by Hermann Oldenberg | 1886 | 27,910 words

The Grihya-sutra of Paraskara, which belongs to the White Yajurveda and forms an appendix to Katyayana's Shrauta-sutra, has been edited, with a German translation. Alternative titles: Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra (पारस्कर-गृह्य-सूत्र), Grhya, Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra (पारस्करगृह्यसूत्र), Paraskaragrihyasutra, Paraskaragrhyasutra....

Adhyāya I, Kaṇḍikā 4

1[1]. There are four kinds of Pākayajñas, viz. the huta, the ahuta, the prahuta, and the prāśita.

2. On the following five occasions, viz. the wedding, the tonsure (of the child's head), the initiation (of the Brahmacārin), the cutting of the beard, and the parting of the hair, (on these occasions) in the outer hall,

3. On a place that has been smeared (with cow-dung), which is elevated, and which has been sprinkled (with water), he establishes the fire,

4. Having kindled it by attrition, according to some teachers, at his marriage.

5. During the northern course of the sun, in the time of the increasing moon, on an auspicious day he shall seize the hand of a girl,

6[2]. Under one of the (three times) three Nakṣatras of which a constellation designated as Uttara is first,

7. Or under (the Nakṣatras) Svāti, Mṛgaśiras, or Rohiṇī.

8. Three (wives are allowed) to a Brāhmaṇa, in accordance with the order of the castes,

9. Two to a Rājanya,

10. One to a Vaiśya,

11. One Śūdra wife besides to all, according to some (teachers), without using Mantras (at the ceremonies of wedding, &c.).

12[3]. He then makes her put on the (under) garment with (the verse), 'Live to old age; put on the garment! Be a protectress of the human tribes against imprecation. Live a hundred years full of vigour; clothe thyself in wealth and children. Blessed with life put on this garment!'

13[4]. Then the upper garment with (the verse), 'The goddesses who spun, who wove, who spread out, and who drew out the threads on both sides, may those goddesses clothe thee for the sake of long life. Blessed with life put on this garment!'

14[5]. (The bride's father?) anoints the two, (while the bridegroom recites the verse,) 'May the Viśve devās, may the waters unite our hearts. May Mātariśvan, may Dhātṛ, may Deṣṭrī (the 'showing' goddess) join us.'

15. (The bridegroom), having accepted her who is given away by her father, takes her and goes away (from that place) with (the verse), 'When thou wanderest far away with thy heart to the regions of the world like the wind, may the gold-winged Vaikarṇa (i.e. the wind?) grant that thy heart may dwell with me! N.N.!'

16[6]. He then makes them look at each other (while the bridegroom repeats the verses), 'With no evil eye, not bringing death to thy husband, bring luck to the cattle, be full of joy and vigour. Give birth to heroes; be godly and friendly. Bring us luck, to men and animals.

'Soma has acquired (thee) first (as his wife); after him the Gandharva has acquired (thee). Thy third husband is Agni; the fourth is thy human husband.

'Soma has given thee to the Gandharva; the Gandharva has given thee to Agni. Wealth and children Agni has given to me, and besides this wife.

'Pūṣan! Lead her to us, the highly blessed one. Sā na ūrū uśatī vihara, yasyām uśantaḥ praharāma śepaṃ yasyām u kāmā bahavo niviṣṭyā (niviṣṭā?) iti.'

Footnotes and references:


4, 1-5. See Śāṅkhāyana-Gṛhya I, 5, 1-5 and the notes.


I.e. under the constellations Uttaraphalgunī or the two constellations following it, Uttarāṣāḍhā or the two constellations following it, Uttarabhādrapadā or the two constellations following it.


The words of the Mantra bhavā kṛṣṭīnām abhiśastipāvā no doubt are an imitation of Rig-veda I, 76, 3, bhavā yajñāṇām abhiśastipāvā (where the words are applied to Agni). Thus the use of the masculine abhiśastipāvā with reference to the bride may be accounted for.


Comp. Atharva-veda XIV, 1, 45. This parallel passage shows us the way to correct the text of this very much corrupted Mantra.


The literal translation would be: 'He salves together (samañjayati) the two . . . May the waters salve together (samañjantu) our hearts.' It was a real anointing of the bridegroom and of the bride, that took place, and we cannot accept Professor Stenzler's translation (based on Jayarāma's note: samañjayati parasparaṃ sammukhīkaroti), by which the proper signification of samañjayati is effaced: Dann heisst (der Vater der Braut) sie beide zusammentreten. See the note on Śāṅkhāyana-Gṛhya I, 12, 5. The parallel passage of the Khādira-Gṛhya runs thus: apareṇāgnim auduko gatvā pāṇigrāhaṃ mūrdhany avasiñced, vadhūṃ ca, samañjantv ity avasiktaḥ.


Comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 44. 40. 41. 37.

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