A Manual of Khshnoom

The Zoroastrian Occult Knowledge

by Phiroz Nasarvanji Tavaria | 1971 | 160,667 words

An introduction to the mysteries of Khshnoom, an ancient occult movement. Khshnoom stands for 'Divine' or 'Spiritual' knowledge and originated from Zarathushtra. This book contains knowledge not to be found in Zoroastrian religious works. The second part contains documentaion of the life of Prophet Zarathushtra....

Chapter IX

"Key" No. I

Description of The Pre-Cosmo-Genesis World ("Anghu Paourva"),
Technically Called "Anamanthvao Alam",
lit., The Unthinkable World.

Impersonal and Personal The Twofold Concept of the Godhead in Avesta

The concept of the Godhead in the Zoroastrian Faith is of twofold nature - (1) AHU (literally, 'it IS',) the impersonal, inconceivable Supreme Deity over Ohrmazd, the Blissful Spirit; and Ahriman, the Destructive Spirit; and (2) Ahura Mazda, the personal Deity, the Creator of this vast Universe, who can be conceived from his numerous names occurring in Hormazd and Ram Yashts.

There are two phases of AHU, First is AHU, Shaedan Shaed, i.e., Lustre of lustres, who is the shoreless and motionless Ocean of Light, about which nothing can be said, except AH; literally 'it IS'" yet the knowledge emanating from this AHU is conceivable. In the second phase, certain motion is shown in an infinitesimal part of this AHU Shaedan Shaed on account of which that part assumes intense brilliancy (Khshaeta). This minute part is called AHU Khshaetan Khshaeta, the Light of lights, who is unnameable, unthinkable i.e., inconceivable, Absolute One in oneness without a second or a compeer. The brilliancy is said to have been caused by the prime-most THOUGHT-divine going on in that part for the creation of the Universe. Then as the result of this Thought going on in AHU, there rises from it an emanation caused by ejection, which (emanation) is referred to in Avesta (Yt. 13,14) as Khao Afrazyamna, literally meaning fountain-source of eternal freshness, dealt with further on.

Niru, the Screen of Light Between AHU and Khao Afrazyamna

AHU is so purity-perfect that the Universe, in which there is both Good and Evil, cannot be created direct from it, because between the essence and quality of AHU Khshaetan Khshaeta and the emanation (i.e. Khao) there is difference as great as that which exists between the sky and the earth. With regard to the nature of this difference, there is perfect and absolute mystery about which it is said that it would be known only after the collective Frasho- Gard, i.e., total Renovation of the totality of souls mortal and immortal worlds including those of the Zodiac and the empyrean. Hence AHU has created a screen of light impregnable from the side of Khao Afrazyamna. This screen of light is called Niru. This Niru though of much inferior potentiality before AHU the Light of lights, is yet immensely more powerful than Khao Afrazyamna. It is of such a nature that while AHU does not incorporate Himself in the Universe, yet He is not incognizant of the activities going on in the Universe.

Consequently, even the high immortal existences like Yazats (angels) cannot see AHU through Niru. This fact has been stated by Dastur Darab Mahiyar in his Monajat; 15,29 as under;

"Na binad kashaz soorato, rango, fam,
Ne neez een Fereshteh sioseh tamam,"

(translation) -

"Not only human beings, but none of all the 33 Fereshteh (angels) can see His face or shape or colour".

The ordinary dictionary meaning of Niru is strength or power. But Khshnoom teaches that Niru as applied to Anamanthvao Alam, the pre-cosmo-genesis world, and as referred to in Pazand Afrine Ardafravash; 13 in the group "Aoz, Zoar, Niru, Tagi" is the supermost divine potentiality that separates Khao Afrazyamna from AHU" the Light of Lights.

The other three subordinate powers embodied in Niru have been explained under Supplement No.2.


Khao Afrazyamna, the Fountain-source of Eternal Freshness

It is stated above that Khao Afrazyamna was ejected from AHU Khshaetan Khshaeta, on account of which he is awakened from dormancy. On being awakened, it fees that its former merged condition of dormancy in the parent-light of AHU was most pleasant, and is pained at having been alienated from it, and brought to consciousness. This Khao Afrazyamna is endowed with 'Hudaongho', sublime WISDOM.


Manthra Spenta Blessings Showered on Khao Afrazyamna

Khao Afrazyamna though endowed with perfect Wisdom (Hudaongho) as stated above, could not comprehend the Thought,which produced the brilliancy in AHU, and hence it produced confusion in him. Thereupon AHU showered on him blessings called Manthra Spenta, literally meaning blissful mystic spells, which pacified the Khao. This enhanced state of Wisdom is called Hudastema. Now the status of the Khao is raised to that of Bagha, part of AHU invested with full power and authority. He now realizes that he was expelled for a great purpose, but what that purpose was, he need not question.


First Hoshbam, the Dawn of Universe

The above showering of blessings on Khao Afrazyamna by AHU Khshaetan Khshaeta brought about the first Hoshbam, the first outline of consciousness, which laid the foundation of the condition requisite for the creation of the Universe. Compared to AHU, this Hoshbam is said to be merely like the thin silver streak of a shining crescent, while AHU Khshaetan Khshaeta Himself is like the glorious full moon.


Yaon, Rashnu, Armaiti, the First Triad of Potentialities

From the above condition of Hoshbam, there manifested three fundamental rays called Yaon, Rashmu, Armaiti. Yaon means connection (Av. yu, to join or connect), and hence Yaon represents connection of Khao Afrazyamna with AHU, Rashnu (Av. Raz, to put in order or arrange) means the power or ability to establish perfect order; and Armaiti is the one exceptional and sublimest quality, which represents the absolute devotion and obedience of Khao Afrazyamna to AHU. With the aid of these powers, Khao Afrazyamna now comprehended the Thought which the brilliancy of AHU represented, and he (Khao) with the enhanced Wisdom (Hudastema) meditated on AHU, and vowed that he would carry out all His (Ahu's) behests.

This Khao Afrazyamna, now elevated to Hudastema, is the most exuberant Reservoir of Light of AHU'S Will, the Master of AHU'S inconceivable Master-Plan, the progenitor-supreme of all the mysterious devices for the transmutation of the soul's Evil into Good, super-perfect in perfection, excellent beyond all excellences, most perennial and everlasting in freshness, possessing all authority, all power, all knowledge Divine; existing since Eternity of dead past and to continue to Infinity of Ghaiban, futurity lost in dim future, in priority, prior to the creation of the Universe and its Divine Creator Ahura Mazda; the most super- Conscious, the most radiant, the most brilliant and the most astounding Fountain Source of AHU's Will.

Hence this Fountain is referred to in Farvardin Yasht; 14 as Khao Afrazyamna, the "Fountain-Source of Eternal Freshness, which is never drying and never failing" (Av. Khao, a spring; and Afrazyamna meaning In never-drying).


Second Triad of Fundamental Laws

The above devotion of Khao Afrazyamna brought in its train the manifestation of the second triad of laws:

  1. Yavaecha Yavaetat, Infinity, which implies Zurvan, motion-the law of Eternal First Motion-the Primum Mobile, and the idea of Time arising from it;
  2. Niru Khadata, the law of Glorious universal diffusion and expansion, also known as Arshotakht or Uru;
  3. Atashe Khshaetam or Shaedan, the Fundamental crea tive fire-energy of highest potentiality, being the ori gin of all Staota, creative vibrationary colours.

These three laws constitute the materials and means for the creation of the Universe.

1. Yavaecha Yavaetat, Everlastingness

Yavaecha Yavaetat means infinity by which is understood the Supermost-Cycle comprising the seven Cycles of Zarvana Akarana, Boundless Time. This Avesta term is to be found in the various paragraphs of the Vandidad; 3, 5, 7 etc. This Yavaecha Yavaetat represents the illimitable force of AHU in alienating Khao Afrazyamna and embodies the fundamenta of Time and Space. Thus it is the collective name for the seven (Av.) Zarvana Akarana (Siroza 21) meaning Time illimitable, and the inconceivable expanses of breadth, height and depth, and many more than 3-dimensions, comprising the firmaments or the vaults of heavens, over which Zarvana Akarana and the heavens, the Yavaecha Yavaetat exercises its power and sway.

The functioning of the whole of the three stage Ahunavar Plan is divided into seven cycles of Zarvana Akarana, Boundless Time which form Yavaecha Yavaetat.


2. Niru-khadata, Fountain Source of all Power and Laws

The word "khadata" lit, means that which performs automatically it's appointed function, and Niru is a part of AHU'S illimitable power which intensity it is beyond the capacity of human brain to conceive of. Niru is the Power divine that holds all authority of AHU, and is the Fountain Source of all laws of Nature operating in the Universe. The above Yavaecha Yavaetat, the supermost cycle of Time with its authority for the immeasurable extent of sway over all the heavens also proceeds from Niru.

Similarly, all grand-plans-divine devised for the final-most Frasho-kereti, Renovation of the souls (Ysn. 62, 3) and their merging into Paourva Fravashi (expounded further on), which is the Ultima Thule of the whole Universe, has its origin in Niru. Thus Niru-Khadata is the power house of the entire machinery set up by Nature for the Salvation of the souls, the devices and arrangements whereof emanate automatically and sequentially one from the other, (as do the threads of a screw), the source of which all rests in AHU'S Niru.


3. Atash-e-shaedan, lit, Highest Creative Lustrous Fire-energy

After Shaedan Shaed, which is one of the appelations of AHU, Atashe-Shaedan is the next most primary and fundamental source of creative heat or energy-called Atash-of the supermost power functioning in the pre-cosmo-genesis world, from which the Universe is subsequently created. On account of this supermost power and brilliance it is called Atashe-Shaedan meaning the heat and energy of the highest lustre or brilliance (Pahl. Shaed, splendor).

Besides Atashe-Shaedan there are 15 other gradations of Atash meaning creative heat or energy functioning in the Universe, possessing different characteristics, which are expounded in Supplement No. 1. Thus including Atashe-Shaedan there are in all 16 gradation's of Atash.

The Atash-e-Shaedan is the Atash or fire-energy of the very Paourva Fravashi (explained further on). Both are subtle-most in their essence, and hence they remain aloof from and unmingled with the entire creation, and yet with the aid of this Atash the Paourva Fravashi helps Ahura Mazda, the Lord of the Universe, in bringing the entire creation into being. This Atash-e-Shaedan is at the very Bam i.e. boundary from which Niru begins, and is a part of the Shaedan Shaed AHU Himself, and which Atash-e-Shaedan helps in creating and sustaining the other 15 grades of Atash working in the Universe referred to above. .

The Atashe-Shaedan is the source of all energy and motion by which all the institutions and devices set up by the above mentioned Niru-Khadat are finalized according to the colossal Plan (Av. Manta from Man to think), each at the proper stage and appointed Time ordained in the Supermost-Cyc1e of Yavaecha- Yavaetat, in which! every change that takes place from one state to another is affected or created by or through Atash.

In the Atash Nyaesh; 6, we meet with the following passage:

"Dayao me Atarsh Puthra-Ahurahe-Mazdao ya me anghat afrasaonghao nuremcha Yavaechataite",

meaning literally,

"O Atash-Puthra-Ahurahe Mazdao, grant me this that from now (nuremcha) to the distant-most Time (Yavaeohataite) Thou shalt be my instructor."

Here Atash-Puthra-Ahurahe-Mazdao is a technical term, and as such it is not to be translated. It is so named because this particular Atash helps Ahura-Mazda in the creation of the whole Universe, as a son helps his father in his work. This Atash-Puthra- Ahurahe-Mazdao is the name of the Atash (fire energy) functioning on the ninth Asman, i.e., heaven, which is the Empyrean or the highest of the nine Asmans, i.e. heavens in the Universe, being next after Atash-e-Shaedan and fifteenth (i.e., second highest) in the gradation of the sixteen types of Atash (Fire-energies) referred to above, and is like the borderline (Bam) of Atash-e Shaedan operating in the Anamanthvao Alam (inconceivable world) or the pre-cosmo-genesis world; The ninth Asman is the roof or canopy of the Universe, and the seat of the Creator Ahura Mazda.

Yavaechataite in the above passage refers to the "One Great Far Off Event" (which is the Frasho-kereti of Avesta meaning Renovation of the totality of souls) "to which the whole Creation moves". So in the above passage the devotee supplicates the sublimest Atash in the Universe, namely, Atash-Puthra-Ahurahe- Mazdao to be his instructor, i.e., Friend, Philosopher and Guide in his endless march of journey from his present-most imperfect state on this earth up to the final-most glorious state of Renovation.

It will thus be seen that the passage cited above from the Atash Nyaesh has a far deeper import than it is believed to be carrying.

We have so far described Khao Afrazyamna with its two triads of potentialities. We shall now consider Ahunavar meaning the WILL or Edict of AHU, the Light of lights.


Ahunavar, the Will of AHU, and Zarvana Akarana, The Motion of Its Emergence

After ejecting Khao Afrazyamna, AHU issued His Will called Ahunavar to it (Khao Afrazyamna) by His inconceivable Ah power of Oneness and Truth, called Wahed-e-Hakiki for the creation of the Universe. This Ahunavar was AHU'S original Will. The illimitable motion and force caused in the issuing of this Ahunavar is called Zarvana Akarama (lit. Boundless motion). It must be stated here that this divine Will must not be misconstrued to be like our ordinary human will, which as explained in the dictionary is 'the faculty by which one decides what one shall do, or the control exercised by deliberate purpose over impulse of fixed intention'. But the Ahunavar, the Will of AHU is deified, and as such is full of lustre and consciousness and power supermost, and hence cannot be compared with our human will.

Regarding Ahunavar, the original Will of AHU, it is stated that AHU first promulgated, that is, directed the light of His conscious Will to Khao Afrazyamna with His 'Ah' power i.e. power of Absolute One without a compeer, but the force of that Ah was so great that Khao Afrazyamna could not comprehend it.

It may be noted that this 'Ah' is technically referred to as 'Hu', which occurs as the prefix in the well-known Avestan terms 'Humata', 'Hu-khta' etc. The meaning of 'Hu' as 'good' taken from Sanskrit 'Su' is of a much lower grade, since the prefix 'Hu' in Avesta generally indicates relation to or of or in harmony with AHU, the Light of lights.


Simultaneous Manifestation of Bagha Ahunavar and Paourva Fravashi

Reverting to the promulgation of Ahunavar (the original Will referred to above), AHU reduced it the second time to 9/10ths in which the fraction of the force of His own 'Hu' was l/l0th, but still it could not be grasped by the Khao. Then the third time AHU reduced the Will to 8/10ths in which the force of His own 'Hu' was 1/100th, but yet it was too powerful and could not be grasped. This process was repeated from 8/10ths to 7/10ths, 6/10ths, 5/10ths, 4/10ths, 3/10ths, 2/10ths in which the force of His own 'Hu' was respectively 1/1000th, 1/10,000th, 1/100,000th, 1/1000,000th, 1/l0,000,000th, 1/100,000,000th, but still the force of His 'Hu' was too powerful and hence that Will could not be grasped by Khao Afrazyamna.

However, the tenth time, when AHU reduced the light of His conscious Will from 2/10ths to 1/10th in which the force of His own 'Hu' was 1/1000,000,000th, that light was so diluted or weakened that the 'Thought' and the diction of that Will could be comprehended by Khao Afrazyamna. This 1/1000,000,000th particle is called Bagha Ahunavar. In this Thought of the Will was laid down that:

"From the most perfect beings of light to beings of light lowest in gradation shall manifest themselves, and that these beings of light shall emanate separately in the beginning, but shall return all perfected and merged into one on Roshan Rooz, the Glorious Day in the dim future."

The above diction of the Will is called in Avesta (Ysn. 19, 1- 2) "Vacha", 'The Word'. When Khao Afrazyamna pronounced the above Vacha replete with the Thought for the creation of the Universe, that Vacha became diffused in the triad of Yavaecha- Yavaetat, Niru-khadat and Atashe Shaedan, already dealt with above. This pronunciation of the Vacha, the Word Divine and its diffusion in the triad above mentioned resulted in the simultaneous manifestation of the pair of Bagha Ahunavar and Paourva Fravashi the two highest and most fundamental superpotentialities functioning in the pre-cosmo-genesis world, connected with the creation of the Universe.


'vacha', the Celestial Note of Bagha Ahunav Ar

With regard to Vacha, Ahunavar and Bagha Ahunavar in Yasna 19, 1-2, the holy Prophet asks Ahura Mazda, the Creator:

"Which Vacha or Word it was that Thou hadst mentioned to me, that Thou hadst created before heaven before water, before earth. . .." etc.

and in the succeeding paragraph 3 Ahura Mazda replies:

"It was this Bagha Ahunavar that I had told you about".

This Vacha or the Word of AHU, which in the Holy Bible is called "The Word Celestial of the Will of the Lord", which in the religious texts of the Hindus is called "Shabda Brahma", and among Islam is known as "Kun"" meaning 'Be it so', is this most sublime Vacha of Bagha Ahunavar referred to in Yasna 19 mentioned above, which Vacha is in the form of Divine Music. Thus this musical Note of Bagha Ahunavar was the first to manifest itself simultaneously with Paourva fravashi before Angra Mainyu, the Destructive Spirit, and before Ahura Mazda, the Blissful Spirit manifested themselves, and before the creation of the Universe.

It may be noted that in this primemost pair, Bagha Ahunavar is said to be containing all the innumerable lights of both categories which were in dormancy, that is, lights with perfect divine knowledge and those with imperfect divine knowledge, which (lights) are regarded as Seeds, and hence Ahunavar (Bagha Ahunavar) is called the "Seed of Seeds ("Zurvan" pp. 107 and 215 - Prof. Zaehner), and considered allegorically as the male-fowl; while Paourva Fravashi is regarded as the female - fowl, because she furnishes "Pithva", nourishment divine through her super-fire energy of Atash-i-Shaedan, and awakens the lights in Bagha Ahunavar from their dormancy, which will be shown in its own place. Moreover, Bagha Ahunavar contains the whole colossal divine Plan of AHU for the 'Frasho-kereti', Renovation of all the defective lights, while his partner Paourva Fravashi is the potentiality which executes that plan.


Bagha Ahunavar

In the above passage (Ysn. 19,3) we come across the term "Bagha Ahunavar", which is translated literally as the 'part of Ahunavar', but what that refers to is not discernible from that philological surface rendering, nor do the learned philologists know anything about it.

In S.B.E. Vol. XXXI Dr. Mills renders 'Bagha-Ahunahe- Vairyehe, (Ysn. 19, 3) as' "piece the Ahuna-vairya" and states in the footnote-3 "This part of the Ahuna (?) meaning its several parts". Thus it will be seen that the illustrious scholar has not understood the technical significance of the word. 'Bagha', and hence in the footnote conjectures Bagha to refer to 'several parts' which is incorrect.

Bagha Ahumavar is a proper noun, and though literally it does mean 'The Part Ahunavar' or 'The Junior Ahunavar', it has exceedingly sublime and supreme status as we have seen already. Bagha Ahunavar, which is also styled "Baghan Bagha" (lit., part of parts) is the sublimest Bagha and the Izad of Izads, i.e., the angel of angels. His divine partner, Paourva Fravashi (treated hereafter) draws from this Bagha Ahunavar her authority for putting into operation AHU'S Will. It is from this Avesta noun Bagha that the Sanskrit form Bhaga is used for naming the Deity as Bhagwan, Lord of the Bhaga.


Confusion of Bagha Ahunavar with Parts of Yatha Ahu Vairyo

Avesta scholars often err in confounding Yatha AHU Vairyo with Ahunavar. Consequently, learned Kanga in his Gujarati work entitled "Khordeh Avesta with translation" has printed the heading for the Yatha AHU Vairyo prayer as "Ahunavar (Yatha AHU Vairyo)" which is not correct.

On account of this mistake the same renowned scholar Ervad Kanga in his other Gujarati work "Yazashne and Visparad with translation" puts the following footnote (4) under page 88 concerning Bagha Ahunavar:

"4 The parts of Hanvar i.e. three lines - verses (Harlez). "In original text the ward "Part" (Bagha) is in singular." It is evident from the footnote cited above that none of the above three illustrious scholars of Avesta have understood the real significances of the terms Ahunavar, Bagha-Ahunavar and Yatha AHU Vairyo, which have created unnecessary confusion due to absence of Khshnoomic commentary knowledge.

It would therefore not be out of place to reiterate that Bagha Ahunavar, which possesses consciousness, light, power etc., is the infinitesimal part of Ahunavar, the original Will of AHU in the Beginning of all beginnings, while Yatha Ahu Vairyo is the holy spell formulated in Avesta by Asho Zarathushtra, and though the composition of this Yatha Ahu Vairyo is based on the very vibratians embodied in Bagha Ahunavar, still the Word Celestial of the Lord God AHU is said to be 81 times more powerful than Yatha Ahu Vairyo.

The entire Zoroastrian religious lore as compiled by the Holy Prophet consisted of 21 Nasks, i.e., divisions or parts named after 21 words, the Yatha Ahu Vairyo is made up of. The language of these Nasks is called Avesta, which is erroneously believed to be a dialect, connotes the original knowledge about the Unknown or the Unknowable, (Av. 'A’ not and Vesta from Vid to know, i.e., not known or Unknown or the Unknowable, Inscrutable; and hence Avesta means the knowledge about the Unknown or the Unknowable).


"Ahumat" and "Ahuviyat", the Perfect and Imperfect Knowledge Divine

Having clarified the distinction between Ahunavar and Yatha Abu Vairyo, we shall proceed with the description of 'Anghu-Paourva', the pre-cosmo-genesis world, technically known as 'Anamanthvao Alam', the inconceivable world.

It is stated that in the Bagha Ahunavar there were two kinds of Lights - one superior and the other inferior, the former possessing perfect divine knowledge and the latter imperfect. The superior possessed "Ahumat" (literally of the thought of AHU), i.e., possessing perfect divine knowledge, and hence displaying full humility and devotion to AHU, the Light of lights. The inferior lights possessed arrogance, i.e., they were lacking in humility and devotion to AHU. In other words, they possessed divine ignorance. This arrogance arising out of divine ignorance is technically called Taro-maiti or "Drvao" in Avesta (from Dru- to run, or turn away from) the Light of AHU, and hence Drvao signifies the quality or tendency to run away from that Light of AHU). Thus, these inferior or imperfect Lights possessed in different degrees the tendencies of disobedience to and rebelliousness against AHU. In other words, these Lights, which possessed Drvao, were not attracted to, but were repulsed from AHU.

Hence this quality of Drvao is called "Ahuviyat" or "Huvi'" (lit." AHU plus vi plus yat meaning to run speedily away from AHU) IN THIS AHUVIYAT LIES THE SOURCE OF ALL "Evil".


Varied Ratios of Ahuviyat Or Drvao, Evil

The proportion of Ahuviyat (Evil), i.e., the ratio between Evil and Good, was not uniform in all the Lights, but was varied. These variations have been graded in nine groups. Thus, some possessed 8 parts of evil and 1 of good, others 7 of evil and 2 of good and so on - the proportion of good increasing in inverse ratio to that of evil decreasing and vice versa.


Rule of Asha due to Predominance of Obedient Lights

Moreover, the Lights possessing Ahumat and those possessing Ahuviyat, that is, those displaying allegiance to AHU and those showing rebelliousness against AHU respectively were also not in equal proportions. In Bagha Ahunavar there was a preponderance of the former possessing Ahumat over the rebellious ones possessing Ahuviyat or Huvi, and hence the latter (rebellious ones) remained dormant, i.e., did not raise their heads in rebellion. Consequently, the state of unity or oneness of Asha (literally holiness) prevailed in Bagha Ahunavar.


Paourva Fravashi the Light Ineffable and Indivisible Whole that sets Ahunavar Plan into Motion

We have seen already that prior to the creation of the Universe in that past of all dead past, Bagha Ahunavar and Paourva Fravashi simultaneously manifested themselves, and the feasibility of the creation of the Universe was established with the stage of the first Hoshbam, the dawn of the Universe. As stated already the office of putting AHU'S Will into effect for the creation of the Universe was assigned to Paourva Fravashi. This Paourva Fravashi who represents Divine Wisdom, is the highest and joint potentiality with Bagha Ahunavar, and the supermost Power and Light Ineffable. Paourva (or Paurva) literally means first or anterior, i.e., first in-existence, primemost, and hence it means the Fravashi which existed first or anterior to the creation of the Universe. Fravashi literally means one that puts forth or carries into action the Will (of AHU); (technically derived from Av. Fra. forth or forward, and Vas plus i from Vas, to wish or will) though philologically the term Fravashi is derived from fra=forth, forward and Vax = to make progress, to grow and i suffix.

In rank, Paourva Fravashi stands only next to AHU, who is Wahed-e-Hakiki, the Absolute One without a second" i.e., One in oneness, while Paourva Fravashi is in, oneness, being the very outward manifestation of AHU Himself, and is One Integral whole, i.e. undivided and indivisible, and having no fractions.


Armaiti, the special Quality of Paourva Fravashi

It is stated in the beginning that Khao Afrazyamna possessed the triad of (1) Yaon (2) Rashnu, and (3) Armaiti. Of these three, Armaiti is the one exceptional and sublimest quality of Paourva Fravashi, which represents the latter's absolute devotion and obedience to AHU'S Will, (literally Av. Ar plus maiti, perfect humility or wisdom), drawing her (Paourva Fravashi's) authority from Bagha Ahunavar above mentioned and functioning as His co-operator.


Paourva Fravashi as Ahu's Ratu in Yatha Ahu Vairyo Prayer

It is not known in philology that the two terms 'AHU' and 'Ratu' occurring in the first two lines of the Yatha Ahu Vairyo prayer have special significances. In the various passages in Avesta these two terms (Ahu wild Ratu) are used with different grades of meanings but in the Yatha Ahu Vairyo prayer - according to Khshnoom teachings - AHU (literally "it IS") stands for 'AHU the Absolute One in oneness' alienated from Khao Afrazyamna by means of Niru as stated already and Ratu for Paourva Fravashi.

In his rendering of Yatha Ahu Vairyo, the learned Ervad Kanga translates the word AHU as king, i.e., the political ruler and Ratu as 'Dastooran Dastoor', i.e., High Priest Superior, in his book entitled "Khordeh Avesta with Translation". Such meanings of AHU and Ratu are secondary, i.e., of much lower degree, which may be applicable in other contexts, but are extremely degrading when applied to AHU and Ratu occurring in the first two lines of Yatha Ahu Vairyo prayer.


Distinction between Paourva Fravashi and Ashaunam Fravashi

Paourva Fravashi (singular) the executrix of the Ahunavar Plan is located in the heart of the Creator Ahura Mazda. It is referred to in the various passages in Farvardin Yasht as Ashaunam Fravashi and though literally the latter does mean Bountiful Fravashis (plural), yet Ashaunam-Fravashi is a compound technical term and must not be rendered etymologically.

Ashaunam Fravashi is in the plural because it signifies the combined Fravashis of the seven Ameshaspends and of the perfected souls of the numerous Yazadic Intelligences (Ahuraongho) who are attuned with Paourva Fravashi. It must, however, be reiterated that Paourva Fravashi is one single ineffable and indivisible perfect light representing divine Wisdom.


"Staota Yasna", the Ceremony of Vibrationary Colours Performed by Paourva Fravashi for the Creation of the Universe

We have seen above that there were two types of lights one with imperfect divine knowledge in varied degrees, and the other with perfect, also in varied degrees. They were all lying dormant, that is, in an undeveloped or seedling state in the Bagha Ahunavar and moreover they were all in a state of jumbled mass.

Now Paourva Fravashi develops these two types of seedlings and reduces them into two distinct groups. For accomplishing this she twice transmits on Bagha Ahunavar her rays of 'Staota', vibrationary colours, emanating from Atashe-Shaedan, the fireenergy of super-glory within her, and thus attunes herself with him (Bagha Ahunavar). This transmission is accompanied with pondering in both the cases with diverse thought-forces, so as to instigate the innate propensities of the respective group concerned as shown further on. This grand divine ceremony performed by Paourva Fravashi in the Anamanthvao Alam, the unthinkable precosmo- genesis world, is called "Staota Yasna", the ceremony of Staota, vibrationary colours. Of the above two groups the imperfect lights being in minority were activated first, and then the perfect.

In worldly parlance Bagha Ahunavar with His undeveloped seedlings of Light acts as the allegorical male fowl, and Paourva Fravashi by Her attuning, i.e., uniting with Him acts as the allegorical female fowl. This union of Fravashi with Bagha Ahunavar brought forth the "Egg" as the result, which is Staota Yasna. .

So it is technically stated that Bagha Ahunavar as the 'father' supplied "Chithra" or "Tokhma", seeds, and Paourva Fravashi as 'mother' supplied the "Pithwa", the Divine Nourishment. As the result of this union or attunement with each other, "Staota Yasna" was developed as a sprout. Though this Staota Yasna engendered Duality, still being in the Anamanthvao Alam, the Duality is in the latent state, that is to say Oneness still rules in the Staota Yasna. In this Staota Yasna lies the pattern of the entire Universe that came into being later on.

So we see that from the above "Egg" the imperfect or opposing Lights called "Urvans" are activated first and the obedient or concordant lights called "Baodangh" are activated next. From the imperfection of Urvans comes Satan, called in Avesta Angra Mainyu, the spirit of destruction, and from the perfection of the Baodangh comes Spenta Mainyu, the angel of prosperity, more commonly known as 'Dadvao Ahura Mazda', (Yt. 13,83) the Creator of the Universe, the two referred to in Gatha (Ysn. 30,3) as the "Twins".


'Staota Yasna' Ceremony for Foundation 'of Universe Unknown in Philology

The two Avestan terms 'Chithra' and 'Staota Yasna' dealt with above occur together in a small sentence of only six words in Visparad; 23" 1 as:

"Vahishta chithra yazamaide ya Staota Yesnya",

which means:

"We attune ourselves with the sublimest seed (Vahishta Chithra) which (is) Staota Yasna (the divine ceremony of vibrationary colours performed by the Paourva Fravashi in the pre-cosmo-ge!nesis world for causing the manifestation of the Universe)".

But the knowledge of the pre-cosmo-genesis world and its description to which the above two terms (Chithra and Staota Yasna) relate, being unknown in philology, Dr. Mills could not understand them in their technical significances, and hence translated the above little sentence in S.B.E. Vol. XXXI as:

"We sacrifice to those (prayers) which are evident as the best",

in which the lofty technical significances of the two terms concerned with the pre-cosmo-genesis world are entirely lost, because the learned scholar knew Staota Yasna only as the name of the prayers of the same name composed by the holy Prophet on this earth.


Satan's First Manifestation

In the exposition of Staota Yasna above, it is stated that Paourva Fravashi twice transmitted her rays of Atashe-Shaedan within her on the seedlings of light in Bagha Ahunavar. This transmission was accompanied with pondering in each case so as to instigate or stimulate the respective innate propensities of (1) Ahuviyat, literally, fleeing away from AHU, that is, disposed to discordance with, or rebelliousness against AHU; or (2) showing tendency of Ahumat, concordance with or obedience to AHU.

Now Paourva Fravashi actually starts the operation. According to the dictates of Ahunavar, the discordant lights, who were in minority, were to be roused first, so that they may be able to give full vent to their propensity of opposition to Ahu, and may not suffer repression from the concordant lights which were in majority. So while emitting her rays first on Urvans, the discordant lights, Paourva Fravashi meditated with 'Mithrae Juz', thoughtforces stimulating opposition, and commanded them to awake. And they awoke. Among these awakened Urvans, lights with deficiency of divine knowledge, Fravashi saw Ahriman, the Satan, who arrogantly tells Paourva Fravashi "I am also like Thee".

This Satan, who is referred to in Avesta as 'Angra Mainyu' (Vd. 19,8), the spirit or Prince of Darkness, is the animated phantom of the collective Evil of all the Urvans put together. He (Satan) represents the nadir or the lowest point of Ahuviyat in Nature, where there can be no light. He is called 'Shaitan,' the perfection of Evil or wickedness. This Shaitan is the vilest embodiment of the Evil Spirit 'Daevanam-Daeva' (Vd. 19,1), the Devil of devils.

The word Shaitan is formed by adding the plural termination 'aan' to the Pahlavi word 'Shida' meaning 'defect; deceit; treachery', which formation gives the pronunciation 'Shida-a', and which became 'Shaitan' in Persian meaning Devil, Satan is the personal name of the Devil, and signifies the densest aggregation of defect or monstrosity of Evil.


"Shida-an" and "Shaedan" (or Khshaetan) The Two Opposite Poles

The Pahlavi word Shida-an, i.e. Shaitan in Persian, which is Darkness and wickedness personified, is the opposite pole of the Pahlavi name Shaedan-Shaed and Av. Khshaetan Khshaet, both the last two meaning the 'Lustre of lustres' applied to Ahu, the Light of lights. The source of Ahu is Light, while the source of Satan is darkness, and hence these two diametrically opposite and antagonistic terms, namely Shaedan (for Ahu) and Shaitan (for the Devil) must never be mixed up.

The idea of Shaedan Shaed has been referred to in the Gathas (Ysn. 28,10) as 'asuna', which is not interpreted in its real abstruse sense. The relevant lines are as under: 

At ve khshmailbya-asuna vaeda
Khvaraithya vaintya sravao


"I have known that Thy lustrous Spells are mystical, beyond all bounds",

that is, their conception is lost in the darkness of imagination.

It may be added that Shaedan Shaed refers to the first phase of Ahu above mentioned of which nothing can be said except Ah = it IS, about which nothing can be expressed or imagined. This idea of utmost abstruseness, losing itself in the darkness, conveyed in the term 'a-suna is misconceived in philology to be the darkness of Shida-an which means darkness or wickedness personified, i.e., Ahriman, the Satan.


The Derivative of "Urvan", Soul

In Avesta (Ysn. 55,1) a soul is called "Urvan". Why it is so called is not understood in philology. In Ervad Kanga's Avesta dictionary it is stated that the derivative of Urvan is not kmown with certainty, and 'Uru', wide and 'an', to live, are given by way of a conjecture. Though this derivative is correct, yet it appears its connotation is not intelligible in philology. Khshnoom explains that "An Urvan is a principle always widening itself out and thus expanding its consciousness", which means that the imperfect Lights - Urvans - have to widen their divine knowledge to perfection and see the True Light.


"Chithra" - Anhuma -- Seed or 'Egg' of Daulity, of Universe-to-be

We have seen that the imperfect lights, which have to widen their divine knowledge, are called Urvans. By the activation of these Urvans, the Seed of Duality was simultaneously sown in the pre-cosmo-genesis world, where the state of Oneness existed before. This Seed of Duality is called "Chithra" in Avesta (Visp. 23,1), and this Chithra itself is technically called 'Anhuma'.

Chithra means that which is known or made manifest, Sanskrit 'Chitra', picture, from root 'Chit', to know; So it means that what was not picturable in the state of Asha, the Oneness of holiness, became picturable when Duality set in.

Chithra, as a common noun, means a seed, because the seed possesses the picture - Chitra - the embryonic cast of its subsequent development. This Chitra, the 'Seed' of Duality, is the seed or the 'Egg' from which the Universe is born. In the Universe, multiplicity developed out of Duality, and the divine Plan of Bagha Ahunavar that has been proceeding in Evolution will continue to do so, and at the proper time when souls will be purified, it (Plan) will take a turn into Involution or Unfoldment of the Spirit from Matter, referred to in Avesta as Ahura-data (Yt. 10,67) (where - data means 'law').

Anhuma mentioned above connotes 'innumerableness shall manifest itself, and (finally) merge Into AHU'; (derived from An, not; Ma; measure; An plus Ma = immeasurable i.e. innumerable; Hu= AHU).

We have seen above that the erstwhile state of oneness in the pre-cosmo-genesis world is turned into Duality in the Chithra - nucleus - Anhuma, embodying two groups of lights – one, Uryans, the other Baodanghs.


The Great Chaos Preceding Cosmos

We know by now that the Urvans on account of their deficiency of divine knowledge possess Drvao or Ahuviyat which is the source of all kinds of wickedness in Nature and which possesses the tendency to flee away from the centre of light of Staota Yasna. So when the Urvans were awakened, they fled from that centre of light, and gathered in the 'Gatva', i.e. beyond the circumference or the place or region away from that centre of light.

The Baodanghs being still unawakened, and thus the Urvans being left alone in the field, their Drvao became all powerful and wholly rebellious and uncontrolled by Urvans because the Drvao knew only opposition. Consequently, there was neither law nor order nor attraction, but total discard and terrific feuds reigned supreme. Thus there was complete and great Chaos in that Gatva where the Urvans had gathered, away from the centre of light. This Chaos caused a deadlock in the furtherance of the Ahunavar Plan contained in Vacha the Word Divine of AHU, the Light of lights. So dire was the vehemence of the onslaught of the Drvao, i.e. the Daevas or demons that not only those Urvans, souls were arrested from moving out of the Gatva to their destined journey of exile to or towards the lower worlds but that stars and other heavenly bodies (Yt. D,57) were also rendered motionless and remained in darkness.

On account of the terrific rebellion of the Drvao clung to the Urvans, and the Great Chaos arising out of it, Paourva Fravashi dissociated herself temporarily from the Gatva, thus denying her blessings on Drvao for the time being.


Anhuma Entertains Doubts In Himself

(Translated from "Khshmoom Nikize Vehdin" Vol. II (pp. 26-27) by Dr. F. S. Chinivala (published 1935).

We have seen that:

".......lights with Baod and Urvans with Drvao manifested themselves and remained in the motion (or flight) of Zarvana Akarana. Thus the flight of Zarvana Akarana became the Khareh (lit, aura), circumference of Anhuma. So in that there came a deadlock. There was no progress. On account of this, uneasiness established itself in the Chithra of Anhuma. Anhuma himself was attracted to AHU only.

He wanted to complain to his mother Fravashi and to Staota- Yasna - "When I am only pro AHU haw could the farces of antagonistic natures emanate from me? One is able to know AHU like myself, but the other is absolutely opposite. What must be the reason for two antagonistic forces emamating from myself? But... Anhuma did not espy his mother near him, and his 'Dukh', (pain or grievance), increased on account of this.

Thus Angra (Dukh, pain) found place in him. And defect set in in the Zarzdaiti (devotion) that should have been shown in perfection. With the beginning of this defect began the plaint af why and wherefore (chunochara). The Aipi (clase vicinity) of that Chithra of Anhuma was Zarvana Akarana. So in this Zarvana Akarana the Huviyat (opposition to AHU) with the thoughts of arrogance, grievance (Angra) raised Imkan, doubt - may or may not be, and as the fruit of this, facilitated the intrusion in the Urvan of the Dev (demon) of arrogance and doubt.

That child of Humata was in Nada, tune of "It (or He) alone IS, I am nothing" - was in Nada of Hast, and hence the Gati, the motion or force of Baod was established there. Thus deadlock was created in the Zarvana Akarana as the result of antagonistic forces or motions (Gati), which is called Afrashimant Gatva."

(Yt. 13. 57).


Paourva Fravashi awakens Baodanghs

It will be understood that we have so far considered only the Mithra of Juz above, i.e. pondering by Fravashi favouring opposition, which activated the Uryans. Now as was further laid down in the Ahunavar Plan, Fravashi, in response to Anhuma's plaint and doubts came to his succour. She extended her consciousness on Baodanghs, the lights in Bagha Ahunavar with perfect divine knowledge and divine Wisdom which owned allegiance to AHU, but were not yet activated. So in her meditation on Bagha Ahunavar this second time, Fravashi directed her Mithra of Juft', meaning thought-forces to stir up their characteristic of concordance or co-operation, whereby she willed and commanded the obedient lights to awake. And so Baodanghs, lights displaying Armaiti, perfect humility towards AHU, awoke.


Baodangh is not 'Intellect', but Urvan's Higher Counterpart Possessing Perfect Divine Knowledge

On account of the above supreme quality of Aramaiti in them, these Lights (Baodanghs) simultaneously possess "Ta'akkul e- Khudi" (lit. self-knowing), i.e. they possess the quality and power of self-comprehending the Light of Fravashi to be superior to their own. These lights possessing Armaiti amd Ta'akkul-eKhudi are called 'Ahumat', i.e. belonging to AHU. They are more familarly called "Baodangh" (Av. 'Bud', to know). Hence Baodangh means perfect divine knowledge and divine Wisdom.

As stated in the beginning Baodangh has been usually and erroneously translated in philology as "intellect', but, from what has been explained above about its origin it will be readily understood what a wide gulf of difference exists between the philological meaning 'intellect', which is possessed practically by all animals and insects and is perishable with the body at death, and the Khshnoom meaning, the Immortal light possessing perfect divine knowledge. This word occurs also in Yasna; 55.1 as "Baodascha" in the last triad of the immortal constituents of the body, where too it does not mean 'intellect', but the immortal constituent of perfect divine knowledge and divine Wisdom being the counterpart of the soul which is imperfect. These Baod and Fravashi (Farohar) remain outside, but within the Aipi, that is, in the close vicinity of the body, within an arm's length of the individual concerned.



Among the Baodanghs aroused by Paourva Fravashi as stated above, there was a pair (of Baodanghs) of which the higher knew how the Chaos would end and when, while the lower, though not rebellious, knew not, but wondered when and how it would end. But when Paourva Fravashi cast her Mithra of Juft on Baodanghs and simultaneously showered her blessings on Ahu-Chithra, the inferior light, which was slightly deficient in divine knowledge, became omniscient and perfect. Now the two stood on the same level of perfection, and they merged together into one. This highest and omniscient Light of the centre or nucleus of the Staota Yasna is called in Avesta MAZDA, the Omniscient (Ysn. 33,.7). Thus Mazda manifested Himself.

The term 'Ahura' is applied to AHU, who is inconceivable and who can only be referred to as "it IS", by pointing to the sky. But when AHU manifests his (lustrous) body - Kehrp, called 'Khao Afrazymna', referred to in the beginning, He is then called Minoan Mino Mazda Ahura, When Ahura manifests Urvara (Ysn. 48,6) the allegorical tree, explained below, and manifests the faulty, wicked creation through Ahuraongho, i.e. Yazads (angels), Ahura is then called Ahura Mazda (Yt. 1,1: & 13,83). Such is the true but abridged idea of the genesis of Ohrmazd, which according to Ahunavar Plan took place subsequent to that of Ahriman, which is already explained before. From the above it will be understood that 'Urvara' in Yasna 48,6 is used allegorically and does not mean a tree or any vegetation with green leaves, but is like the 'genealogical tree'. In the above context, Ahura is the stem of the tree; seven Ameshaspends and two deified laws (Mazda-data, the law of Infoldment of Spirit into Matter; and Ahura-data, the law of Unfoldment of Spirit from Matter) are the nine main branches; and Yazads of different grades are the sub-branches. (Cf. second name of Ahura Mazda 'Vanthvya' which conveys the same sense expressed differently as a 'cluster').


How Ashaunam Fravashis Function with Ahura Mazda, Ameshaspends and Yazads

With the Creator Ahura Mazda, and the seven Ameshaspends (Archangels) who are like His perfect glorious limbs, the Ashaunam Fravashis function and co-operate from within and without in effecting the creation of the Universe and leading it on to perfection by their Divine nourishment.

However, with the Yazads, i.e. the angels of different grades who are subordinate to Ameshaspends, the Ashaunam Fravashis maintain their connection from without as their Divine comrade. Though these Yazads have not the advantage of Ashaunam Fravashis residing in or connected directly with them, still they remain attuned with Ahura Mazda and Ameshaspends, and serve as perfect and dutiful Divine orderlies of Ahura Mazda, and cooperate with Him in the execution of Ahunavar Plan, which they fully understand. All this constitutes the Divine Administration, conducted on the ninth and eighth Asmans (heavens) at the top of the Universe, which displays, the benevolent and beneficent influence of the comradeship of the Ashaunam Fravashis.


Exile of Souls into Planetary World and Evanescent Worlds for their Reformation

Below the ninth and eighth Asmans (heavens) are created (1) the luminous world composed of seven Planets in the eternal and immortal worlds and below the latter; (2) the seven Dakhyus i.e. planes of the Meher Yazad in Nisti composed of the evanescent worlds (the Space). To these different worlds and their various stages the souls are exiled from the ninth and eighth heavens mentioned above. Our corporeal earth forms the lowest region (called Jismani Alam) of the Nisti (the Space). Over the earth there are the ultra-physical planes of ethereal regions composed of pure elements, over these there are the supra-ethereal planes; and still over them - at the top of the Nisti -- but within it there are the supraethereal planes of semi-luminous souls called "Gao-Chithra". Then above the stage of "Gao-Chithra" souls extends what is called "Miswane-Gatu", the partition region between the Hasti and the Nisti (the immortal and evanescent worlds and above the latter (Misvane Gatu) begins the planetary world.

According to the Ahunavar Plan, the Creator Ahura Mazda,Ameshaspends and Yazads so provide and contrive that the souls in all the above regions of the planetary and evanescent worlds derive the Ashaunam Fravashis' nourishment in their respective degrees through their (souls') respective counterparts, the Baodanghs, who are possessors of perfect divine knowledge. By this is meant that souls with less Evil draw more light of Fravashi, and those with greater Evil draw less. This nourishing light which every soul receives through the medium of its respective Baodangh, is called "Farohar".


"Farohar" Explained by Analogy

From the above it will be understood that the Evil called "Ahuviyat" i.e. backwardness in acknowledging AHU the Light of lights, stands as an impediment or a screen between the soul and the Fravashi. For a crude analogy, if Ahuviyat be represented by a sheet of cloth and the Fravashi beyond it be taken as the Sun, and then if a small hole be punched in that sheet, that hole will admit of only a little from the Sun proportionate to the size of the hole. Now, the more the hole is enlarged, the light admitted by that hole will also be correspondingly more. Similarly, when a soul advances in "Asha" (purity), its "Ahuviyat" i.e. its erratic propensity decreases correspondingly, and as this errancy decreases the Farohar gains in superiority, and the attraction between the soul and its counterpart the Baodangh simultaneously increases and the light of the Fravashi also increases therewith.


Paourva Fravashi is One Whole Light, but Farohars have Different Grades

The consistency of Ahuviyat (Evil) in different souls is of various degrees. So Farohars are also of different degrees. But the Paourva Fravashi is One Whole Light. Just as the Sun as one single glorious orb casts its beams in the luminous world of seven planets (in Hasti) as well as in the Nisti (the Space) of seven Dakhyus including our earth, still all branches of the planetary world and all creations of the Nisti worlds display differentiations in their respective constitutions and are recognized by their various names, so, the Paourva Fravashi as the One Whole Light - which is the subtlemost reflex of AHU, the Light of lights Himself - bestows divine nourishment on the luminous souls in Hasti as well as on souls of various lower grades in the Nisti, yet, in such a way that each soul receives its large or small share of the divine nourishment in varying degrees in just proportion to its Ahuviyat (Evil).


Farohars of Three Sublime Classes of Souls also Styled as Fravashis, in Yasht 13

It is stated above that though Paourva Fravashi is One Whole Light, yet Farohars are innumerable and of various degrees. Among these Farohars of various degrees there are three classes of Farohars of holy souls (Ashavans) mentioned in the Avesta, which indicate the perfected conditions of the souls concerned. These three classes of sublime Farohars are also styled as Fravashis in the Farvardin Yasht.

The above three classes (higher to lower) are:

  1. Nabanazdishtanam (Yt. 13,149) Fravashinam, who belong to the proximity of Ahura Mazda's center,
  2. Paoiryo-tkaeshanam (ibid.) Fravashinam, and
  3. Ashaonam (ibid. 154) Fravashinam the lowest of the holy souls, Ashavans, who have managed to absorb their fraction-souls which were erstwhile disintegrated at the stage of Zareh Vourukasha in three lower kingdoms viz., animal, vegetable and mineral.

(En passant it may be stated that Asho Zarathushtra, the Prophet of Prophets was highest among Nabanazdishtanam class, while the glorious kings and paladins of ancient Iran – particularly of Peshdadian and Kayanian dynasties - belonged to the Paoiryo-tkaeshanam class).


Erroneous Belief in Plurality of Fravashi

The Farohars of the above three classes of souls are so exalted that they are also styled as Fravashis as stated above. This had led some Avesta students to regard Fravashi to be in plural, which belief, according to Khshnoom, is as erroneous as it is far from the true doctrine. The word "Fravashinam" (in plural) following each of the three classes above mentioned applies to the respective Farohars, and not to the primemost Paourva Fravashi centred in Ahura Mazda the Creator of the Universe. The three adjectives, viz. Naba-nazdishtanam, Paoiryo-tkaeshanam and Ashaonam preceding the word Fravashinam in each case indicate the three different stages of perfection in Ashoi (purity) attained by the respective class of souls. As explained already Paourva Fravasi (singular) is referred to in Farvardin Yasht as Ashaunam Fravashinam (plural) because the perfected Farohars of Ameshaspends and Yazads are affiliated to it.


Summary Idea of Fravashi and Farohars

(1) Paourva Fravashi is the Agent Divine that implemented and implements the Note Celestial of the Will of the Lord AHU, the Light of lights, being Super-Glorious in Glory and being One Whole, i.e., fraction-less and undivided. Paourva Fravashi implements the Ahunavar Plan by her absolute obedience and perfect humility (Armaiti) to AHU'S Will and perfect Divine Knowledge, and. Wisdom. These qualities and powers render Paourva Fravashi Supermost in Divinity, Sublimity and Omnipotence, and is subtlemost beyond all imagination and highest in consciousness. All these powers are quite ineffable, because

She is the very Reflex of AHU who has separated Himself by means of the Niru partition mentioned already.

(2) Farohar is the individual respective medium through which all souls from angels down to human beings - draw Paourva Fravashi's divine nourishment, the lustre whereof varies inversely with the density of soul's Ahuviyat, the evil impediment, i.e., in other words, grosser the Ahuviyat, lesser the Paourva Fravashi's light.

(3) Naba-nazdishtanam; Paoiryo-tkaeshanam; and Ashaonam (which is different from Ashaunam) preceding the word Fravashinam in each case as adjectives indicate the different degrees of advancement in Asha, purity, attained by these exalted souls, and hence expressed in plural in Farvardin Yasht; otherwise Paourva Fravashi is always in singular. Such, in fine, is the exposition in Khshnoom regarding all the above technical terms.


Philology cannot Enlighten on Fravashi, Farohar etc.

Now let us turn to philology and see dispassionately how far mere derivatives and grammar, with conjectures to boot, can afford enlightenment.

In S.B.E. Vol. V, in his translation of Bundahish I; 8, the learned Dr. West (in footnote 2 on p. 5) says:

"This sentence appears to refer to a preparatory creation of embryonic and immaterial existences, the prototypes, Fravashis, spiritual counterparts or guard an angels of the spiritual and material creatures afterwards produced".

In S.B.E. Vol. XLVII, below paragraph 55 of his Introduction, Dr. West renders "Fravashis" as 'primary ideas of the good creations' .

These renderings show that the real significances of the terms Fravashi and Farohar are not understood in philology. There is a jumble of different words and phrases. The supposed equivalents namely 'prototypes' and 'primary ideas of the good creations' for 'Fravashis' convey no sensible meaning. Then the term 'counterpart' is applicable to 'Baodangh', i.e. light possessing perfect divine knowledge, which is erroneously rendered in philology as 'intellect'. 'Baodangh' is the 'counterpart' of 'Urvan', (soul), the light deficient in divine knowledge, and vice versa. Again, Fravashi is not a mere 'guardian angel', but far above an angel, as we have seen already. Besides. Farohar and Fravashi are not identical as shown above.


A Derivative or a Speculative Connotation cannot give the Real Import

All that is just stated proves that a derivative of an Avesta word sought from Sanskrit or any other alien language may have some distant connection with that Avesta word, but cannot give the true sense or import thereof, just as an automaton Robot may do a number of things which a human being does, yet it can never be the living person possessing life and soul.

Besides if Fravashi be rendered as 'prototype' and if it only referred to the 'spiritual and material creatures afterwards produced', why does the Creator Ahura Mazda tell Spitama Zarathushtra in Yasht 13; 12,. 13 :

'If Ashaunam Fravashi had not helped, the corporeal world would have been of Druj, the Devil; Angra-Mainyu would not have submitted to Spenta Mainyu'.

Again how can the meaning 'prototype' for Fravashi be applicable to the Fravashi that relieved the 'dead-lock' or Chaos (Afratat-Kushi) in the progress of the Ahunavar Plan in which Cosmos was designed (ibid; 53)

Still again in subsequent passages 57 and 58 it is stated:

"The Ashaunam Fravashi showed holy paths to the stars, the Moon and the Sun, who remained un-advanced (Afrashimanto) due to the wickedness of the Daevas, but now they i.e. those orbs - go forward towards the paths of the Distant End desirous of the good Frasho-kereti, the glorious Renovation."

In these passages also what sense can 'prototype' give if substituted for Fravashi?

From all that has been given above, it will be understood that the Avesta cannot be translated in its real loftiness merely by derivatives and grammar like ordinary languages or dialects, but requires the help and the knowledge of the Esoteric Teaching (Zand Akas) of Khshnoom.

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