Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

कुह्वै चैवानुमत्यै च प्रजापतय एव च ।
सह द्यावापृथिव्योश्च तथा स्विष्टकृतेऽन्ततः ॥ ८६ ॥

kuhvai caivānumatyai ca prajāpataya eva ca |
saha dyāvāpṛthivyośca tathā sviṣṭakṛte'ntataḥ || 86 ||

To Kuhū, to Anumati, and to Prajāpati; then to Dyauḥ—Pṛthivī jointly, and finally to Sviṣṭakṛt,’—(86)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

To Dyauḥ-Pṛthivī jointly’—with the formula ‘dyāvā-pṛthivībhyām svāhā.’

Finally to Sviṣṭakṛt’—‘Sviṣṭakṛt’ (accomplisher of what is extremely desirable) is an adjective, the deity qualified by it being Agni. That this is so is indicated by the assertion in another Smṛti to the effect that ‘this offering is to be made to Agni-Sviṣṭakṛt.’ This offering to Agni-Sviṣṭakṛt has been prescribed in the Veda as to be made in the case of all Homas.

Finally’— though this is already implied by the order in which the names have been mentioned, yet it has been reiterated (by means of the term ‘finally’) for the purpose of indicating that when, according to another Smṛti, a large number of oblations are offered conjointly under this head, that to ‘Agni-Sviṣṭakṛt’ should come first.

“All these oblations forming a single act of Homa, the several deities mentioned should be treated as optional alternatives.”

But whence does- it follow that there is a single Homa? Verse 85, which speaks of oblations ‘to Agni and to Soma, etc.,’ is the originative Injunction of the Homas; and hence the Homa -offerings being severally qualified by the mention of several special deities, the Homas are clearly recognised as distinct.—(86)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Āhnika, p. 402), where it is explained that the offering to ‘Dyāuḥ-pṛthivī jointly’ should be made with the formula —Dyāvāpṛthivībhyām svāhā’.


Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 3.84-93)

See Comparative notes for Verse 3.84.

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