-24)

Viṣṇu (95.1-4).—‘The hermit should emaciate his frame by the practice of austerities. In summer he should expose himself to five fires. During the rains, he should sleep in the open air. In the winter, he should wear wet clothes.’

Yājñavalkya (3.52).—‘During the summer, he shall sit in the middle of five fires; during the rains, he shall he in an open space; during the winter he shall wear wet clothes; and he shall perform austerities to the best of his capacity.’

Do. (3.46).—(See under 5.)

Śaṅkha (Aparārka, p. 944).—‘In the course of time, he should emaciate his frame by the practice of restrictions, observances, mantras and fastings, to the best of his capacity; clothed in kuśa -grass, rags, hark and skins, wearing his hair in braids, having an upper garment of the skin of the black antelope and observing such rules as sleeping in water, among five fires, or in open space.’

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