by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
श्रोत्रियं व्याधितार्तौ च बालवृद्धावकिञ्चनम् ।
महाकुलीनमार्यं च राजा सम्पूजयेत् सदा ॥ ३९५ ॥
śrotriyaṃ vyādhitārtau ca bālavṛddhāvakiñcanam |
mahākulīnamāryaṃ ca rājā sampūjayet sadā || 395 ||
The king should always respect the Vedic scholar, the sick and the distressed, the infant and the aged, the indigent, the man of high family and the gentleman.—(395)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
‘Respecting’ here stands for kindly treatment; verbal roots having several meanings. No other kind of ‘respect’ would be possible in the case of the infant and several others. The ‘Vedic scholar’ has been held here to mean the Brāhmaṇa scholar only.
‘Distressed,’—by separation from his loved ones or such other causes.
‘Indigent’— in reduced circumstances.
‘The man of high family’—one who is born in a family endowed with fame, wealth, learning, bravery and such other qualities.
‘Gentleman’—one who is honest and upright of nature.
All these should be received with kind treatment, in the shape of gifts and honours.
Some people explain the term ‘indigent’ as qualifying ‘the man of high family’— (395)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Rājanīti, p. 252), which adds the following notes:—‘Sampūjayet,’ honour them with presents; this implies that he should not take anything from them.
Comparative notes by various authors
Nārada (18.34-35).—‘Let a king be constantly intent on showing honour to the Brāhmaṇas; a field furnished with Brāhmaṇas is the source of prosperity of the world. A Brāhmaṇa may command respect and a distinguished seat at the King’s court. In the morning, the King shall show his face to, and salute, the Brāhmaṇa first of all.’