by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
पणानां द्वे शते सार्धे प्रथमः साहसः स्मृतः ।
मध्यमः पञ्च विज्ञेयः सहस्रं त्वेव चोत्तमः ॥ १३८ ॥
paṇānāṃ dve śate sārdhe prathamaḥ sāhasaḥ smṛtaḥ |
madhyamaḥ pañca vijñeyaḥ sahasraṃ tveva cottamaḥ || 138 ||
The first amercement has been declared to be two hundred and fifty paṇas; the middling is to be known as five hundred; and the highest as a thousand.—(138)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
The term ‘amercement’ is to be construed also with the terms ‘middling’ and ‘highest’; though in other treatises these two terms are found to be used by themselves also:—e.g., the punishment with these is the ‘Highest.’ From the point of view of the scriptures, and also from the juxtaposition of the words, they are to be regarded as qualifying ‘amercement.’
The words of the text are quite clear.—(138)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
‘Sahasram’—“Copper paṇas are meant”—Hopkins.
This verse is quoted in Mitākṣarā (1.366), which remarks that the fines here prescribed pertain to offences committed unintentionally;—in Aparārka, (p. 592), which adds that these pertain to slight offences;—in Vivādaratnākara (p. 665);—in Vīramitrodaya (Rājanīti, p. 295), which reproduces the words of Aparārka;—in Vyavahāra-Bālambhaṭṭī (p. 938);—and in Vivādacintāmaṇi (p. 192), which says that the numbers refer to copper kārṣāpaṇas.
Comparative notes by various authors
Viṣṇu (4.14).—‘250 copper Paṇas constitute the first amercement; 500 Paṇas the middlemost amercement; 1,000 Paṇas, the highest amercement.’
Yājñavalkya (1.364).—‘1,080 Paṇas constitute the highest amercement; 540 Paṇas, the middlemost;—270 Paṇas, the lowest.’
Śaṅkha-Likhita (Vivādaratnākara, p. 664).—‘From 24 to 91 is the first amercement, 200 to 500, the middlemost amercement; 600 to 1,000, the highest amercement; to he determined in accordance with the resources of the culprit and the nature of his offence.’
Nārada (Do.).—‘24 to 96 is the first amercement; 200 to 500, the middlemost; 500 to 1,000 the highest.’