Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi

by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550

This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:

नऋक्षवृक्षनदीनाम्नीं नान्त्यपर्वतनामिकाम् ।
न पक्ष्यहिप्रेष्यनाम्नीं न च भीषणनामिकाम् ॥ ९ ॥

naṛkṣavṛkṣanadīnāmnīṃ nāntyaparvatanāmikām |
na pakṣyahipreṣyanāmnīṃ na ca bhīṣaṇanāmikām || 9 ||

Nor one bearing the name of an asterism, or a tree, or a river; nob one having her hame after a low caste or a mountain; nor one named after a bird, a serpent or a slave; nor one with a hame inspiring terror.—(9)


Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):

Asterism’ is constellation; one who bears the name of one of these; such as ‘Ārdrā,’ ‘Jyeṣṭhā,’ and the like.

Bearing the name of a tree’—such as ‘Śiṃśapā,’ ‘Āmalakī,’ and so forth.

River’—the Gaṅgā and the Yamunā; she who bears these names.

The term “ṛkṣavṛkṣanadī” is to be expounded as a copulative compound; which with the following term ‘nāman’ forms a genitive Tatpuruṣa compound; and these, along with the term ‘nāman’ repeated, form a Bahuvrīhi compound; the repeated term ‘nāman’ being dropped.

Having her name after a low caste’— such as ‘Barbarī

Śabarī’ and the like.

Mountains’— such as the Vindhyā, the Himalaya, and the rest.

This compound (‘parvatanāmikām’) also is to be expounded as the former; and has the ‘ka’ affix added to it.

Named after a bird’— snch as ‘Śukī’ ‘Sārikā,’ and the like.

Serpent,’ snake; one who is named after it; such as ‘Vyālī,’ ‘Bhujaṅgī.’

Slave’— such names as ‘Dāsī,’ ‘Bālī.’

Inspiring terror’—that which causes fear; such as Ḍākinī,’ ‘Rākṣasī.’


Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha

This verse is quoted in Vīramitrodaya (Saṃskāra, p. 732), where ‘ṛkṣa’ is explained as ‘asterism;’—and ‘antya’ as ‘mleccha;’—in Smṛtitattva (II, p. 149) to the same effect as the preceding verse;’—in Vīramitrodaya (Lakṣaṇa, p. 120), where ‘antya’ is explained as ‘antyaja,’ i.e., cāṇḍāla;—in Aparārka (p. 78) as indicating the unmarriageability of girls with the wrong type of names;—in Samkāramayūkha (p. 74);—in Saṃskāraratnamālā (p. 510), which explains ‘antya’ as bearing a Mleccha name;—in Smṛticandrikā (Saṃskāra, p. 201), which explains ‘ṛkṣa’ as ‘nakṣatra,’ ‘antya’ as ‘mleccha,’ and ‘bhīṣaṇā’ as terrifying;—and in Nṛsiṃhaprasāda (Saṃskāra, p. 50a).


Comparative notes by various authors

(verses 3.8-9)

See Comparative notes for Verse 3.8.

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