Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550 | ISBN-13: 9788120811553

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

पित्र्ये स्वदितमित्येव वाच्यं गोष्ठे तु सुशृतम् ।
सम्पन्नमित्यभ्युदये दैवे रुचितमित्यपि ॥ २५४ ॥

pitrye svaditamityeva vācyaṃ goṣṭhe tu suśṛtam |
sampannamityabhyudaye daive rucitamityapi || 254 ||

At the rite in honour of the Pitṛs, one should say “svaditam” (well-dined); at the Goṣṭha, “suśṛtam” (well-cooked); at the Ābhyudayika rite, “sampannam” (accomplished); and at the rite in honour of the gods, “rucitam” (agreeable).—(254)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

Other persons also, happening to be present on the occasion, should offer words of encouragement; and the terms to be used are here mentioned.

Another commentator explains as follows:—The permission to take food should be sought by means of these terms; hence these words have got to be uttered by the performer of the Śrāddha. But he should say, ‘Svadadhvam,’ ‘please eat well,’ and not ‘Svaditam,’ ‘well eaten;’ or, the reading may be ‘Svadatu’ (‘do eat please’).

This explanation is based upon another Smṛti and upon custom; and, according to this, when the Brāhmaṇas have begun to eat, they should be enlivened by the performer of the Śrāddha with these words.

At the goṣṭha’—i.e., when several cows are sitting at the same place;—the word to be pronounced is ‘Suśṛtam,’ ‘well-cooked.’

The word ‘Astu,’ ‘may it be,’ is understood everywhere.

At the rite in honour of the gods, the term used should be ‘rucitam’ or ‘rocitam—(254)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

Vācyam’—‘By the giver of the feast or any other person that happens to come’ (Medhātithi and Govindarāja);—‘by the giver of the feast’ (Kullūka).

Goṣṭhe’—‘In the cow-pen’ (Medhātithi);—‘at the Goṣṭhīśrāddha’ (Kullūka and Rāghavānanda);—‘at a feast given to Brāhmaṇas for the purpose of bringing some benefit to the cows’ (Nārāyaṇa).

This verse is quoted in Śrāddhakriyākaumudī (p. 177) as prescribing the form of ṭhe question to be addressed to the invited at a Śrāddha, after they have been fed.


Comparative notes by various authors

Vaśiṣṭha (3.63-64).—‘At the offering to Pitṛs, the term svaditam;—at the Ābhyudayika offerings—Sampannam.’

(See 235 above.)

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