Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

दशावरा वा परिषद्यं धर्मं परिकल्पयेत् ।
त्र्य्ऽवरा वाऽपि वृत्तस्था तं धर्मं न विचालयेत् ॥ ११० ॥

daśāvarā vā pariṣadyaṃ dharmaṃ parikalpayet |
try'varā vā'pi vṛttasthā taṃ dharmaṃ na vicālayet || 110 ||

When an assembly consisting of at least ten men,—or of at least three men firm in their duty,—declares a certain law, one should not seek to dispute it.—(110)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

That in which there are at least ten men;—if more cannot be brought together, there should be at least ten.

If this be not possible, there should be at least three.

Firm in their duty.’—This is a reference to what has been said under 2.13.

What is meant to be emphasised here is not the number, but the qualification; as in clear from what is going to be said in Verse 113 below, regarding ‘even a single Brāhmaṇa learned in the Veda, etc., etc.,’ and the larger numbers are mentioned only in view of the fact that it may be difficult to find any single person possessed with all the requisite qualifications.

The qualifications for membership of the Assembly are next enumerated.—(110)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

This verse is quoted in Nityācārapradīpa (p. 69).


Comparative notes by various authors

Gautama (28.49).—‘They declare that a Pariṣad, Assembly, shall consist of at least the ten following—four men who have completely studied the four Vedas, three men belonging to the first three orders, and three men who know the different institutes of Law.’

Baudhāyana (1.1.7, 9).—‘On failure of the śiṣṭas, an assembly consisting of at least ten members shall decide disputed points of Law.’

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