Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550 | ISBN-13: 9788120811553

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

समीक्ष्य स धृतः सम्यक् सर्वा रञ्जयति प्रजाः ।
असमीक्ष्य प्रणीतस्तु विनाशयति सर्वतः ॥ १९ ॥

samīkṣya sa dhṛtaḥ samyak sarvā rañjayati prajāḥ |
asamīkṣya praṇītastu vināśayati sarvataḥ || 19 ||

When meted out properly after due investigation, it makes all people happy; but when meted out without due investigation, it destroys all things.—(19)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

Meted out’—inflicted, set up.

After due investigation’—i.e., after having duly examined the peculiarities of ‘time’, ‘place’ and other details mentioned before (Verse 10).

Makes happy’—incites affection among the people.

When inflicted in a manner contrary to this, it does not -only fail in its own purpose; in fact when wrongly administered, it destroys the best interests of the people.—(19)


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

This verse is quoted in Vivādaratnākara (p. 647), which explains ‘svadhṛtaḥ’ (which is its reading for sa dhṛtaḥ) as ‘deservedly inflicted’;—in Vīramitrodaya (Rājanīti, p. 292) and also on p. 284;—and in Vivādacintāmaṇi (p. 262), which explains ‘sudhṛtaḥ’ (which is its reading for sa dhṛtaḥ) as ‘properly administered,’—‘samīkṣya’ as ‘according to the scriptures’.


Comparative notes by various authors

Yājñavalkya (1.354-356).—‘When inflicted according to the law, punishment renders happy the entire universe of gods, asuras and men; otherwise it creates disturbance among them. Illegal punishment is destructive of heaven, fame and popularity; legal punishment brings to the king Heaven, fame and victory.’

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