by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
न ब्राह्मणस्य त्वतिथिर्गृहे राजन्य उच्यते ।
वैश्यशूद्रौ सखा चैव ज्ञातयो गुरुरेव च ॥ ११० ॥
na brāhmaṇasya tvatithirgṛhe rājanya ucyate |
vaiśyaśūdrau sakhā caiva jñātayo gurureva ca || 110 ||
In a Brāhmaṇa’s house, the Kṣatriya is not called a ‘guest;’ nor the Vaiśya or the Śūdra, nor his friends or relations, or his Teacher.—(110)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
Even though a Kṣatriya, during his travelling, happen to arrive at the Brāhmaṇa’s house, at the time of breakfast,—he is not a “guest.” Hence it is not incumbent upon the Brāhmaṇa to offer food to him.
Similarly with the Vaiśya and the Śūdra.
The ‘friend’ and the ‘relation’ are one’s equals, not guests.
The ‘Teacher’ has to be served as the master; as described in the text—‘the act of cooking should be done after having offered to the Teacher’ (Gautama 5-26).—(110).
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
This verse is quoted in Parāśaramādhava (Ācāra, p. 354) in support of the view that in the house of the Brāhmaṇa, the Kṣatriya and others are not to be entertained as regular guests, they are only to have food offered to them in Vīramitrodaya (Āhnika, p. 438) to the effect that wherever the term ‘Brāhmaṇa’ is used in the texts laying down the duty of entertaining a ‘guest’, it is meant to exclude the Kṣatriya and other castes;—and in Hemādri (Śrāddha, p. 428).
Gautama (5.43).—‘The non-Brāhmaṇa can be the guest of the Brāhmaṇa only if the former is one who has been engaged in a sacrifice.’
Śaṅkha-Likhita (Vīramitrodaya-Āhnika, p. 452).—‘The non-Brāhmaṇa cannot be the guest of the Brāhmaṇa; the full honours of the guest are to be rendered only to the Vedic scholar possessed of special qualifications; the Kṣatriya and the Vaiśya are to be received as friends; and to the Śūdra something may he offered only by way of favour, to save him from discomfort.’
Viṣṇu (67.36).—[Reproduces Manu, 111 and 112.]
Gautama (5.44-45).—‘To the Kṣatriya food is to be offered after Brāhmaṇas; others are to be fed along with servants, as a favour.’
Āpastamba-Dharmasūtra (1.4.18).—‘The Kṣatriya and the Vaiśya (are to be fed); if a Śūdra happen to arrive, he should be directed to do some work, and food should be given to him.’
Baudhāyana (2.3.11-13).—‘Morning and evening, whatever food there may be, out of that he shall make the Vaiśvadeva offerings, and then entertain, to the best of his power, the Brāhmaṇa, the Kṣatriya, the Vaiśya and the Śūdra that may happen to arrive; but when the Śūdra arrives, he should be directed to do some work.’